Rights of Non Muslims in Islam

آخـــر الـــمـــشـــاركــــات


مـواقـع شـقــيـقـة
شبكة الفرقان الإسلامية شبكة سبيل الإسلام شبكة كلمة سواء الدعوية منتديات حراس العقيدة
البشارة الإسلامية منتديات طريق الإيمان منتدى التوحيد مكتبة المهتدون
موقع الشيخ احمد ديدات تليفزيون الحقيقة شبكة برسوميات شبكة المسيح كلمة الله
غرفة الحوار الإسلامي المسيحي مكافح الشبهات شبكة الحقيقة الإسلامية موقع بشارة المسيح
شبكة البهائية فى الميزان شبكة الأحمدية فى الميزان مركز براهين شبكة ضد الإلحاد

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Rights of Non Muslims in Islam

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    Default Rights of Non Muslims in Islam





    Introduction“If a man like Muhammad were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world, he would succeed in solving its problems that would bring it the much needed peace and happiness. I have prophesized about the faith of Muhammad that it would be acceptable to the Europe of tomorrow as it is beginning to be acceptable to the Europe of Today.” – George Bernard Shaw
    Before we start:
    Before you start reading this research I have to express my greatest gratitude to Sheikh Qardawi for his valuable book “Non-Muslims in the Islamic Society” on which this research is based also Prof. Abdur Rahman I. Doi for his valuable book “Non-Muslims under Shariah”.
    What is a religion?
    Imagine that you are in total darkness, ahead of you is a forest and you know nothing about what you can face there. While you are struggling with your own fear and bewilderment an old wise man carrying a lantern comes to you with such a comforting smile and tells you that he can guide you to the other side where you can finally find light, safety and peace. He reminds you that you better follow his advices but assures you that you have the choice of going along on your own or follow him. Through the way, you face all sorts of tough and peaceful moments till you reach your destination. This guide is the religion you choose. It guides you to your target but can not force to follow it. If you choose at any moment to go astray it can not stop you, only it’s dictates guide you. That is simply what a religion is.
    We all love God and want to please Him. Not a single religion states otherwise. Different religions are like different paths from which we all have to choose ours. If you choose your guide but do not listen to him, which is your right for you are free to choose, do not blame the guide but blame yourself. If you miss choose your guide and hence go astray, blame only yourself for you are the one who preferred this guide over others and accepted his malicious advices because it pleased you or was easier to follow.
    This simple representation of a crucial case can lead us to conclude few things:
    1- Your religion is the way you chose to reach out to God, your choice is NOT the only choice, there are other paths which may be better or worse than yours but it is not for you to judge Allah only has that right. The Holy Quran says: ” Verily, those who believe (in Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad), and those who are Jews, and the Sabians, and the Christians, and the Magians, and those who worship others besides Allah, truly, Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection. Verily! Allah is Witness over all thing” (Surah AlHajj:17)
    2- Your attitude on the road must reflect the guidelines given to you by your guide (religion) if you truly believe him. If your behaviour and attitude doesn’t reflect that then know for sure that deep inside you, you do not really believe in your guide. This case we often meet, people who lecture us about religion and the true path to God but when we deal with them we see only hypocrisy and lies. These are called hypocrites. They cling to the outer surface of religion like a parasite and try to use religion to get to their malicious means but deep inside you will find only emptiness.
    3- Imagine yourself on that road doing nothing but looking at people who you can hardly see (as we can’t actually see the depths of each other) and criticize them. You don’t focus on your own difficult road and hence sooner or later go astray.
    Religion not only gives us peace but also wisdom and maturity. It makes you mature enough to accept the other without criticism but at the same time makes you wise enough to know that you are not perfect and see the defects in your own self before the others.
    4- A good guide doesn’t force people to follow him; they choose to follow him voluntarily. Religion can not push itself inside the hearts by force. People have to believe in it by their own free will.
    Why am I writing this study?
    Not to defend Islam definitely because it does need my defense. Actually this study is written for two types of people:
    a- Non-Muslims who read to saw or heard lots of allegations against Islam. Read what Islam truly dictates and do not judge Islam by the deeds of some hypocrites who claim to be Muslims but know nothing about the glory of the real Islam. Hypocrites only want to fulfill their desire to be noticed even if it is at the expense of their religion Islam.
    b- Muslims who want to enjoy the beauty and justice of their religion and how brilliantly it raises human freedom of choice above all other even above the desire to spread Islam everywhere.
    Who am I not interested in?
    Fanatics whose hearts are deaf and blind. They do not want to hear or see or change or even think. They live and die blinded by anger and undeserved self esteem. If you are not ready to read with open mind then please don’t waste your time reading.
    Justice in Islam
    Islam’s message is simply mercy and justice for all man kind regardless of religion, gender, nationality…etc. The Holy Quran says: “Verily! Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due; and that when you judge between men, you judge with justice. Verily, how excellent is the teaching which He (Allah) gives you! Truly, Allah is Ever AllHearer, AllSeer.” (Surah Al-Nisaa: 58)
    Even animals have rights in Islam. It was narrated in the hadith from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: “A woman was punished for a cat which she imprisoned until it died, and she entered Hell because of that. She did not feed it or give it water when she imprisoned it, and she did not leave it free to eat of the vermin of the earth.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 2236; Muslim, 2242). Al-Nawawi said: the apparent meaning of the hadeeth is that she went to Hell only because of this sin.
    Justice is granted even for enemies. The Holy Quran says:” O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah and be just witnesses and let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety, and fear Allah. Verily, Allah is Well Acquainted with what you do.” (Surah Al-Ma'idah: 8)
    In Islam the integrity of each person in society and his loyalty to the country concerned which in tern makes it the duty of the society to provide equally for each person's pursuit of happiness. This is the reason why things unlawful for Muslims but lawful for non-Muslims will not be made forbidden for them in the Muslim country.
    To become a Muslim one has to believe in the one and only God which negates any other deity other than Allah who created all human beings as equal irrespective of their tribes or clans. It was this teaching which made the tribe of Quraish, the Prophet's own tribe, angry when he helped liberate the slaves and destitute like Bilal, the noble disciple who was a black slave.
    Characteristics of the Islamic Jurisprudence (Sharah)

