in Science and Legislation

Main Points

Scientific perfection

· This is displayed in statements referring to concepts and facts of science and history, having been unknown or not understood until centuries after the Qur’an was sent down.

· The scientific proof of the Qur’anic miracle is manifested in its indications of:

a) The main notions of modern science such as scientific laws, life cycles, the creatures being in pairs.

b) The nature of the cosmos: its limitlessness, evolution, continuous extension, space travel and its hardships, time relativity, and the nature of the sun and the moon.

c) The earth being a globe and its rotation, the role of mountains in stabilizing it, the earth’s atmosphere, the cloud-rain cycle, water resources, the existence of gems in rivers and seas, and the nature of the agricultural soil.

d) Animals and the role of water in their lives.

e) Embryology, the benefits of honey, breastfeeding and hygiene, and prohibiting alcohol and harmful meats.

f) Historical facts like the pharaohs’ mummification, interpolation of the good tidings of the Prophet Muhammad in the Torah and the Gospels, and the guidance to study natural history.

g) The prophecy of preserving the Holy Qur’an until the end of the world and the failure of human attempts to imitate it due to its uniqueness and perfection.[2]

Legislative inimitability
· Qur’anic legislation is inimitable as it differs from any human legislation: it is comprehensive, integrative, and pursues a middle course. It begins with liberating the Muslim’s mind from signs of polytheistic misconceptions and illusions by relating it to his Creator all along his life span; directing the Muslim’s behavior to seek Allah’s satisfaction in the Hereafter. It trains him to be pious and control his caprices; and it builds a society based on solidarity and unity, protecting it from the incitement of Satan by deterring punishments.

Evidence of the Qur'an and Sunnah

Scientific perfection:


The laws of science:

Allah says:

]إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَر[ (القمر: 49)

This means: “Surely We created everything by a determined estimate.” (54, Al-Qamar: 49)

Allah says:

]الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ بِحُسْبَان[ (الرحمن: 5)

This means: “The sun and the moon run on their fixed courses (exactly) calculated with measured out stages for each (for reckoning, etc.)”
(55, Ar-Rahman: 5)

Allah says:

]وَالسَّمَاء رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ الْمِيزَان[ (الرحمن: 7)

This means: “And the heaven He has raised high, and He has set up the Balance.” (55, Ar-Rahman: 7)

Life cycles:

Allah says:

]وَتُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّت وَتُخْرِجُ الَمَيَّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَتَرْزُقُ مَن تَشَاء بِغَيْرِ حِسَاب [(آل عمران: 27)

This means: “You bring the living out of the dead, and You bring the dead out of the living. And You give wealth and sustenance to whom You will, without limit (measure or account).” (3, Al-`Imran: 27)

Creatures are all in pairs:

Allah says:

]وَمِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَا زَوْجَيْنِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُون[ (الذاريات: 49)

This means: “And of everything We have created pairs, that you may remember (the Grace of Allah)” (51, Adh-Dhariyat: 49)

Allah says:

]وَمِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ جَعَلَ فِيهَا زَوْجَيْنِ اثْنَيْنِ[ (الرعد: 3)

This means: “And of every kind of fruits He made Zawjayn Ithnayn (two in pairs.” (13, Ar-Ra`d: 3)

The nature of the universe:

The universe is endless:

Allah says:

] تَعْرُجُ الْمَلائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَة[ (المعارج: 3)

This means: “The angels and the Ruh [Jibrael (Gabriel)] ascend to Him in a Day the measure whereof is fifty thousand years.” (70, Al-Ma`arij: 4)

Living creatures of the universe:

Allah says:

]وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَمَا بَثَّ فِيهِمَا مِن دَابَّةٍ وَهُوَ عَلَى جَمْعِهِمْ إِذَا يَشَاء قَدِيرٌ[ (الشورى: 29)

This means: “And among His Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.) is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and whatever moving (living) creatures He has dispersed in them both. And He is All-Potent over their assembling (i.e. resurrecting them on the Day of Resurrection after their death, and dispersion of their bodies) whenever He will.” (42, Ash-Shura: 29)

