Preservation of the Glorious Quraan & Sunnah!

Testimony of Glorious Quraan itself.

In this treatise I will discuss the compilation and/or preservation of Glorious Quraan including the issue of preservation of Sunnah by Allaah (SWT). I will inSha Allaah use the testimony of the Glorious Quraan itself to prove the preservation of both i.e. Glorious Quraan & Sunnah.

Putting into Writing:
The first and the most important point, which assisted in the preservation of the text of Glorious Quraan, is that its every verse was put into writing in the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW), BEFORE HIS OWN EYES. The Glorious Quraan itself furnishes abundant evidence that it existed in a written form. Again and again the Divine Writ calls itself a Kitab (Book), which means a Book or writing, which is complete in itself. The application of the word Book to the Glorious Quraan was destined, from the very beginning, to be a complete Book. The Glorious Quraan is also designated as "Suhuf."

The Glorious Quraan, Surah: 80. 'Abasa Verse: 13

(It is) in Records held (greatly) in honour (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfz),

* Also means written pages. There are many other references in the Glorious Quraan showing that it will exist in a written form. It is said:

The Glorious Quraan, Surah: 52. Tuur Verses: 2-3

And by a Book Inscribed

In parchment unrolled.

* There are also testimonies of the enemies of the Quraan that Quraan was reduced to writing such as:

The Glorious Quraan, Sura: 25. Furqaan Verse: 5

And they say: "Tales of the ancients, which he has written down: and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon."

* There is a lot of historical evidence concerning the documentation of the Glorious Quraan. There are numerous anecdotes showing that when the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) received a revelation it was immediately put into writing. The general practice is described by Osmaan (RA), he says: "It was customary with the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) that when any verse of the Glorious Quraan was revealed he called one of those persons who used to write Glorious Quraan and said, "Write these verses in the chapter where such and such verse occur".' [Abu Dawud 2:123]. Zaid bin Thabit (RA) who was a scribe of the Prophet (SAW) and was especially appointed for writing down the revelation said, 'Whenever a revelation descended the Prophet (SAW) called me and I went to him holding my pen and paper. He dictated to me first and then heard it from me and in case something was left, or some mistake was found, it was set right there and then, and afterwards it was published' {Mujam al-Zawaid}. This shows that the Glorious Quraan was presented to the public after it was duly written down.

Glorious Quraan Verses 80:13-16

(13) (14) (15) (16)
(It is) in Records held (greatly) in honour (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfz), Exalted (in dignity), purified, in the hands of scribes. Honourable and obedient.

* (2) Memorizing of the Glorious Quraan
The memorizing of the Glorious Quraan has also assisted in the preservation of its text. Whenever any portion of the Glorious Quraan was revealed to the Prophet (SAW), he committed it to memory and continuously recited it from one end to the other. Thus, he always carried the whole of the revealed Quraan in his memory. The Prophet (SAW) used to stress the merit of committing the Glorious Quraan to memory so much that he said that if a person committed the Quraan to memory he would be saved from the torment of Hell. When he made this announcement, a large number of his Companions began to commit the Glorious Quraan to memory. The Prophet (SAW) also took pains to supervise the recitation of the Glorious Quraan and was anxious to see that no errors crept into the process.

Since the time of Umar (RA) 2nd Caliph, it has become customary to recite the whole text during "TARAWIH" (late night) Prayer in the month of Ramadaan. Memorizing the Glorious Quraan is still considered highly noble, and the memorizing of Surahs and small texts is still the first stage of informal education among Muslim families. No human-written book of this volume can ever be memorized wholly by any human being, not even by its author. It is only the Glorious Quraan that, today, stands as the singular Book memorized and recited wholly by millions of men, women, and even children. It is the fulfillment of God's promise that the Glorious Quraan is easily memorized.

The Arrangement of Glorious Quraan!

The enemies of Islaam, especially Christian Missionaries, have spread a lot of lies and false stories about the Glorious Quraan. Following are the UNDENIABLE facts from the Glorious Quraan itself refuting the lies.