    Islamic Jurisprudence regulated not only the conduct of the Muslim state with other states but also the relationship of non-Muslim states and non-Muslim individuals living in the Muslim state.
    The larger interest of society takes precedence over the interest of the individual.
    Although ‘relieving hardship’ and ‘promoting benefit’ are both among the prime objectives of the Shariah, the former takes precedence over the latter.
    A bigger loss cannot be inflicted to relieve a smaller loss or a bigger benefit cannot be sacrificed for a smaller one. Conversely, a smaller harm can be inflicted to avoid bigger harm or a smaller benefit can be sacrificed for a larger benefit.
    In the shariah, no distinction of race, religion, citizenship, economic status or personal capabilities can even obliterate the human rights of a non Muslim. If any Muslim tries to do so, the Shariah will prescribe redress and the Muslim, if found guilty, will be punished.
    The most distinctive feature of the Shariah from any other legal system in the world is that human rights in Shariah have been granted by Allah and not by any legislative assembly or any king or emperor. The rights of non-Muslims granted in the Shariah, therefore, cannot be withdrawn, simply because they are not given by man. No one in the world has the right to abrogate them or withdraw them.
    Islam has forbidden party spirit, nepotism and favouring one’s tribesman or even a fellow-Muslim when he is doing wrong. Our Noble prophet, peace and blessing be upon him was once asked by Wathilahbin al-asqa:”What the Paty-spirit was?” He replied:”that you help your people in wrong doing”-(Reported By: Abu Daud).
    In the English Law, the right of mercy and pardon goes to the head of a government, but it is quite the contrary in Islam. Only the person wronged or oppressed can forgive as Allah himself delegates the power of forgiveness to the oppressed.
    Islamic vision in fighting crimes
    Islam has a unique vision in fighting crimes we can summarize certain characteristics of this vision as follows:
    Preventing crime by prescribing harsh punishments
    Islam does not prescribe monetary fines or penalties. Had this been the case the wealthy can easily get away with their crimes and hence the criminal mentality will be promoted among the wealthy.
    Imprisonment is a disapproved form of punishments. It isolates the offender from the society besides its proven disadvantages in the modern world like the fact that prisons now are considered as 'A university for crime' where inmates learn more about crime besides the fact that prisons now are considered a financial burden on any country.
    Islamic penal code sternly prohibits the dual disability for an ex-convict. Once the official punishment ends, the convict is a dignified citizen of the state enjoying civil rights in its totality. He need not carry any appendage of conviction with his name. No hurdles would be placed in his economic or social progress on the basis of his conviction. Our noble Prophet strictly admonished his friends from giving any bad names to Ma'izz Bin Aslami and Ghamiddiya who confessed the sin of adultery and were stoned to death. The Prophet called their confession as the most courageous and noblest act.
    Non Muslims are classified into the following types:

    The Dhimmis: The people of the book (whose religions are based on divine books) i.e. Christians and Jews.
    The conquered people: non-Muslims who fought against Muslims until they were defeated and were overpowered.
    Non-Muslims who clearly happen to be residing in the Muslim state as its citizens
    Non-Muslims residing temporarily in a Muslim country e.g. tourists or temporary sojourners.
    Resident aliens who have opted voluntarily to live in a Muslim state.
    “Allah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion and did not drive you out of your homes. Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity. It is only as regards those who fought against you on account of religion, and have driven you out of your homes, and helped to drive you out, that Allah forbids you to befriend them. And whosoever will befriend them, then such are the Zalimun (wrong-doers those who disobey Allah).” (Al-Mumtahana: 8-9)The above verse is the general rule by which Muslims should treat Non Muslims whether in an Islamic or non Islamic state.
    “Made lawful to you this day are AtTayyibat [all kinds of Halal (lawful) foods, which Allah has made lawful (meat of slaughtered eatable animals, etc., milk products, fats, vegetables and fruits, etc.). The food (slaughtered cattle, eatable animals, etc.) of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) is lawful to you and yours is lawful to them. (Lawful to you in marriage) are chaste women from the believers and chaste women from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) before your time, when you have given their due Mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage), desiring chastity (i.e. taking them in legal wedlock) not committing illegal sexual intercourse, nor taking them as girl-friends. And whosoever disbelieves in the Oneness of Allah and in all the other Articles of Faith [i.e. His (Allah's), Angels, His Holy Books, His Messengers, the Day of Resurrection and AlQadar (Divine Preordainments)], then fruitless is his work, and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers. “(AlMaidah: 5)
    The previous verse applies to the people of the book whether they are living in an Islamic or non Islamic state. When people of the book live in an Islamic state they are called (Ahl Aldhimmah or Dhimmis). Muslims are permitted to take meals with them and to eat their slaughtered animals if invited. Muslims are also allowed to marry their chaste women.
    Giving other excellent examples of toleration, the Holy Qur’an explains that no matter what the circumstance, you are not to abandon tolerance. Irrespective of the cruelties inflicted on you, you are not to act other than with justice and take revenge by being just as cruel. If you do that, you are misguided. To call you a Muslim would be meaningless. The Holy Qur’an states: "…and let not a people’s enmity incite you to act otherwise than with justice. Be always just, that is nearer to righteousness." (Surah5:9)
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  2. #2
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    General Rules for dealing with non Muslims


    Islam orders Muslims to deal kindly and justly to all non Muslims as long as they do not oppose or oppress Muslims or place obstacles in the way of spreading Islam.
    Religious differences are matters left for God to decide, we are NOT allowed to judge each other. We are responsible for neither punishing nor rewarding any one for his faith. The Holy Quran says:“And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together. So, will you (O Muhammad) then compel mankind, until they become believers.”(Yunus:99)
    “Verily, those who believe (in Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad), and those who are Jews, and the Sabians, and the Christians, and the Magians, and those who worship others besides Allah, truly, Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection. Verily! Allah is Witness over all things.”(Al-Haj:17)



    God has ordained justice and the best of morals. Oppression is refused in Islam against all beings and Allah threatened all oppressors. The Holy Quran says: “O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah and be just witnesses and let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety, and fear Allah. Verily, Allah is Well Acquainted with what you do.” (Al-Maidah:8)Our Noble Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “Beware the supplication of the oppressed, for indeed there is no barrier between it and Allaah” (Al-Bukhari)