The development of the universe:

Allah says:

]أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنَاهُما[ (الأنبياء: 30)

This means: “Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them?” (21, Al-Anbiya’: 30)

Allah says:

]ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَاء وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلأَرْضِ اِئْتِيَا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًا قَالَتَا أَتَيْنَا طَائِعِين[ (فصلت: 11)

This means: “Then He Istawa (rose over) towards the heaven when it was smoke (mixture of gas and solid particles) and said to it and to the earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come, willingly."” (41, Fussilat: 11)

Space travel:

Allah says:

]يَا مَعْشَرَ الْجِنِّ وَالإِنسِ إِنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَن تَنفُذُوا مِنْ أَقْطَارِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ فَانفُذُوا لا تَنفُذُونَ إِلا بِسُلْطَانٍ[ (الرحمن:

This means: “O assembly of jinns and men! If you have power to pass beyond the zones of the heavens and the earth, then pass (them)! But you will never be able to pass them, except with authority (from Allah)!”
(55, Ar-Rahman: 33)

Allah says:

]يُرْسَلُ عَلَيْكُمَا شُوَاظٌ مِّن نَّارٍ وَنُحَاسٌ فَلا تَنتَصِرَانِ[ (الرحمن: 35)

This means: “There will be sent against you both, smokeless flames of fire and (molten) brass, and you will not be able to defend yourselves.”
(55, Ar-Rahman: 35)

Allah says:

]وَأَنَّا لَمَسْنَا السَّمَاء فَوَجَدْنَاهَا مُلِئَتْ حَرَسًا شَدِيدًا وَشُهُبًا[ (الجن: 8)

This means: “And we have sought to reach the heaven; but found it filled with stern guards and flaming fires.” (72, Al-Jinn: 8)

Allah says:

]فَمَن يُرِدِ اللّهُ أَن يَهْدِيَهُ يَشْرَحْ صَدْرَهُ لِلإِسْلاَمِ وَمَن يُرِدْ أَن يُضِلَّهُ يَجْعَلْ صَدْرَهُ ضَيِّقًا حَرَجًا كَأَنَّمَا يَصَّعَّد فِي السَّمَاء كَذَلِكَ يَجْعَلُ اللّهُ الرِّجْسَ عَلَى الَّذِين لاَ يُؤْمِنُون[ (الأنعام: 125)

This means: “And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam, and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted, as if he is climbing up to the sky. Thus Allah puts the wrath on those who believe not.” (6, Al-An`am: 125)

Allah says:

]وَلَوْ فَتَحْنَا عَلَيْهِم بَابًا مِّنَ السَّمَاء فَظَلُّواْ فِيهِ يَعْرُجُون. لَقَالُواْ إِنَّمَا سُكِّرَتْ أَبْصَارُنَا بَلْ نَحْنُ قَوْمٌ مَّسْحُورُونَ[ (الحجر: 14 - 15)

This means: “And even if We opened to them a gate from the heaven and they were to continue ascending thereto. They would surely say: "Our eyes have been (as if) dazzled. Nay, we are a people bewitched. "” (15, Al-Hijr: 14 - 15)

Relativity of time:

Allah says:

]وَيَسْتَعْجِلُونَكَ بِالْعَذَابِ وَلَن يُخْلِفَ اللَّهُ وَعْدَهُ وَإِنَّ يَوْمًا عِندَ رَبِّكَ كَأَلْفِ سَنَةٍ مِّمَّا تَعُدُّون[ (الحج: 47)

This means: “And they ask you to hasten on the torment! And Allah fails not His Promise. And verily, a day with your Lord is as a thousand years of what you reckon.” (22, Al-Hajj: 47)

The nature of the sun and the moon:

Allah says:

]وَجَعَلَ الْقَمَرَ فِيهِنَّ نُورًا وَجَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ سِرَاجًا[ (نوح: 16)

This means: “And has made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a lamp?” (71, Nuh: 16)

The earth:

The nature and movement of the earth:

Allah says:

]يُكَوِّرُ اللَّيْلَ عَلَى النَّهَارِ وَيُكَوِّرُ النَّهَارَ عَلَى اللَّيْل[ (الزمر: 5)

This means: “He rolls the night over the daytime and He rolls the daytime over the night.” (39, Az- Zumar: 5)

The mountains stabilize the earth:

Allah says:

]وَأَلْقَى فِي الأَرْضِ رَوَاسِيَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِكُمْ وَأَنْهَارًا وَسُبُلاً لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ[ (النحل: 15)

This means: “And He has affixed into the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you, and rivers and roads, that you may guide yourselves.” (16, An-Nahl: 15)

Animal life:

Allah says:

]وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاء كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَي[ (الأنبياء: 30)

This means: “And We have made from water every living thing.”
(21, Al-Anbiya`: 30)

Medical science:


Allah says:

]ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَاهُ نُطْفَةً فِي قَرَارٍ مَّكِين. ثُمَّ خَلَقْنَا النُّطْفَةَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقْنَا الْعَلَقَةَ مُضْغَةً فَخَلَقْنَا الْمُضْغَةَ عِظَامًا فَكَسَوْنَا الْعِظَامَ لَحْمًا ثُمَّ أَنشَأْنَاهُ خَلْقًا آخَرَ فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ[ (المؤمنون: 13 - 14)

This means: “Thereafter We made him (the offspring of Adam) as a Nutfah (mixed drops of the male and female sexual discharge) (and lodged it) in a safe lodging (womb of the woman). Then We made the Nutfah into a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood), then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh, then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brought it forth as another creation. So blessed be Allah, the Best of creators.” (23, Al-Mu’minun: 13 - 14)


Allah says:

]يَخْرُجُ مِن بُطُونِهَا شَرَابٌ مُّخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَانُهُ فِيهِ شِفَاء لِلنَّاسِ[ (النحل: 69)

This means: “There comes forth from their ( the bees) bellies, a drink of varying color wherein is healing for men.” (16, An-Nahl: 69)


Allah says:

]وَالْوَالِدَاتُ يُرْضِعْنَ أَوْلاَدَهُنَّ حَوْلَيْنِ كَامِلَيْن[ (البقرة: 233)

This means: “The mothers shall give suck to their children for two whole years.” (2, Al-Baqarah: 233)

Historical facts:

Pharaoh of Exodus:

Allah says:

]فَالْيَوْمَ نُنَجِّيكَ بِبَدَنِكَ لِتَكُونَ لِمَنْ خَلْفَكَ آيَةً وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ عَنْ آيَاتِنَا لَغَافِلُون[ (يونس: 92)

This means: “So this day We shall deliver your (dead) body (out from the sea) that you may be a sign to those who come after you! And verily, many among mankind are heedless of Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.)” (10, Yunus: 92)

Corrupting the Tawrah and Injil: (see the proofs at 2-2)

Natural history:

Allah says:

]قُلْ سِيرُوا فِي الأَرْضِ فَانظُرُوا كَيْفَ بَدَأَ الْخَلْقَ[ (العنكبوت: 20)

This means: “Say: Travel in the land and see how (Allah) originated creation.” (29, Al-`Ankabut: 20)

The prophecies:

Preserving the Holy Qur’an:

Allah says:

]إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُون[ (الحجر: 9)

This means: “Surely We, even We, have been sending down the Remembrance and surely We are indeed preservers of it.” (15, Al-Hijr: 9)

There is no similar book to Qur’an: (see the proofs at: the first part of elocutionary inimitability)

Inimitability of the Qur’an being manifest:

Allah says:

]سَنُرِيهِمْ آيَاتِنَا فِي الآفَاقِ وَفِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُ الْحَقّ أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِ بِرَبِّكَ أَنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ[ (فصلت: 53)

This means: “We will show them Our Signs in the universe, and in their ownselves, until it becomes manifest to them that this (the Qur'an) is the truth. Is it not sufficient in regard to your Lord that He is a Witness over all things? (41, Fussilat: 53)