Rights of Non Muslims in Islam

آخـــر الـــمـــشـــاركــــات


مـواقـع شـقــيـقـة
شبكة الفرقان الإسلامية شبكة سبيل الإسلام شبكة كلمة سواء الدعوية منتديات حراس العقيدة
البشارة الإسلامية منتديات طريق الإيمان منتدى التوحيد مكتبة المهتدون
موقع الشيخ احمد ديدات تليفزيون الحقيقة شبكة برسوميات المرصد الإسلامي لمقاومة التنصير
غرفة الحوار الإسلامي المسيحي مكافح الشبهات شبكة الحقيقة الإسلامية موقع الدعوة الإسلامية
شبكة البهائية فى الميزان شبكة الأحمدية فى الميزان مركز براهين شبكة ضد الإلحاد

يرجى عدم تناول موضوعات سياسية حتى لا تتعرض العضوية للحظر

 

       

         

 

    

 

 

    

 

Rights of Non Muslims in Islam

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Thread: Rights of Non Muslims in Islam

  1. #21
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    8. Was the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, unjust to the Jews of Medinah…?


    The answer to this question was taken from the web site “Reading Islam”: And the web site “The true call”
    The Jews comprised three tribes living in and around Madinah, namely the Banu Nadir, the Banu Qainuqa and the Banu Quraizah. The Banu Qainuqa tribe lived in Madinah and paid tribute to the Arab tribe, Khazraj. The Banu Nadir and Banu Quraizah lived to the south of Madinah, behind it and they paid tribute to the Arab tribe of Aws. (Ar Raheeq il Mahktoom, page 282)
    The Jews had a flair for trade and controlled the trade of dates, alcohol and farm produce. This made them extremely wealthy. They used to forward loans to the Arab chieftains at absurdly exorbitant rates of interest (which the Arabs squandered for show.) In return, the Jews kept as security their lands, farms and gardens.
    The Jews conspired to spread mischief and cause war amongst the ignorant Arabs who had no idea of their subtle cunning and deceit. They followed the policy of ‘divide and rule’ and would incite the tribes against each other, then sit back to watch the spectacle of the Arabs destroying themselves. (ibid, page 282). These Jewish tribes were responsible for the prolonged war between the two above mentioned tribes, Aws and Khazraj.
    In their dialogues with the Arabs, the Jews kept telling them that soon there would appear a prophet from among themselves and that he would lead them to humiliate the Arab idolaters. They kept on repeating this Jewish dream in front of their fellow residents until Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) appeared and came to Madinah. Thereupon, everything changed because they started to deny their dream and claimed that he was not the long-awaited prophet but just a pseudo-prophet, completing a package of falsifications woven by their Arab contemporaries.
    They knew in their hearts that he was a prophet and not a liar, yet they opted to be arrogant rather than surrender to the truth. They wondered why the long-awaited prophet came from the Arabs. In the Jews' opinion, they themselves were the most deserving of that honor, and as they saw it jumping in someone else's lap, they decided to destroy it.
    Two of their rabbis were conversing when the Prophet reached Madinah and one of them said to the other, "Is that him?" i.e., is he the prophet?
    And the other answered, "Yes, it is him."
    The other continued, "Are you sure it is him?"
    And the answer came, "By God, I know him as much as I know my own son."
    "So what will you do with him?"
    And the final answer came, "I will bear enmity to him till my death."
    (Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakfuri, Ar-Rahiq Al-Makhtum, Dar As-Salam, 1998, p. 145)
    When the Prophet settled in Madinah, he wanted to create a cooperating human community and establish an exemplary civil society at a time when these poor Arabs could never imagine what a civil society could mean. So for the first time in history, he established the pact of Madinah or what I like to call the constitution of coexistence.
    In this constitution, all signing parties — including Muslims, Jews, and other (pagan) Arabs — agreed that they would live in Madinah together as a society and would defend it in case of an attack and would never help any outsider against any of the other signing parts and would never betray the agreement.
    Some important terms of the treaty were:

    The Jews and Muslims would be considered one entity, the Jews and Muslims were free to follow their respective religions, freemen and slaves alike.
    The Jews were responsible for their affairs and the Muslim for theirs.
    If any member of the treaty went on war with another party, the other members would support it and cooperate with each other. As long as the war continued the expenditure would be born by all the members.
    The Quraish tribe and their helpers would not be given asylum in Madinah.
    Any mutual dispute between the members of the treaty would be settled by Allah and His Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him. (Ar Raheeq il Makhtoom, page 298-300)
    Yet, at the first juncture, the Jews started disrupting the society when one of them, knowing he was backed by others, attacked a Muslim woman who went to buy something from a Jewish shop in the Jewish district of Banu Qaynuqa`. They simply created chaos and disruption in the society (Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakfuri, Ar-Rahiq Al-Makhtum, Dar As-Salam, 1998. p. 191).In order to stop the chaos and let society enjoy the peacefulness reached in the agreement, the Prophet gave them the option to leave Madinah or else people whose children were killed would start avenging them. The decision was they would leave, and that was really the best and easiest option. It needed no justification because their offense was very clear.
    The relationship between the Jews of Banu An-Nadir and the Arabs was not much better. Banu An-Nadir conspired to kill the Prophet when he was going to talk with them. Imagine how you would feel, Mohsin, if you were visiting one of your friends and he was preparing to kill you at his house instead of offering you food and hosting you. Imagine if he met you with a conspiracy rather than with hospitality. The threat here was against the leader of the Muslim community and the head of the state; it was actually a conspiracy that reflected how much hatred they bore for the Prophet and how betraying they were.
    Thereupon, they had to leave, not because of the Prophet but because of their own handiwork. The Qur'an tells us at the beginning of Surat Al-Hashr that the believers never imagined that the Jews would leave Madinah and were not even planning for that, but the Jews themselves brought that to themselves. And when the Prophet gave them the option, they chose to leave. Actually, that was the least punishment they could get.
    Banu Quraizhah, on the other hand, remained in Madinah, but again they did not keep their word and breached the agreement. They helped a confederate army consisting of Quraish and other Arab idolaters who came to attack Madinah.
    The Muslim army, which by the highest estimates was only one thousand-strong, was facing a ten thousand-strong army in full arms. The Muslims had to dig a trench in a desperate attempt to defend themselves, and all of a sudden, they discovered that their fellow citizens (the Jews), who were entrusted to defend from the back, were actually helping the enemy.
    It was the mercy of Allah that the confederates left without fighting and He blew fear into their hearts, but the unforgivable offense of these betraying Jews was not to pass unnoticed. The kind Prophet went to them and asked them to choose someone who would issue a judgment in their case. Banu Quraizhah chose Sa`d ibn Mu`az, may Allah be pleased with him, because they knew he was their friend and would be fair with them. Sa`d chose a verdict from their own holy scriptures, the Torah: that the men were to be killed and the women and children were to be enslaved.
    Thereupon, many Companions of the Prophet, driven by mercy, told them that they could intercede and get them an amnesty from the Prophet. But Banu Quraizhah said,"No, we will never violate the judgment of the Torah."
    Actually, this verdict given by Sa`d is purely from the Torah, and no similar punishment can be found in any Islamic source. Some of them chose to seek forgiveness and were exempted from killing, but many others chose to die to apply the Torah. If they had chosen the merciful Prophet, he would have forgiven them, but arrogance took them to their destiny.
    Even the Jews, who went to settle up north with their fellows in Khaybar, did not stop conspiring and stirring enmity against the emerging little Muslim community in Madinah. These actions reached such a degree that we can conclude that, like any criminal, they were a massive threat to the public security of the society and were to be dealt with accordingly.
    Brother Mohsen Haredy, a member of the Ask About Islam team, would like to add the following:
    As for the Prophet's treatment of the Jews in general, there are many examples that show his kindness to them. For example, a young Jewish boy used to serve the Prophet and he became sick, and so the Prophet went to visit him.
    It is reported that a funeral of a Jew passed before the Prophet (peace be upon him). As a sign of respect, the Prophet stood up. The Prophet was asked "Why did you stand up for a Jewish funeral?" The Prophet replied, "Is it not a human soul?" (Al-Bukhari).
    It is reported that the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, had a Jewish neighbor who used to throw garbage in his way, but when the Prophet heard one day that the neighbor was sick he went to visit him. In order to show his nearness to the Jews, the Prophet married Safiyyah bint Huyay, daughter of the chief of the Jewish tribe of Banu An-Nadir. She was captured during the Battle of Khaybar. As an honorable gesture showing the magnanimity of Islam, the Prophet freed and married her.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  2. #22
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    9. The Holy Quran says: "O you who believe! Take not into your intimacy those outside your ranks"

    The Holy Quran says: “O you who believe! Take not as (your) Bitanah (advisors, consultants, protectors, helpers, friends, etc.) those outside your religion (pagans, Jews, Christians, and hypocrites) since they will not fail to do their best to corrupt you. They desire to harm you severely. Hatred has already appeared from their mouths, but what their breasts conceal is far worse. Indeed We have made plain to you the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses) if you understand.”(Surah Al Imran 3:118)
    According to Imam Muhammad Bin Jarir al-Tabari, this verse of the Quran is restricted to the circumstances when certain non-Muslims show their enmity and hatred to the cause of Islam and welfare of Muslims and Islamic state in which they live and their activities point out to some great loss and hardship of Muslims in general. Rashid Raida, the famous Egyptian scholar and the worthy disciple of Sheikh Muhammad Abduh, has also given the same view while explaining this verse. In the early days of Islam those who were enemies of the Muslims and Islam, later became helpers of Muslims in some of their victories like the victory of Spain. The Egyptian Copts helped Muslims against Romans.
    In our times, there are large number of non-Muslims living in Muslim countries and have shown their loyalty and support to the cause of the state and hence are enjoying highest positions in the public services of those states.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  3. #23
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    10. How do we relate to non-Muslim relatives