    The Quran prohibits serious religious discussions with malice and hatred for they result only in hostility and arouse prejudice, resentment and bitter feelings. The Holy Quran says: “And argue not with the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), unless it be in (a way) that is better (with good words and in good manner, inviting them to Islamic Monotheism with His Verses), except with such of them as do wrong, and say (to them): "We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you; our Ilah (God) and your Ilah (God) is One (i.e. Allah), and to Him we have submitted (as Muslims)." (Al-Ankabut:46)


    It is not permissible for Muslims to transgress upon non-Muslims, not in their person, their wealth or their reputations if they are formal residents in a Muslim country, have a treaty with Muslims or are under Muslim protection, rather they must be given their rights.
    There is nothing to prevent Muslims from dealing with non-Muslims in relation to buying, selling, and renting and so on. It has been authentically narrated that the Messenger of Allah bought items from Jews and had similar dealings with them, he passed away leaving his breast plate as collateral with a Jew for food that he had bought from him.Actually the general rule that Muslims should follow when dealing with non-Muslims is based of the verse: “Allah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion and did not drive you out of your homes. Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity. It is only as regards those who fought against you on account of religion, and have driven you out of your homes, and helped to drive you out, that Allah forbids you to befriend them. And whosoever will befriend them, then such are the Zalimun (wrong-doers those who disobey Allah).” (Surah60:8-9)

    Non-Muslims are not outside the Jurisdiction as is the case with Jus civile. Likewise, Muslims are not supposed to consider themselves as 'Lords of the population of the globe' as they are 'Servants of Allah'. They are merely custodians of Allah's property and not the absolute owner. The distinction in the terms 'Muslims' and 'Non-Muslims' merely remains one of political administration not of human rights.
    It is essential for every Muslim to treat with respect one's parents, brothers and sisters and other relatives no matter what their faith is. They should try to help them in the hour of need, provided they do not profess to be open enemies of Islam.
    In order to achieve peace among different communities, Islam perched against the abusing of even idols and other objects of worship of other people. The Holy Quran says: "Do not abuse those whom they worship besides Allah" (6:109). To ensure peace even laughing is prohibited. The Holy Quran says: "Let not one people laugh at another perchance they may be better than they" (49:11).
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    General Rules for dealing with non Muslims


    Islam orders Muslims to deal kindly and justly to all non Muslims as long as they do not oppose or oppress Muslims or place obstacles in the way of spreading Islam.
    Religious differences are matters left for God to decide, we are NOT allowed to judge each other. We are responsible for neither punishing nor rewarding any one for his faith. The Holy Quran says:“And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together. So, will you (O Muhammad) then compel mankind, until they become believers.”(Yunus:99)
    “Verily, those who believe (in Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad), and those who are Jews, and the Sabians, and the Christians, and the Magians, and those who worship others besides Allah, truly, Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection. Verily! Allah is Witness over all things.”(Al-Haj:17)

    God has ordained justice and the best of morals. Oppression is refused in Islam against all beings and Allah threatened all oppressors. The Holy Quran says: “O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah and be just witnesses and let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety, and fear Allah. Verily, Allah is Well Acquainted with what you do.” (Al-Maidah:8)Our Noble Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “Beware the supplication of the oppressed, for indeed there is no barrier between it and Allaah” (Al-Bukhari)

    The Quran prohibits serious religious discussions with malice and hatred for they result only in hostility and arouse prejudice, resentment and bitter feelings. The Holy Quran says: “And argue not with the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), unless it be in (a way) that is better (with good words and in good manner, inviting them to Islamic Monotheism with His Verses), except with such of them as do wrong, and say (to them): "We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you; our Ilah (God) and your Ilah (God) is One (i.e. Allah), and to Him we have submitted (as Muslims)." (Al-Ankabut:46)
    It is not permissible for Muslims to transgress upon non-Muslims, not in their person, their wealth or their reputations if they are formal residents in a Muslim country, have a treaty with Muslims or are under Muslim protection, rather they must be given their rights.
    There is nothing to prevent Muslims from dealing with non-Muslims in relation to buying, selling, and renting and so on. It has been authentically narrated that the Messenger of Allah bought items from Jews and had similar dealings with them, he passed away leaving his breast plate as collateral with a Jew for food that he had bought from him.Actually the general rule that Muslims should follow when dealing with non-Muslims is based of the verse: “Allah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion and did not drive you out of your homes. Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity. It is only as regards those who fought against you on account of religion, and have driven you out of your homes, and helped to drive you out, that Allah forbids you to befriend them. And whosoever will befriend them, then such are the Zalimun (wrong-doers those who disobey Allah).” (Surah60:8-9)