It is for Us to collect it and to give you (O Muhammad SAW) the ability to recite it (the Qur'an), [Glorious Quraan 75:17]

The word in the above verse implies both collection and arrangement, which is a process quite different from the revelation. It is not true that the verses and chapters of Glorious Quraan were arranged after the death of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) by someone else, or that they were arranged in the order of their lengths; the longest coming first and shortest last. It is also wrong to say that within the chapters the passages are joined together without any regard to either chronology of revelation or similarity of subject, and that most heterogeneous materials are put together without any regard to logical sequence.

The whole Glorious Quraan, complete in every aspect, was available in the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) [Katani 2:384]. The Companions of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) say, We used to write down the Glorious Quraan in the time of the Rasool Allaah (SAW)' [Hakim: Al-Mustarded, 2:611]. The arrangement of chapters and verses in the copies of the Glorious Quraan at present in our hands does not follow the chronological order of revelation and their arrangement is TAUQIF i.e. affected by the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) under the GUIDANCE of Divine revelation (Quraan 75:17-18].

(17) (18)
It is for Us to collect it and to give you (O Muhammad SAW) the ability to recite it (the Qur'an)...And when We have recited it to you [O Muhammad SAW through Jibrael (Gabriel)], then follow you its (the Qur'an's) recital. [Glorious Quraan 75:17-18]

There was an arrangement followed by the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and we know that many Companions of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) committed the Glorious Quraan to memory and could recite it in the recognized orders as followed by the Prophet (SAW). This shows that there was a connection of its verses and chapters, and there was a recognized division of the Book and a fixed form and sequence. The chapters were distinctly marked out and their number was determined. Without a known order and sequence of verses, the Glorious Quraan could not have been committed to the memory.

The present arrangement of the Glorious Quraan does not differ from that followed by the Prophet Muhammed (SAW). There are several sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) from which this can be inferred. The Prophet of Allaah (SAW) said,

"Whoever reads the last verses of the chapters entitles BAQARAAH on any night, they are sufficient for him" [Bukhari 64:12].

This shows that the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) followed an arrangement, which he made known to his Companions. If such had not been the case he could not have referred to two verses as the "last" two verses of a certain chapter.

According to another saying of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) he told his Companions to recite the first ten and last ten verses of the chapter entitled *AL-KAHF* at a particular occasion. Had there been no sequence of verses, 'the first ten and last ten verses' would have been a meaningless phrase. Not only the verses of Glorious Quraan but even its chapters were arranged by the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) himself under Divine Guidance. This is afforded by the following saying of Anas (RA): 'At the time when Banu Thaqif accepted Islaam I was in that delegation. The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) said to us, "When you people came to meet me, I was reciting my portion of the Glorious Quraan which I used to recite daily, so I decided not to go out until I had finished it." Thereupon we questioned the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) as to how they divided the Glorious Quraan into portions for reading. They said, "We observe the following, 3 chapters, 5 chapters, 7 chapters, 9 chapters, 11 chapters and 13 chapters, and all the remaining chapters beginning with chapter entitled "QAF"' [Fath Al-Bari 9:39]. This form of reading divided the Glorious Quraan into seven portions or Ahzab, each portion to be recited in one day and, thus, the recital of the whole Glorious Quraan (114 chapters) was finished in seven days. This report of Anas (RA) shows an arrangement of chapters, which is observed to this day by the whole Muslim Ummah. This and many other reports by the Companions of the Prophet (SAW) give conclusive testimony to the fact that the form and arrangement of the chapters of the Glorious Quraan was brought about by the Prophet Muhammad (SAW himself, and that the present arrangement does not differ in the least from the original of the time of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW).

Allaahs Preservation of the Sunnah!