    The following is an article downloaded from the site Madeenah.com By Shaykh Abdul-Azeez ibn Baaz, Majmoo’Fataawa wa Maqaalat Mutanawi’ah: Volume six
    There are a number of issues that are legislated for Muslims in relation to non-Muslims, from amongst them are:
    Firstly: To call them to Allah by calling them to the religion of Allah and explaining the reality of Islam to them if you are able to and if you have the insight to do that. This is the greatest and most important form of beneficence that a Muslim can provide to his country men and those around him from the Jews, Christians and other polytheists due to the saying of the Prophet:
    “The guide to good [deeds] attains an equal reward to those who act upon that good.” Narrated by Al Imaam Muslim.
    This is also due to his saying, peace and blessings be upon him, to ‘Ali who he sent him to Khaybar and ordered him to call to Islam, he said: “By Allah, if Allah were to guide one man through you, this would be better for you than the best of camels.” Agreed upon its authenticity by Bukhari and Muslim.
    He, peace and blessings be upon him also said: “Whoever calls to guidance will attain an equal amount of reward as those who follow him without their rewards decreasing at all, and whoever calls to misguidance will receive an equal amount of sin as those who follow him without there sins decreasing at all.” Reported by Muslim. Therefore, calling them to the religion of Allah, conveying Islam to them and advising them is from amongst the most important of affairs and from amongst the greatest ways in seeking to get closer to Allah.
    Secondly: It is not permissible for Muslims to transgress upon non-Muslims, not in their person, their wealth or their reputations if they are formal residents in a Muslim country, have a treaty with Muslims or are under Muslim protection, rather they must be given their rights. Muslims must not transgress upon non-Muslims by stealing from, betraying or cheating them in their wealth. Likewise they mustn’t physically transgress upon them by hitting them and so on. Because of the fact that a non-Muslim is a resident, under treaty or protection, secures him from that.
    Thirdly: There is nothing to prevent Muslims from dealing with non-Muslims in relation to buying, selling, renting and so on. It has been authentically narrated that the Messenger of Allah , peace and blessings be upon him bought items from Jews and had similar dealings with them, he , peace and blessings be upon him passed away leaving his breast plate as collateral with a Jew for food that he had bought from him.
    Fourthly: In relation to ‘Salaam’, a Muslim must not initiate it with a non-Muslim due to the saying of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him: “Do not initiate Jews or Christians with ‘Salaam’.” Narrated by Imaam Muslim. He also said: “If the people of the book greet you with ‘Salaam’, then reply by saying: “Wa ‘Alaykum (and upon you as well).” So a Muslim does not initiate the ‘Salaam’ with a non-Muslim, however he should reply by saying: ‘Wa ‘Alaykum’ due to the saying to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him: “If the people of the book greet you with ‘Salaam’ then say: ‘Wa ‘Alaykum’.” (Agreed upon its authenticity by Bukharee and Mulsim.)
    These are some rights related to Muslims and non-Muslims. From amongst them as well is being beneficent to non-Muslim neighbors and not harming them, you should give them charity if they are needy, give them gifts and advice them in what benefits them because this will cause them to be interested in Islam and make them want to enter into it. Neighbors have rights, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him said: “The angel Jibreel continued to instruct me in regards to neighbors until I thought they would be granted the rights of inheritance.” Agreed upon its authenticity.
    If neighbors are non-Muslim, they have the rights of neighborhood. If they are non-Muslim relatives they now have two rights; the rights of neighbors and the rights of relatives. It is permissible for Muslims to give Sadaqah (alms) from other than their Zakaat money to their non-Muslim neighbors and other than them if they are amongst those who are not in a state of war with Muslims. This is due to the saying of Allah: “Allah does not forbid from dealing justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion nor drove you out of your homes. Indeed Allah loves those who deal with equity.” [Al Mumtahanah: 8]
    This is also due to an authentic Hadeeth reported on the authority of Asmaa bint Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with them, that her mother, while she was a polytheist, came to visit her in Madeenah during the treaty of Hudaybiyah because she was in need of help. So Asmaa asked the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and he replied: “Be kind to her.”
    As for Zakaat, there is nothing that prevents Muslims from giving it to those amongst the non-Muslims whom they wish to conciliate with in order to draw them to Islam due to the saying of Allah: “As-Sadaqaat (Zakaat) is only to be given to the needy, the poor, those employed to collect (the funds); and to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (towards Islam)...” [At Taubah: 60]
    As for joining non-Muslims in celebrating their holidays, we here present the fatwa of Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, A Senior Lecturer and an Islamic Scholar at the Islamic Institute of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    The fatwa states: “Muslims are allowed to partake of the feasts and celebrations of non-Muslims so long as they stay away from their specific religious rituals. While remaining steadfast to their beliefs as Muslims, they are allowed to join them in their feasts in order to reciprocate kindness with kindness. By doing so they may even be helping them remove their misconceptions about Islam being a fanatical religion. So go ahead and participate in their feasts, and let them know the true image of Islam.”
    We present too the Fatwa of the European Council for Fatwa and Research, the Question was about Congratulating Non-Muslims on Their Festive Occasions the answer was as follows:
    In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
    All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.Dear brother in Islam, we would like to thank you for the great confidence you place in us, and we implore Allah Almighty to help us serve His cause and render our work for His Sake.
    First of all, we stress that Muslims are commanded to deal justly and kindly with their non-Muslim neighbors or friends. Therefore, there is nothing wrong in exchanging gifts with them. Muslims are allowed to congratulate non-Muslims on their festive days and this becomes more of an obligation if the non-Muslims offer their greetings on Islamic festive occasions. Allah Almighty says: "When you are greeted with a greeting, greet in return with what is better than it, or at least return it equally…" (An-Nisa’ 4: 86)
    However, Muslims are not to celebrate or participate in the religious festivities of non-Muslims, but they can participate in national celebrations and festivities as citizens of those lands while observing Islamic manners and controls in all matters.
    In response to the question you raised, the European Council for Fatwa and Research issued the following fatwa: There can be no doubt as to the importance and the sensitivity of this issue, specially to Muslims residing in the West. The Council has received numerous questions and queries from those who live in these countries and interact with the non-Muslims. Indeed, between the Muslims and the non-Muslims are strong and integral links stipulated and deemed necessary by the means and manner of life itself, such as neighborly relations, friendship at work or study. In fact, a Muslim may actually feel indebted toward a non-Muslim in particular circumstances, such as toward a hardworking and selfless supervisor or lecturer, a sincere and skillful doctor, and others. A famous Arab said that one is enslaved by others’ favors.
    Thus, what is the position of the Muslim to such people who are non-Muslims, who do not actually hold any animosity towards Muslims, do not fight them due to their religion, and did not actively seek to expel Muslims from their homes and lands?