    Non-Muslims are not outside the Jurisdiction as is the case with Jus civile. Likewise, Muslims are not supposed to consider themselves as 'Lords of the population of the globe' as they are 'Servants of Allah'. They are merely custodians of Allah's property and not the absolute owner. The distinction in the terms 'Muslims' and 'Non-Muslims' merely remains one of political administration not of human rights.
    It is essential for every Muslim to treat with respect one's parents, brothers and sisters and other relatives no matter what their faith is. They should try to help them in the hour of need, provided they do not profess to be open enemies of Islam.
    In order to achieve peace among different communities, Islam perched against the abusing of even idols and other objects of worship of other people. The Holy Quran says: "Do not abuse those whom they worship besides Allah" (6:109). To ensure peace even laughing is prohibited. The Holy Quran says: "Let not one people laugh at another perchance they may be better than they" (49:11)
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  4. #4
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    Religious freedom


    a- freedom of choice
    “There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.” (AlBakarak:256)
    “And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together. So, will you (O Muhammad) then compel mankind, until they become believers.” (Yunus:99)
    These two verses represent the general Islamic rule as regard religious belief that no one can be obliged or compelled to convert to Islam. For this reason, there is no historical incident of Muslims forcing any non-Muslim to embrace Islam. This is a fact acknowledged by western historians. Compulsion in the matter of religious worship is incompatible with the religion of Islam because every religion depends upon faith and will, and these would be meaningless if they are induced by force.
    b- Building and Protecting of places of worship
    Islam protects places of worship of non Muslims and sanctified their religious rituals.
    Examples:
    1. In the tenth year of the Hirah, a delegation of fourteen Christian Chiefs from Najran; among them Abdul Masih of Bani Kinda, their chief, and Abdul Harith, bishop of Bani Harith, came to Medina to make a treaty with the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and were permitted by him to pray in his mosque, which they did turning towards the east.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Najran#...heir_expulsion)
    The contract that our noble prophet made with the Christians of Najran stated that:
    “Najran and its neighbours area are in the security of Almighty Allah and His messenger. The property, religions and churches of the inhabitants, as well as all possessions, whether much or little, are under the protection of the Prophet.”
    2. The peace treaty conducted by the Caliph Umar Ibn Elkhattab, may Allah be pleased with him, with the citizens of Jerusalem stated:
    “In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Beneficent. This is what the slave of Allah, Umar b.Al-Khattab, the Amir of the believers, has offered the people of Illyaa’[1] of security granting them Amaan (protection) for their selves, their money, their churches, their children, their lowly and their innocent, and the remainder of their people. Their churches are not to be taken, nor are they to be destroyed, nor are they to be degraded or belittled, neither are their crosses or their money, and they are not to be forced to change their religion, nor is any one of them to be harmed.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umar#The_Treaty_of_Umar)
    3. The covenant between Khalid Ibn Elwalid and the people of Anat stated: “They are allowed to ring their bells at any time of the day or night, except at the Islamic prayer times. They are allowed to bear their crosses in their festivals”
    4. Permitting non-Muslims to build their own houses of worship in towns mainly populated by Muslims also falls under this scope, where early in Muslim history several churches were built in Egypt during the first Hijri century.
    An example of this is the construction of the Mar Marcus Church in Alexandria (between AH 39 and 56), and the construction of the first church in Fustat in the Roman Alley during the reign of Maslamah ibn Mikhled (between the years AH 47 and 68). Ruler Abdul `Aziz ibn Marwan also authorized constructing a church in Helwan while founding the city, beside establishing two monasteries for some bishops.
    Historian Al-Maqrizi once said, “It is agreed that all the churches of Cairo were established after the coming of Islam.”
    c- Freedom to perform missionary activities
    Non-Muslims are free to do missionary activities and to propagate their faith. They have full freedom to run their missionary organizations and evangelist activities. They are free to propagate their creed openly and praising their beliefs in comparison to beliefs of Muslims. They enjoy the right to criticize the religion of Islam as Muslims have the right to criticize their religion as long as it does not create a breach of peace. Both parties are NOT allowed to hurt the feelings of the other.
    d- Freedom to change religion
    Non-Muslims have the right to change from one religion to another. In Islam, freedom in its general sense is a well-established fact. At a time when people were enslaved intellectually, politically, socially, religiously, and economically, Islam came to establish the freedom of belief, freedom of thought, freedom of speech, and freedom to criticize. Islam strictly forbids that people be forced to adopt a certain creed or to believe in a particular religion.
    Allah Almighty says: “If it had been thy Lord’s Will, they would all have believed, all who are on earth; wilt thou then compel mankind, against their will, to believe?” (Yunus 10: 99)
    This was in the Makkan era. In the Madinan period, Allah also revealed:“Let there be no compulsion in religion: truth stands out clear from error.” (Al-Baqarah 2: 256)
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Right of Protection against external aggression


