[TD="bgcolor: #DBE5FF, align: center"]Fasting Of Ramadhan[/TD]
Definition of Fasting
Lexically, al-saum means to refrain from something.Legally speaking, it refers to refraining, with the intention of worship, from food, drink,sexual intercourse and other acts that breaks the fast from dawn untill sunset.
Obligation of fasting
"O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may attain taqwa (fear of Allah)" (al-Baqarah 183)
The beginning of the month of ramadan
The beginning of the month of ramadan is confirmed by either one of the two means:
First, the previous month (shabaan) befor ramadan is completed. In other words, if shabaan finishes thirty days,then the thirty-first day will definitely be the begining of the month of ramadan.
Second, the new moon is seen.If the crescent of the month on ramadan is seen on the night before (what should be) the thirtieth day of shabaan, the month of ramadan has begun and it is obligatory to fast. As allah says;
"Whoever is present (that is, not travelling) among you during the month shall fast"(al-baqarah 185).
The messenger of allah (peace be upon him) said: "If you see the crescent, fast.And if you see it (at the end of the month), break your fast. If it is obscure to you,then fast thirty days."(Recorded by muslim)
The sighting of the moon in different parts of the world might be different.However if the people of a certain land see the crescent first then they must start fasting and not waiting for others.
For the begining of ramadhan, the testimony of one just person or two just people is sufficient, as the messenger of allah (peace be upon him) accepted the testimony of one person concernig his sighting of the crescent of ramadan(Recorded by muslim).
However, for the sighting of the moon of shawaal to break the fast(at the end of the month of ramadhan), this is not confrirmed except by the testimony of two just witnesses, as the messenger of Allah a (peace be upon him) did not allow the witness of only one just person for the break of the fast.(Recorded by Muslim).
The conditions requiring one to fast
These conditions are as follows:
(1) Being Muslim.
(2) Being adult
(3) Being Sane
(4) Having the abilityb to fast.
The essential components of the Fast
These components are as follows:
(1) The intention: This is the determination of the heart to fast.
As the prophet said;"Surely , all actions are but by intentions."
(2) Refraining : that is staying away, from the things that break the fast, which are eating,drinking and sexual intercourse among others.
(3) The proper time, that is, the daytime which is from dawn until sunset.
The conditions for the soundness of the fast
The conditions for the soundness of the fast are as follows:
(1) Being Muslim
(2) Having the intention during the nighttime (that is, defore the arrival of the dawn of the day in which one is to start fasting)
(3) Being sane.
(4) Being of the age of discernment
(5) No menstrual blood flowing.
(6) No post-partum blood flowing, as the soundness of the fast of a woman requires that she be pure of menses or post-partum bleeding.
Recomended Acts of Fasting
(1) Breaking the fast at the right time,that is as soon as the sun has set
(2) Breaking the fast by eating fresh or dry date ar drinking water. The fresh date is preferred and also to be eaten in odd number,that is three,five, or seven.
(3) Supplication at the time of breaking one's fast. One shouls say;
"O allah, for you i have fasted and with sustenace from you do i break my fast"
(Recorded by Abu Dawood.)
(4) Having sahoor, which is the eating and drinkinking at the end of the night with the intention of fasting the next day.
(5) Delaying the sahoor untill the last portion of the night. (just before dawn)
Actions that are disliked during fasting
Some action are disliked because they may lead a person to ruin his fast, even though this actions dont break the fast themselves.
(1) Putting water well in to the mouth and throat while perfarming ablution.
(2) Kissing one's spouse,as it sparks the desire that may lead one to break the fast by ejaculating or sexual intercourse, wherein one will have to atone for the act.
(3) Continually looking at one' spouse with desire.
(4) Thinking about sextual intercourse
(5) Touching a woman with one's hand or touching her with one's body.
Acceptable Excuses to Not Fast
(1) A woman on her menses or with post-partum bleeding is required to break her fast.
(2) A person who is needing to rescue another muslim from death, Such as drowning and so forth, (may break his or her fast).
(3) A traveler is permitted to shorten his prayer and it is sunna for him to break his fast.
(4) An ill person who fears that he will be harmed (by fasting) may also break his fast.
(5) A travelig person who return to his home during the daytime.
(6) A pregnant or milking mother (may break her fast) if she fears for herself and her child. If she breaks her fast fearing only for her child, the one financially responsible for her must feed a poor person for every day she did not fast. In either case, She must make up the days of not fasting later.
What mullifies the Fast
The following acts nullify the fast:
(1) Apostatizing from islam
(2) Having the intention and determination to break the fast.
(3) Having doubts about continuing the fast.
(4) Intentionally vomiting.
(5) Mentrual or post-partum bleeding.
(6) Anal enemas or intravenous intake of foods
(7) Cupping (a medical practice meant to release blood from the body) for both the one being cupped and the one doing the cupping.
(8) Anything which reaches to the stomach,throat or brain of fluid or other things.
From the book Fiqh made easy
For more about Fasting,Download the Book 70 matters relating to fasting and also downloadFasting Medical Aspect