The Proof that Allaah (SWT) preserved the Sunnah are both i.e. textual and logical. The textual argument is based on the Ayah:
Surah Al-Hijr 9

Verily, We, it is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e. the Qurn) and surely, We will guard it (from corruption) {1} .
{1} (V.15: 9) This Verse is a challenge to mankind and everyone is obliged to believe in the miracles of this Qurn. It is a clear fact that more than 1400 years have elapsed and not a single word of this Qurn has been changed, although the disbelievers tried their utmost to change it in every way, but they failed miserably in their efforts. As it is mentioned in this holy Verse: "We will guard it." By Allh! He has guarded it. On the contrary, all the other holy Books (the Taurt (Torah), the Injeel (Gospel).) have been corrupted in the form of additions or subtractions or alterations in the original text.
The word al-dhikr and it derivatives have numerous meanings in the Glorious Quraan. It is sometimes used for Quraan, as in,
Surah Al-Anbiyaa 50

And this is a blessed Reminder (the Qurn), which We have sent down: will you then (dare to) deny it? {1}
{1} (V.21: 50). a) See (V.10: 37). b) See (V.3: 85).
And sometimes it is used for Sunnah, as in,
Surah An-Nahl 44

With clear signs and Books (We sent the Messengers). And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad ) the Dhikr (reminder and the advice (i.e. the Qurn)), that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them, and that they may give thought.
Readers must know that in addition, the word Dhikr may be used to be in reference to Allaahs Deen and law as a whole. This is its purport in the Ayah (verse),
Surah An-Nahl 43

And We sent not (as Our Messengers) before you (O Muhammad ) any but men, whom We sent revelation, (to preach and invite mankind to believe in the Oneness of Allh). So ask (you, O pagans of Makkah) of those who know the Scripture (learned men of the Taurt (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)), if you know not.
The word Dhikr in the above Ayah (verse) means Allaahs religion, or everything that Allaah has revealed as the guidance of mankind. Therefore, a priori, it cannot be stated that that al-dhikr in,
Surah Al-Hijr 9

Verily, We, it is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e. the Qurn) and surely, We will guard it (from corruption) {1} .
is referring only to Glorious Quraan. It is rather referring to Glorious Quraan and Sunnah both. On this point ibn Hazm noted,
There is no difference of opinion from anyone among the specialists in language or of the Shariah that all of what Allaah has revealed is [referred to as] the sent down al-dhikr . And all of the inspiration is preserved with certainty by its preservation by Allaah. Anything that Allaah preserves with His preservation will not have anything lost from it. Nor will anything ever by distorted of it except that there would appear clear proof showing the falsehood [of that distortion] {Ali ibn Hazm, Al-Ihkaam fi Usool al-Ihkaam vol. 1, p. 109.}
Allaah (SWT) through humans used many means by which He preserved the Sunnah. Some of these aspects are unique to Muslim Ummaah. This is a great blessing and bounty from Allaah (SWT) for which every Muslim should be sincerely grateful to Allaah (SWT) and grateful to those individuals who sacrificed their time, wealth in order to preserve the teachings of the best of the creations and last and final Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Obviously, the means of preservation had to be followed from the earliest times in order to truly preserve the Hadith of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), few are briefly mentioned here.
□ First, there was the understanding of the Companions about their responsibility for conveying the hadith of Prophet Muhammad (SAW); they must have understood that they must convey the words of the Prophet (SAW) with the utmost accuracy.
□ In the early years, there began the work of Hadith criticism and criticism of the narrators. This developed into a science known as al-jarh wa al-tadeel.
□ There was also the recording or writing down of the Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Obviously, in general, one of the ways of preserving something is to record it. There have been many claim and misconceptions surrounding the recording of Hadith. But the proof has been cited above that shows that the misconceptions are not true.
□ A very important and unique aspect that worked to preserve the Sunnah was of the use of Isnaad or chain of narrators, tracing ones source all the way back to the Prophet Muhammad (SAW).
□ Another unique phenomena that appeared and assisted in preservation of Sunnah was the traveling in search of Hadith, in order to check the sources and gather more Hadith together.
Update on 11-17-03!
Surah An-Nisaa 113

Had not the Grace of Allh and His Mercy been upon you (O Muhammad ), a party of them would certainly have made a decision to mislead you, but (in fact) they mislead none except their own selves, and no harm can they do to you in the least. Allh has sent down to you the Book (The Qurn), and Al-Hikmah (Islmic laws, knowledge of legal and illegal things i.e. the Prophets Sunnah - legal ways), and taught you that which you knew not. And Ever Great is the Grace of Allh unto you (O Muhammad . )

In the Above Ayaah by pairing al-Kitaab (the Book) and al-Hikmah (the Wisdom) it has been pointed out that Hikmah which is the name of Sunnah and/or teachings of Prophet Muhammad was also sent down by none but Allaah (SWT). The difference is that its words are not from Allaah and that is why they are not part of Glorious Quraan. But, its meanings and that of the Quraan are certainly from Allaah, therefore, it is obligatory to act in accordance with both.