    Non Muslims in Islamic state have the right to be protected by the state from all sorts of aggression whether external or internal.
    As for external aggression both Muslims and non Muslims have equal rights. The famous Islamic scholar Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in his book Ula An-Nuha states: “The ruler of Muslim community is bound to protect the non Muslims and to save them from aggression. Should they fall into captivity, the Imam must marshal all the recourses to secure their release and punish the transgressors against their lives and properties, even if they were the sole (non Muslims) living in a remote village”.
    If enemies from other countries attacked the non-Muslim of any denomination in an Islamic state, Muslims were asked to fight in order to protect the freedom of religious worship of the non-Muslim.
    Ibn Hazm, the prominent Islamic scholar states in his book Maratib Al-Ijma: “Muslims who have entered into a pact of dhimma should fight until death with those who try to oppress non-Muslims in the Islamic state in order to abide by the guarantee given to them by Almighty Allah, His messenger, upon whom be peace. Otherwise they will be considered as traitors”
    Examples:

    The famous scholar Imam Ibn Taymiyah, may Allah be pleased with him, while speaking to Qultoo Shah—a Tartar—regarding the freeing of prisoners of war. Qultoo Shah agreed to set Muslim free upon Ibn Taymiah’s request; however, the latter insisted that Christian be released with the Muslims, which was what happened in the end. This stand by IbnTaymiyah reflects the perspective of jurisprudence on the subject of the right to external protection.
    (http://www.readingislam.com/servlet/...am%2FDIELayout)
    Imam AlQurafi quotes the statement of Ibn Hazm from his book Maratib al-Ijma:”If enemies at war come to our country aiming at certain Dhimmi, it is essential for us that we come out to fight them with all our might and weapons since he is under the protection of Allah and His messenger. If we did anything less than this, it means we have failed in our agreement for protection.”
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Right of Protection against internal aggression

    It is agreed that Muslims must protect the non-Muslims living in an Islamic state from any oppression, must protect their lives as they are bound to do for all who live in the Islamic state. Some Muslim scholars said that the sin of oppressing a non Muslim is even worse than oppressing a Muslim.
    Our noble Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, was reported to have said, “He who unfairly treats a non-Muslim who keeps a peace treaty with Muslims, or undermines his rights, or burdens him beyond his capacity, or takes something from him without his consent; then I am his opponent on the Day of Judgment” (Abu Dawud and Al-Bayhaqi).
    He, peace and blessings be upon him, is also reported to have said, “He who harms a non-Muslim who keeps a peace treaty with Muslims has harmed me, and he who harms me has harmed Allah” (At-Tabarani in Al-Awsat with a good chain of transmission).
    Muslim citizens are duty bound to spare their hands and tongues from hurting the non-Muslim citizens, they must not keep any enmity or hatred against them. Our Noble Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him said:”Whosoever persecuted a Dhimmi or usurplus right or took work from him beyond his capacity, or took something from him with evil intentions. I shall be a complainant against him on the Day of Resurrection.” (Abu Daud and Baihaqi. See Al-Sunan al-Kubra, vol. 5, p.205, narrated by al-khatib with authentic Isnad)
    Examples:
    1. In his treaty with the Christians of Najran our noble prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, stated: “No man from amonjg them may be held accountable for the violations of another of his fellows” (Related by Abu yusuf in Al-kharaj).
    2. The second Chaliph, Umar Ibn Elkhattab, may Allah be pleased with him, used to ask those who came to him from various provinces about the well being of non Muslims and whether they have any complaints from any kind of oppression in these provinces.
    3. The fourth of the righteous Caliphs, Ali Ibn Abu Talib said, “They pay Capitation tax so that their properties and lives may be as ours”
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Right of Protection of lives