    The Holy Qur'an stipulates regulations as to how relationships between Muslim and non-Muslim are to be governed and carried out in Surat Al-Mumtahinah, which was essentially revealed to address the pagan polytheists. Allah Almighty says: Allah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion and did not drive you out of your homes. Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity. It is only as regards those who fought against you on account of religion, and have driven you out of your homes, and helped to drive you out, that Allah forbids you to befriend them. And whosoever will befriend them, then such are the wrong-doers." (Al-Mumtahinah 60: 8-9)
    Thus the verse stipulates that there is a clear difference between those who fight Muslims and treat them as enemies, and those who interact and deal with Muslims in peace. We are commanded to treat the latter well and in a just and beautiful manner, not merely give them what is duly theirs by right and to take from them what is duly ours. Indeed, the command is to treat them beyond that and to deal with them in beautiful and ideal ways.
    As for the other group — to whom the verse clearly forbids any allegiance or support offered in their favor — they are those who chose to become enemies of Islam and Muslims and worked actively to expel them from their homes and lands for no reason other than that they proclaim that Allah Almighty is their Lord, as did the Quraysh and the infidels of Makkah to the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, and his Companions.
    Al-Bukhari and Muslim both reported on the authority of Asma’ bint Abi Bakr, may Allah be pleased with her, that she came to Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) and said: "O Messenger of Allah! My mother, who is a mushrik (a polytheist), has come to visit me and she desires to be close to me and to give me gifts. Shall I greet her and treat her well?” The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, stated: “Greet your mother and treat her well.”
    This, while the woman was a mushrik, and the Qur’an clearly states that the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) are far closer to Islam and Muslims than mushriks. Indeed, the Qur’an gives allowance to eat from the food of the People of the Scripture and to marry them. Allah Almighty says: ...The food of the People of the Scripture is lawful to you and your is lawful to them, lawful to you in marriage are chaste women from the believers and haste women from those who were given the scripture before your time…" (Al-Ma’idah 5: 5)
    Also, if marriage is permissible with them, then it goes without saying that marriage implicitly and necessarily decrees love and closeness. Allah Almighty states: And amongst His signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy…" (Ar-Rum 30: 21) Indeed, how can a man despise his wife, who is ultimately his partner in life, his spouse, the mother of his children? Almighty Allah says: ...they are body cover for you and you are the same for them…" (Al-Baqarah 2: 187)
    Moreover, an important consequence and result of marriage is the coming together of two families to form blood bonds and relationships, a natural human form of relating to one another. Allah says: "And it is He Who has created man from water, and has appointed for him kindred by blood, and kindred by marriage…" (Al-Furqan 25: 54)
    Also, there are the feelings and affections of maternity, and the clearly stipulated and emphasized rights of a mother upon her children in Islam. One asks in this context: is it an acceptable act according to these stipulations that one does not greet or congratulate his or her non-Muslim mother on a day of festivity that she celebrates? What about relatives from the mother’s side, such as grandparents, uncles, aunts and cousins? All those have rights upon a Muslim clearly stated in the Holy Qur'an, where Allah states: "But kindred by blood are nearer to one another regarding to inheritance in the decree ordained by Allah…" (Al-Anfal 8: 76), and also: "Verily, Allah enjoins justice and perfect mannerisms and giving to kith and kin…" (An-Nahl 16: 91)
    Thus, if maternity and blood relation rights are obligatory upon a Muslim, in a way that exemplifies the beautiful manners of Islam and Muslims, it is also obligatory upon a Muslim to pay the due rights that work towards showing Muslims as people of beautiful character. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, advised Abu Dharr, may Allah be pleased with him, saying: “Be aware of Allah wherever you are, and follow up a sin that you have committed with a good deed, so that sin may be erased, and treat people with beautiful manners.” (Reported by Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi, Ad-Darmi, and Al-Hakim) As is evident, the emphasis is upon “…and treat people with beautiful manners” not “…treat Muslims”.
    The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, also strongly advised us to deal with non-Muslims in a mild and gentle manner, not using stern and terrorizing methods. It was reported that when a group of Jews approached the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and greeted him with twisted pronunciation, and thus uttered “Assam`alaykum, O Muhammad!” (meaning “death and destruction come upon you”) instead of “as-salamu `alaykum”, `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, heard them and responded by saying, ‘assamu `alaykum also and the curse and wrath of Allah!” The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, rebuked `A'ishah for what she had said. She told him, “Did you not hear what they said?” He said, “I did, and I responded by saying, ‘And upon you,’” (i.e., that death will come upon you as it will come upon me.) He went on to say, “O `A'ishah! Allah loves gentleness in all matters.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
    Indeed the permissibility of congratulating non-Muslims on their festive days becomes more of an obligation if they offer their greetings on Islamic festive occasions, as we are commanded to return good treatment with similar treatment, and to return the greeting with a better one or at least with the same greeting. Allah Almighty says: “When you are greeted with a greeting, greet in return with what is better than it, or at least return it equally…” (An-Nisa' 4: 86)
    A Muslim must never be less charitable or pleasant or indeed of lesser manners than any other, as the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) stated in the hadith: “The most perfect believers in terms of their iman are those who possess the most beautiful manners.” (Reported by Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi, Ad-Darmi, and Abu Dawud), and he (peace and blessings be upon him) also stated: “Verily I have been but sent to perfect the most noble of manners.” (Reported by Ahmad, Al-Bukhari in Al-Adab Al-Mufrad and Al-Bazzar in Kashful Astar)
    The significance of this increases dramatically if we are interested in inviting them to Islam and making them like Muslims, which is an obligation upon us all, as this cannot be achieved by treating them roughly, sternly and violently, but rather by beautiful manners and sublime ethics.
    The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, dealt with the polytheists of Quraysh in the most beautiful of ways and manners throughout his life in Makkah despite their animosity, persecution, oppression and extreme insult of him, peace and blessings be upon him, and his companions.
    This was epitomized by the fact that due to the incredible trust they had in him, they deposited their wealth and possessions with him, in fear that they may be lost or stolen. When the Prophet fled Makkah to Madinah, he left behind `Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, whom he commanded to return the deposits and trusts that were with him, peace and blessings be upon him.