This again, explains about the Wahy being of two kinds: Matluww- That, which is recited, and Ghayr-Matluww- that which is not recited. Wahy Matluww or the revelation that is recited is the name of the Glorious Quraan and/or is the Glorious Quraan. Its words and meanings are both from Allaah. And Wahy Ghayr-Matluww or that is not recited is the name of Hadeeth of the Rasul Allaah (the word of which are from Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and the meanings of which is from Allaah.

Another point that we see gets resolved is found in the words: (and taught you that which you knew not.) pointing to the fact that Prophet Muhammad (SAW) did not have all the comprehending knowledge of the entire universe equal to Allaah, as some ignorant people do insist. The truth is that the measure of his knowledge was corresponding to what Allaah bestowed upon him. However, there is no doubt that the knowledge bestowed upon Prophet Muhammad (SAW) exceeds the combined knowledge of all created beings.

Evidence of this {Wahy Ghayr Matluww} is found at many places in Glorious Quraan, that there were many other things that were taught to Prophet Muhammad (SAW) by Allaah (SWT) through Wahy (Ghayr Matluww). I will only cite here one Ayaah i.e. 2:143 as proof (Also see 66:3 beside many others).
Surah Al-Baqarah 143

Thus We have made you (true Muslims - real believers of Islmic Monotheism, true followers of Prophet Muhammad and his Sunnah (legal ways)), a just (and the best) nation, that you be witnesses over mankind {1} and the Messenger (Muhammad ) be a witness over you. And We made the Qiblah (prayer direction towards Jerusalem), which you used to face, only to test those who followed the Messenger (Muhammad ) from those who would turn on their heels (i.e. disobey the Messenger). Indeed it was great (heavy) except for those whom Allh guided. And Allh would never make your faith (prayers) to be lost (i.e. your prayers offered towards Jerusalem). Truly, Allh is full of Kindness, the Most Merciful towards mankind.
{1} (V.2: 143) Narrated Abu Sad Al-Khudr : Allhs Messenger said "Nh will be called on the Day of Resurrection and he will say, Labbaik and Sadaik, (I respond to Your Call and I am obedient to Your Orders) O my Lord! Allh will say, Did you convey Our Message of Islmic Monotheism? Nh will say, Yes. His nation will then be asked, Did he convey Our Message of Islmic Monotheism to you? They will say, No warner came to us. Then Allh will say (to Nh), Who will bear witness in your favor? He will say, Muhammad and his followers. So they (i.e., Muslims) will testify that he conveyed the Message - and the Messenger (Muhammad ) will be a witness over you, and that is what is meant by the Statement of Allh : We made you (true Muslims - real believers of Islmic Monotheism, true followers of Prophet Muhammad and his Sunnah (legal ways)) a just (and the best) nation that you be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger (Muhammad ) will be a witness over you." (Sahih Al-Bukhri, Vol.6, Hadth No.14).

Muslims were facing the Baytal-Maqqadis (Jerusalem) while performing Salaat in the early day of Islaam. The above Ayaah was revealed when it was ordained to face Kaabah again. This Ayaah states that previous order of Allaah to face Baytal-Maqqadis was test to know who obey the order and who reject it. Readers must note that the order to face Baytal-Maqqadis during worship has been attributed by Allaah to Himself. That means that He was the One Who had commanded His Messenger Muhammad (SAW) to the direction of Baytal-Maqqadis. But the command itself is not found anywhere in the Glorious Quraan. It is obviously clear that this order was given by Allaah through a Wahy (Ghayr Matluww){revelation beside Glorious Quraan}, which is not a part of the Glorious Quraan.

written by : By: Shahid Bin Waheed