    Muslim scholars agreed that the lives, wealth and honor of the non Muslim living in an Islamic state are to be protected. Violating their blood is considered one of the gravest of sins. This is due to the hadith by the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him: “He who kills a non-Muslim who keeps a peace treaty with the Muslims will not smell the scent of Heaven, though its scent can be traced to as far as a march of 40 years” (Imam Ahmad and Al-Bukhari in Al-Jizyah, among others).
    Islam ruled that any Muslim who steals from a non Muslim would have his hand cut off.
    Non Muslims should not be subjected to severe punishment or torture if they failed to fulfill their duties like paying the Jizyah and the kharaj (what we now call tax).
    Examples:
    The fourth of the righteous Caliphs, Ali Ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, wrote to the collectors of the Kharaj:
    “When you come to them, do not sell their garments preserved for winter or summer, or the food they eat, or the animals they need. Don’t whip any of them for a Dirham, and do not oblige them to stand on one leg for a dirham. Do not sell any of their household goods for the payment of Kharaj, because we accept from them what they have. If you do not comply with my orders, Allah will punish you in my absence. And if I receive any complaint against you in this concern, your service will be terminated”
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Right of Protection of Property

    The Islamic state has to protect the non Muslims property. This principle has been unanimously agreed upon among all Muslims scholars throughout history. Thus a person who steals from a non Muslim will have his hand cut off and he who takes their property by violence is punished and obliged to return it to its owner. If a Muslim borrows money from a non Muslim, he is obliged to repay him. If the borrower I is rich and delays payment, he is to be put in prison until he pays his debt.
    There is no difference between Muslim and non-Muslim citizen in respect of the civil or criminal law although the Islamic state will not interfere with the personal rights of non-Muslims. If any Muslim tries to curtail the rights of non-Muslims, the prophet says that he would be a complainant against such a Muslim on the Day of Judgment. Non-Muslims will enjoy all their rights of ownership, sale, transfer, grant and mortgage of their property like any Muslim, and no individual or state will interfere with it.
    Ali, the fourth Caliph, once said about the rights of non-Muslims to their property: “They have accepted the position of Dhimmis on the explicit understanding that their properties and their lives will remain sacred like those of ours. (i.e. The Muslims)”
    Examples:
    1- In the prophet’s treaty with Najran it is stated: “Najran and its neighboring area are in the security of Almighty Allah and His messenger. The property, religion, churches of the inhabitants as well as their possessions, whether much or little, are under the protection of the prophet”.
    2- During the life of our Noble Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, foreign traders came to Medina and Muslims purchased merchandises from them. Once an non-Muslim came with a herd of sheep and goats without securing any permission and Our Prophet, peace and blessings bought from him (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book of trade).
    3- The second righteous Caliph, Umar Ibn Elkhattab, may Allah be pleased with him, wrote to Abu Ubaidah Ibn Al-Jarrah saying: “Prevent Muslims from harming or oppressing them (non Muslims) or from taking their property illegally”.
    4- In the era of Caliph Umar Ibn ElKhattab, some Muslims had usurped a piece of land belonging to a Jew and then constructed a mosque on its site in their over enthusiasm for their religion. Such mosque cannot be a place of worship as the land was usurped from its owner. Umar ordered the demolition of the mosque and the restoration of the land to its owner the Jew. Dr. Hamidullah says that a Lebanese Christian scholar, Professor Cardahi wrote in 1933 about this land:” This house or the Bait al-Yahudi (The Jewish house), still exists and is well known.”
    5- The fourth righteous Caliph, Ali Ibn Abu Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, stated: “They pay capitation tax so that their blood and wealth may be like ours.”