    Thus, there is nothing to prevent a Muslim or an Islamic center from congratulating non-Muslims, either verbally or by sending a card that contains no symbols or icons of religious implications that may contradict Islamic faith and principles, such as a cross, for the concept of the crucifixion is totally outlawed and denied by Islam. Allah states in the Holy Qur'an: "...but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but the resemblance of Jesus was put over another man…" (An-Nisa' 4: 156)
    Indeed, one finds in the customary words of congratulations nothing that carries any explicit or implicit recognition of any aspects of their faith or belief, nor any condoning thereof.
    There is also no objection to accepting gifts and presents from them, and to return their gifts in kind, on condition that these gifts are not unlawful in themselves, such as being alcohol or pork. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, accepted the gift of the King of Egypt and several others (See: At-Tahawi's Sharh Mushkil Al-Athar).
    We also wish to mention that some jurists, such as Ibn Taymiyah and his student the great scholar Ibn-ul-Qayyim, adopted stringent measures and restricted the permissibility of this issue and the participation of Muslims in the celebrations of non-Muslims. We adopt this same stance, advising Muslims not to celebrate the festivities of non-Muslims, whether mushriks or People of the Scripture, as we find some ignorant Muslims celebrating Christmas as they would normally celebrate `Eid Al-Fitr and Al-Adha, and maybe even more so. This is unlawful, as we Muslims have our unique festivities. But we see no objection to congratulating others on their festivities if there is some relationship or fellowship link that deems positive social interaction and beautiful exchange a must according to our sublime and noble Islamic Shari`ah.
    As for patriotic or national celebrations and festivities, such as Independence Day, Union Day, Mother’s Day, Childhood Day and the such, there is no objection whatsoever to a Muslim congratulating others in those regards, and indeed to participate therein as a citizen of those lands, while observing Islamic manners and controls in all matters.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    In the era of our noble Prophet, peace and blessings be upon himGod says in The Holy Quran about our Noble Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him: “We have sent you as a mercy for all the worlds.” (Surah 21:107) The tolerance and kindness of our Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, was remarkable and not even his worst enemies could deny it. His life was full of incidents that represent tolerance in its clearest definition.
    To choose some of these incidents as examples is really difficult, however we will mention below some of these examples just as a demonstration of how merciful and tolerant he was.
    His tolerance with Non Muslims in MedinaThe best example of the tolerance shown by the Prophet to other religions may be the constitution itself, called the ‘Saheefah’ by early historians. When the Prophet migrated to Medina, his role as a mere religious leader ended; he was now the political leader of a state, governed by the precepts of Islam, which demanded that clear laws of governance be laid out to ensure harmony and stability in a society which once had been distraught by decades of war, one which must ensure the peaceful coexistence of Muslims, Jews, Christians and polytheists. Due to this, the Prophet laid down a ‘constitution’ which detailed the responsibilities of all parties which resided in Medina, their obligations towards each other, and certain restrictions which were placed on each. All parties were to obey what was mentioned therein, and any breach of its articles was regarded as an act of treachery.
    The first article of the constitution was that all the inhabitants of Medina, the Muslims as well as those who had entered the pact from the Jews, Christian, and idolaters, were “one nation to the exclusion of all others.” People of other faiths were protected from harm as much as the Muslims, as is stated in another article, “To the Jews who follow us belong help and equity. He shall not be harmed nor his enemies be aided.”
    The lives of the practitioners of other religions in the Muslim society were also given protective status. The Prophet said: “Whoever kills a person who has a truce with the Muslims will never smell the fragrance of Paradise.” (Saheeh Muslim) Since the upper hand was with the Muslims, the Prophet strictly warned against any maltreatment of people of other faiths. He said: “Beware! Whoever is cruel and hard on a non-Muslim minority, or curtails their rights, or burdens them with more than they can bear, or takes anything from them against their free will; I (Prophet Muhammad) will complain against the person on the Day of Judgment.” (Abu Dawud) In another article, it states, “the Jews have their religion and the Muslims have theirs.”
    His tolerance with the PolytheistsThe incident of AlTaif
    The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, traveled to the city of Taif, a city located in the mountains nearby to Mecca, in order to invite them to accept Islam. The leaders of Taif, however, were rude and discourteous in their treatment of the Prophet. Not being content with their insolent attitude towards him, they even stirred up some gangs of the town to harass him.
    When people of the village of Ta'if rejected him, stoned him, ejected him, and made his feet to bleed, the angel Gabriel came to him and said, "Allah has heard what your people say to you and how they reject you. He has ordered the angels of the mountains to obey whatever you tell them to do." The angel of the mountains called him, greeted him and said, "Send me to do what you wish. If you wish, I will crush them between the two mountains of Mecca." The Prophet said, "Rather, I hope that Allah will bring forth from their loins those who will worship Allah alone and not associate anything with Him.” (Bukhari and Muslim)
    The conquest of Mecca
    When Prophet Muhammad conquered Mecca, its leaders came to him fearing that he would kill them as all conquerors do. The Prophet said to the Quraish: “O people of Quraish! What do you think I will do to you?
    Hoping for a good response, they said: “You will do good. You are a noble brother, son of a noble brother.”
    But instead, he said," Go! You are all free!"
    He said that merciful to his worst enemies, whom he could easily eradicate from the face of the earth when he conquered Mecca, and who had hated him, rejected his call, displayed insolent arrogance towards his religion, stood and fought against him, killed his beloved Companions, deformed the dead body of his dear martyred uncle, Hamzah, and even eaten his holy liver with incredible wild rancor.
    Forgiving Ikrimah
    Ikrimah was the greatest enemy of Islam. Despite the general amnesty proclaimed by the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, on the day of victory, Ikrimah picked a fight with the Muslims, suffered a defeat and then fled. When Ikrimah’s wife pleaded for his forgiveness, the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, forgave.
    Immediately after forgiveness, when Ikrimah appeared before the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him he said to him arrogantly that ‘if you think that because of your forgiveness I have also become a Muslim, then let it be clear that I have not become a Muslim. If you can forgive me while I remain steadfast on my own faith, then that is fine, otherwise I leave’. The Holy Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, ‘You can, no doubt, remain steadfast on your faith. You are free in every way.’
    Habbar ibn al-Aswad
    Habir ibn al-Aswad was another vicious enemy of Muhammad and Islam. He inflicted a serious injury to Zainab, daughter of the Noble Prophet when she decided to migrate to Medina. She was pregnant when she started her migration, and the polytheists of Mecca tried to stop her from leaving. This particular man, Habbar bin al-Aswad, physically assaulted her and intentionally caused her to fall down from her camel. Her fall had caused her to miscarry her baby, and she herself, was badly hurt. Later on when he decided to come to Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, our merciful and forgiving Prophet magnanimously forgave him.
    His tolerance with the ChristiansThe Najran Delegation

