بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
Christians have only this statement in the bible to prove the dogma of trinity !!
This verse cannot be used to prove that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost are one for the following reasons:
1. Nowhere in the Bible do we find Jesus using the triune formula, but always saying, "in my name"
You may see, Mark 9:37; 9:39; 16:17; John 14:14; 14:26; 15:16; 16:23.
2. None of the Apostles of the New Testament ever baptized in the name of the Trinity; rather, they baptized only in the name of Jesus Christ
This proves that none of the Apostles knew or ever heard of the triune formula.
You may see, Acts 2:38; 10:48; 8:5, 12, 16; 19:3, 5; Galatians 3:27; 1 Corinthians 1:13, 15; Romans 6:3.
3. Early Christians, such as scholars and historians (up to 350 years after Jesus’ departure), gave a different text than what we have today whenever they quoted Matthew 28:19 in their writings:
For example, when the Christian Historian Eusebius of Caesarea (a.k.a. Eusebius Pamphili) (c. AD 263 – 339), who’s called "Father of Church History," quoted Matthew 28:19 in his famous Ecclesiastical History, there was no triune formula in the verse.
The verse read:
"Go ye and make disciples of all the nations IN MY NAME, teaching them to observe all things, whatsoever I commanded you"
Source: Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, p. 100
He did not quote this verse in this form only once, but no less than 18 times in many of his works written between 300 and 336 AD, namely in his long commentaries on the Psalms, on Isaiah, in his Demonstratio Evangelica and in his Theophany.
4. Matthew was not alone in recording the words of Jesus before his ascension:
Let us compare the parallel accounts of Luke who wrote:
And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behooved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day: And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. (Luke 24:46-47)
5. The triune formula in Matthew 28:19 contradicts the principle laid down in Colossians 3:17
Whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do ALL in the name of the Lord Jesus. (Colossians 3:17)
The word "whatsoever" certainly includes baptism, which is a rite involving both, word and deed.
6. This verse (i.e., Matthew 28:19) contradicts other verses:
Overlooking the second part of this verse, the first part, which says, "teach all nations," contradicts Matthew 10:5-6 and Matthew 15:24 where Jesus said, "I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel," and where he told the twelve disciples to go and teach none except the lost sheep of Israel.
Regardless of all that is said above, there is nothing in the text which indicates that the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost are one.
The verse talks about three different essences mentioned together in conjunction, which indicates that they are different, distinct essences.
The correct meaning of this passage is:
Go in the name of God, His Messenger (Jesus), and the Revelation sent down to him (i.e., the Gospel).
The wording mentioned in Matthew 28:19 is similar to that of another verse, which says:
I (Paul) charge thee before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels... (1 Timothy 5:21)
However, no one ever interpreted this verse as referring to the divinity of the angels or that they are part of a trinity or something.