    6- Islam defines the properties of non Muslims according to their religion. For example, Liquor and pork although they cannot be considered as money to Muslims; and if a Muslim squanders or spoils such property of another Muslim, he could not be called upon for compensation, if a Muslim spoils such assets belonging to a non-Muslim, he would be responsible for compensation, according to Imam Abu Hanifah.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Medical care and Social Welfare against Disability, Old Age, and PovertyIslamic jurisprudence guarantees to non-Muslims living under its societal umbrella their necessary welfare benefits, which enables them to live decently and support those they sponsor, since they are considered among the Muslim state’s subjects or citizens. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, was reported to have said, “We are all shepherds and we are all responsible for those who are under our hands (i.e. in our flocks)” (Ibn `Umar).
    Sheikh Shams Al-Dim Ramli, the famous commentator of Al-Minhaj of Nawawi, says that: The non-Muslims are like Muslims when it comes to relieving them from their sufferings. It is essential for all Muslims to remove any harm coming to them. Apart from food and clothing of the needy non-Muslims, it is also a must to help them in the treatment of their sick and giving fees to the doctors and buying medicines...etc.
    Examples:
    1- The treaty between Khalid Ibn El-walid in his treaty with the Christians of Al-Hira in Iraq at the era of the first righteous caliph Abu Bakr Al-Seddik states:
    “Any aged non-Muslim who is unable to earn his livelihood, or is struck by disaster, or who becomes destitute and is helped by the charity of his fellow men will be exempted from the capitation tax and will be supplied with sustenance by the bait al-mal (the government treasury)”
    2- The second righteous Caliph, Umar Ibn Elkhattab, may Allah be pleased with him, once saw an old Jewish beggar whom he found to be destitute. Ordering the state authorities to pay for his livelihood, he observed: “It is unjust if we collect the capitation tax from him in his youth and abandon him in his old age”.
    3- Umar, May Allah be pleased with him, was on his way to Syria he came across some Christian lepers at Jabia. He ordered the financial authorities to give them help from the Zakah (charity) funds and to provide for them.
    4- Abu Jafar Muhamad bin Jarir Al-Tabari says in his commentary of the Quran, Tafsir Al-Tabari, on the authority of Nafi that he heard Akramah concerning the verse:” Undoubtedly Zakat is for the poor (Fuqara) and the destitute (Masakin).”, that the poor among Muslims should not be called destitute. The reference to the destitute is made in respect of the people of the book. Therefore, this verse about Zakat includes also non-Muslims.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Freedom of work and Profession

    According to Islam, non Muslims should be treated in the same manner as Muslims in the matters of trade, commerce and other financial matters except “RIBA” (interest), which is forbidden for them as well as for Muslims.
    Non-Muslims, like Muslims can perform all kinds of trade, industry, agriculture and adopt any profession of their choice. Non-Muslims will enjoy more freedom than Muslims in this regard since there are a number of things which are unlawful for Muslims to trade in while they are lawful for non-Muslims like Wine, pig and dead animals (which were not slaughtered according to Islamic way) and anything related to them. Non Muslims are allowed to trade and perform any industry related to these unlawful things as long as they do not sell it to a Muslim.
    There are other restrictions like: Non Muslims are not allowed to sell liquor and pork in Muslim land. They may not open pubs or clubs which serve alcoholic drinks and they may not import these items into Muslim land. This prohibition is to prevent the possibility of any corruption within the Islamic society.
    Islam emphasizes the rights of non-Muslim workers working in an Islamic organization. A Jew will be given Saturday off. The Hanbali jurists opine that they should be exempted from work on Sabbath day (Saturday) basing their argument on the hadith narrated by Al-Nasai and Al-Termidhi, our noble Prophets said: "And you Jew. It is incumbent that you should not transgress the regulations if the Shabbath day". Similarly, Christians will enjoy the same privilege and are allowed to go to their churches on Sundays.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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Rights of Non Muslims in Islam

Rights of Non Muslims in Islam