    In the year (631 CE), Prophet Muhammad received a delegation of sixty Christians from Najran in Medinah. They were received in the Prophet’s mosque wearing their crosses. The companions of prophet Muhammad tried to prevent them from praying in the mosque, but the prophet allowed them to pray in the mosque, and they did so facing East.
    He said, "The one who kill a mu'aahid will not smell the smell of the Paradise although its smell can be smelled from a distance of forty years (i.e He will not enter the Paradise nor be close to it)." (Bukhari)
    The Prophet sent a message to the monks of Saint Catherine in Mount Sinai:
    "This is a message written by Muhammad ibn Abdullah, as a covenant to those who adopt Christianity, far and near, we are behind them. Verily, I defend them by myself, the servants, the helpers, and my followers, because Christians are my citizens; and by Allah! I hold out against anything that displeases them. No compulsion is to be on them. Neither are their judges to be changed from their jobs, nor their monks from their monasteries. No one is to destroy a house of their religion, to damage it, or to carry anything from it to the Muslims' houses. Should anyone take any of these, he would spoil God's covenant and disobey His Prophet. Verily, they (Christians) are my allies and have my secure charter against all that they hate. No one is to force them to travel or to oblige them to fight. The Muslims are to fight for them. If a female Christian is married to a Muslim, this is not to take place without her own wish. She is not to be prevented from going to her church to pray. Their churches are to be respected. They are neither to be prevented from repairing them nor the sacredness of their covenants. No one of the nation is to disobey this covenant till the Day of Judgment and the end of the world."
    His tolerance with the JewsWe have previously mentioned lots of examples that clearly demonstrate the tolerance of our Noble Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, with the Jews. The treaty which he made with them on entering Medinah that represented the constitution of the Islamic state there.
    During the life of Prophet Muhammad, the Jews in Madina had a synagogue and an educational institute, Bait-Al-Midras. The Prophet preserved the institute and gave protection to the Jews.
    It is reported that a funeral of a Jew passed before the Prophet (peace be upon him). As a sign of respect, the Prophet stood up. The Prophet was asked "Why did you stand up for a Jewish funeral?" The Prophet replied, "Is it not a human soul?" (Al-Bukhari).
    In his Al-Amwal, Abu Ubai related on the authority of Saiid IbnAl-Mussayeb, that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, gave some charity to Jewish family.Sources

