What is Implied with the word Conquest in the Tenth Verse of Chapter al-Hadíd
Those who spent (freely), before the Conquest are not equal with those who did so later. There are two views about what is meant by the word conquest in the verse. First: It is the conquest of Makkah. Makkah had been conquered in the month of Ramadan in the sixth year of migration. (January 630) (1)
The state of Muslims was very critical in the years before of the conquest of Makkah. The conditions were dangerous and severe. The period between the beginning of the Prophethood and migration was the most merciless, perilous and bitter period against Muslims. Although Muslims reached peace as a result of migration, they experienced probably the most dangerous days of Madinah period in their relations with the Jews of Madinah and during the Battle of Badr in the second year of migration. In third year of migration, coming to the front of Uhud Mountain with an army three times bigger than the Muslim army, Quraishis arrived there to eradicate Muslims by covering a distance of hundreds kilometers. They were very sure of themselves and of the victory. They had the same attitude during the Battle of Badr too.
Although the Battle of Uhud seemed in favor of Muslims with the defeat of Quraishis at first, the war ended with the defeat of Muslims. Moreover, even the rumor of the death of Allahs Messenger (PBUH) was spread. Many Muslims notably Hazrat Hamza was martyrized. While entombing their martyrs, Muslims had difficulty even in finding shroud for them. (2)
There were difficulties in the fourth year of migration, too. The most significant event in the fifth year of migration was the Battle of Khandaq (Ahzáb) (3) Muslims resisted the ten thousand people army consisting of the alliance of Jews and the tribes of idolaters by digging holes around Madinah. (4) Following the Battle of Khandaq, the sons of Kurayza who joined the enemies during the war were surrounded. In the sixth year of migration, apart from the campaigns to Kurata, the sons of Likhyan, Gabe and Iss, Muslims visited Makkah for Umrah (visiting Kaaba out of hajj season). Meanwhile, many lives were sacrificed. Makkah idolaters kept weaponless Muslim out of Makkah and prevented them from performing their Umrah worship. (5)
In the seventh year of migration, delegates were sent to kings; Khyber was conquered by fighting Khyber Jews, who were as dangerous as Makkah idolaters for Muslims. Muslim reached peace to some extent eventually. In the same year after the conquest of Khyber, Muslims made up for the Umrah which they had failed to perform in the previous year.
After the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyah, the number of people embracing Islam increased day by day. In the eighth year of migration after the Campaign to Mute, Makkah was conquered. That conquest became a milestone for Muslims. Moreover, Allahs Messenger (PBUH) expressed the importance of migration for Muslims by saying: After the conquest of Makkah, there is no migration for Muslims.
Therefore, the financial aids and fights before the conquest are regarded better than the ones after the conquest. It is because Muslims became superior after the conquest.
Before the conquest only veracious people believed in Islam. However, after the conquest, Islam emerged with a great appearance. People embraced Islam in groups. (6)
That is, embracing Islam and being a companion of the Prophet (PBUH) was more difficult before the conquest. As the rewards of deeds increase in parallel to the hardship and severity, what Muslims did during the earlier times of Islam gained more importance as it is stated in the noble verse. The most virtuous group of the Companions, Hulafay-i Rashidin (Four Rightly Guided Caliphs) and Ashara-i mubashshara (the ten Companions who were given the glad tidings of Paradise) were the first period Companions as well; and Those are higher in rank than those who spent (freely) and fought afterwards... (7)
According to the most of the scholars of Islam, what is implied by the word conquest is the conquest of Makkah. According to some others, the conquest implies the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyah signed in the sixth year of migration. (The month of Zulqaedah, 628) After that treaty, Muslims of Madinah and Makkah idolaters started to have peaceful relations. Those who came to Madinah and observed the community of Islam began to embrace Islam. The obstinacy and hostility of the idolaters were eliminated by that peace treaty. During the two years between the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyah and the conquest of Makkah, a few times larger number of people embraced Islam than the number of people who embraced Islam between the beginning of the prophethood of Allahs Messenger (PBUH) and the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyah. While there were 1400 Muslim men present in the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyah, that number became ten thousand in the conquest of Makkah. Was it not a big conquest? If the aim in conquering cities and places was to convey Islam, that aim was realized without fighting after the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyah. By the expression of Quran, the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyah was a manifest conquest.
1. See el-Vakıdi, Muhammad b. Umar, al-Magazi I-III, Egypt 1965 II, 876 etc: al-Halabi, Ali b. Burhanuddin, İnsanul-Uyûn I-III, Beirut 1980, III, 4 vd; Tafsirul-Kuranil-Azim IV, 306.
2. See Abu Muhammad Abdulmalik b. Hisham, Sirat u Ibn-i Hisham, I-IV, Darul-Fikir, ty. yy. III, 3, 15, 49 etc.
3. Siratu Ibn-i Hisham III, 241 etc.
4. Ibni Sad, Muhammad, at-Tabaqatul-Kubra, I-VIII, Beirut, 1978 II, 66 vd; Siratu Ibn-i Hisham III, 240 etc.
5. Siratu Ibn-i Hisham III, 355 etc.
6. Tafsirul-Kuranil-Azim IV, 306.
7. See Chapter al-Hadíd, 57/11.
8. See Chapter Al-Fath the first verse; Sirat u Ibn-i Hisham III, 369, 372 (Zukhri, a scholar of Islam, says before the victory of Hudaybiyah there existed not a bigger victory in Islam.)
Murat Sarıcık (Prof.Dr.)
تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين
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