    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    In the era of the four righteous Caliphs, right after the death of our Noble Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him

    During the reign of Ali Ibn Abi Taleb (4th ruler of Islamic state after the prophet), he lost his Shield in a battle and a Jew took it. After knowing that the Jew had it, the Prince of the Believers, as Islamic rulers were called, asked the Jew to give him the shield back. The Jew refused and insisted that this shield belonged to him and not Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, Ali took the case to court.As the Jew and Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, stood before of the judge called Shuraih. The judge said:”Please lay your case O Aba AlHassan (meaning The father of AlHasan, this way of figure of speech in Arabic is called Kunya, that is when you call a man by his son’s name and it is considered a sign of friendship and closeness)”. While he called the Jew with his name (without titles) Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, refused that the judge privileged him by calling him in a way to show friendship and did not do the same thing with the Jew.
    After each one finished stating his case, the judge decided that by the Islamic law and due to lack of proof that the shield belonged to Ali Ibn Abi Taleb, then the Jew owns it.
    The Jew could not believe that Justice would be applied in the Islamic state even against Ali, the Caliph who is at the same time the Prophet’s beloved and trusted cousin. Then the Jew said: “I declare that there is but one God and that Muhammad is His Prophet. O Prince of the believers the shield was yours, I followed your army while you were leaving “Seffeen” and it fell from your camel “ALAwrak””
    Ali said: “You became a Muslim so I give it to you”

    Another famous story is the story of a Copt and Amr Ibn Al-'As, the ruler of Egypt. The ruler's son, proud of his parentage, hit the Copt's son with a whip. The Copt complained to Omar Ibn Al-Khattab, who then summoned Amr and his son to Madinah. Umar gave the whip to the Copt’s son and said, “Now whip this son of noble parents” After he had done so, Umar said, “Now whip the bald head of Amr, because his son beat you on account of his father's authority.” The Copt repaid, “I have already whipped the person who whipped me.” Then 'Umar turned his face to Amr and uttered his everlasting words, “O Amr, since when do you treat as slaves those who were born as free men?”What is most remarkable about this incident is the fact that people ruled by Islamic officials were so aware of their humanity and honor that even a slap was totally inadmissible. On the other hand, in Roman and other times, many similar and even worse injustices went unpunished, for the injured party could at make any protest or complaint. In the Islamic state, however, a citizen could take advantage of his rights and self respect, even if he had to travel from Egypt to Madinah to do so. Such a journey would not be in vain, for he could be sure that his case would be given due consideration and that his complaint would be dealt with justly.

    Caliph Umar Ibn Al-Khattab had appointed Sabi Qaysariyyah in bookkeeping and managing other affairs of Muslims.
    After the conquest of Egypt, Umar Bin Al-As, the eminent companion of our noble Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, had appointed and allowed the Byzantines to remain in their various important posts.
    Caliph Umar Ibn El-Khattab, who was stabbed by a non-Muslim called Abu Lulu, a Zoroastrian and a fire worshipper. The Caliph, on this death bed due to his severe wound, he admonished people around him in respect of the rights of non-Muslims in the following words: “Admonish whoever becomes Caliph after me concerning the fair treatment of non-Mislims. He must fulfill his pledge of protection towards them, and should fight for their rights and should not take more work from them beyond their capacity.”
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    In the era after the righteous Caliphs, may Allah be pleased with them


    During the era of Umar Ibn Abd ElAziz, the Muslim army invaded “Samarkand”. The ruler of “Samarkand” sent a letter to the head of Islamic Judges saying that the Islamic army did not apply the Islamic rule that is: before any invasion they should call the people of the invaded country to either embrace Islam or keep their religion and pay the “Jizyah” or fight the Islamic army. The head of judges sent to the Caliph “Umar Ibn Abd ElAziz” saying that the invasion is wrong according to Islamic jurisprudence since the invaded were not given any options. The Caliph ordered the army leader to retreat to outside “Samarkand” and give the people of “Samarkand” the chance to choose one of the three above options. People of “Samarkand” admired Islamic fairness and consequently most of the people voluntarily embraced Islam.
    The Ummayyad Caliph, Sulaiman bin Abd Al-Malik had appointed a Christian cashier named Al-Bitriq (Patrick) Ibn Al-Naqa while building a large Friday congregational mosque in Al-Ramlah in Palestine.
    During the Moghul period of India and Ottoman Empire, non-Muslims rose to the highest ministerial posts and became trusted consultants of the Muslim Emperors.
    Another example is Imam Al-Awzai's attitude toward an Abbasid ruler who had exiled one of the non-Muslim tribes from Mount Lebanon after some of them had refused to cooperate with the karat collector. The ruler, Salih ibn Ali ibn 'Abdullah Ibn 'Abbas, was a relative of the caliph. Al-Awza'i wrote him a detailed letter in which he stated:
    “How can all of these people be punished and driven from their lands and properties because of some individual transgressors? Allah states (in surah An-Najm 38): "... no bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another. This is the true ordinance to be followed.The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, gave the following advice which is well worth practicing: If any man oppresses a non-Muslim or tries him beyond his strength, I will advocate for the oppressed. (Al-Awza'i further stated) ...They (that is, the dhimmis) are not slaves to be transferred from place to place, but they are free men and ahl adh-dhimma.”

    One of the Umayyad caliphs, Al-Walid ibn Abul Malik, appropriated the Church of Saint John from the local Christians and had it incorporated into the mosque. When Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz became caliph, the Christians complained to him about this matter. Umar wrote to his governor, instructing him to return (the annexed church to the Christians if a suitable agreement concerning compensation could not be reached.
    A Christian monk in Egypt lodged a complaint with the ruler Ahmad Ibn Tulun against one of his military leaders who had illegally taken some money from him. The ruler summoned the leader to his office and after admonishing him, took the money from him and gave it to the monk. Then the ruler told the monk, “If you had claimed more money, I would have got it returned back to you too.” By this act of justice, the ruler opened the doors for any oppressed non-Muslim to regain his rights, even though the accused might be a high ranking military or government official. If the governor or his relatives are the source of the oppression, the imam or the caliph should intervene and stop it.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Sources
    Web sites used as refrences for parts of this study are mentioned in place


    http://www.alsiraj.net/
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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Rights of Non Muslims in Islam

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Rights of Non Muslims in Islam

Rights of Non Muslims in Islam