Rights of Non Muslims in Islam

آخـــر الـــمـــشـــاركــــات

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شبكة الفرقان الإسلامية شبكة سبيل الإسلام شبكة كلمة سواء الدعوية منتديات حراس العقيدة
البشارة الإسلامية منتديات طريق الإيمان منتدى التوحيد مكتبة المهتدون
موقع الشيخ احمد ديدات تليفزيون الحقيقة شبكة برسوميات المرصد الإسلامي لمقاومة التنصير
غرفة الحوار الإسلامي المسيحي مكافح الشبهات شبكة الحقيقة الإسلامية موقع الدعوة الإسلامية
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Rights of Non Muslims in Islam

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Thread: Rights of Non Muslims in Islam

  1. #11
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    Government Services

    Non Muslims have the right to serve in any governmental positions which do not have a direct impact on the religious life of Muslims. For example, non Muslims may not serve as Imams (head of state), head of army, arbiters in inter-Muslim disputes or as Zakah (Islamic tax) collectors.
    The appointment of Judges in the Islamic state must be from among Muslims since an Islamic state is meant to administer justice according to Islamic jurisprudence. Even if a non-Muslim is well versed in the Shariah he cannot be made judge since all decisions will require both his fundamental belief in Islam and his enthusiasm to maintain the spirit of Islam in all his pronouncements. In affairs concerning Jews, Christians or any other religion their co-religionists will be appointed to administer justice according to their personal laws.
    The Imam (Caliph) is responsible for both religious and secular authorities since they are the successors of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. The leader of Muslims is both a temporal and a religious leader. He is the Imam, leading their prayer-service in the mosque and the highest administrator of the Islamic state. This is the reason why the Muslims are required to preserve the post of the Imam and the Caliph exclusively for the co-religionists, since the head of the state must be a Muslim.
    The leadership of the army is not a secular post, for Islam regards Jihad as the greatest act of worship. This also applies to the Islamic Judiciary system, as it is rooted on the Islamic Jurisprudence (shariah). The same is true for the position of Zakat collectors and officials entrusted with other posts of religious nature.
    Non-Muslims living in the Islamic state can be appointed as ambassadors of his country in the foreign land and this was done during the life of our Noble Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. In the second year of Hijra the pagan Arabs of Mecca sent a delegation to Abyssinia to demand the extradition of Meccan Muslims who had migrated to Abyssinia in 618A.D. to escape severe torture in Mecca and seek refugee in Abyssinia's just king Negus, who was a Christian. The envoy sent by our Noble prophet to plead in behalf of the Muslims was Amr Bin Umayyah al-Damri, who belonged to one of the allied tribes in the neighbourhood of Medina.
    As for other administrative services, non-Muslims can be employed without any difficulty. There is no distinction of any ethnic origin, racial identity or linguistic belonging which bring them under one umbrella in a Muslim state. All citizens are equal under the law but the only difference is that the non-Muslim minority does not subscribe to the religious ideology of the Muslim majority of the population as well as the basic principles of the Muslim state. This is the reason why a non-Muslim cannot be expected to become a head of state. This distinction between Muslims and non-Muslims does on no account imply the exclusion of non-Muslim subjects from the political and administrative life of the Islamic state.
    Examples:
    1. During the Abbasid era, Christians undertook the ministry more than once; for example, Nasr ibn Haroun in AH 369 and Eissa ibn Nastorus in AH 380. Mu`awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan had also appointed a Christian clerk named Sarjoun.
    2. Western historian Adam Mitz says in his book Islamic Civilization in the Fourth Hijri Century, “We find it very surprising the abundance of non-Muslim laborers and senior staff within the Muslim state; where Christians governed Muslims in Muslim provinces, and complaints against non-Muslims’ seniority in these provinces dates far back” (part 1, p. 105).
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  2. #12
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    Equality of treatment in Criminal Procedure

    Muslims and non-Muslims are treated as equal before the law. Islamic Jurisprudence lies between the two extremes of an eye for an eye and the turning of the left cheek when the right is slapped. Forgiveness is exercised if it mends the matter and punishment is exercised when necessary. The general rule is: “It is better to acquit through mistake ten guilty persons than to convict an innocent man.” The general rule that applies here is that A non-Muslim, like the Muslim, is believed to be innocent unless proven guilty. We present here a summary of Islamic verdicts regarding two of the most common, serious crimes that any society faces:
    1-Murder
    It is one of the main objectives of Shariah to preserve human soul, and that is why retaliation has been stipulated for those who kill others undeservingly. Death is the verdict for intentional murder in Islam. There is one specialty in the Islamic jurisprudence here which is that the heirs of the murdered may take sufficient indemnity or blood-money and remit the death penalty of the murdered. As for unintentional murder there is no capital punishment only blood wit. If there is doubt in finding the real culprit, blood money may be ordered to be paid from the state. As for non-Muslims, the same rules apply to them.
    The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said:” Their property is like pour property and their blood is like our blood”. The fourth righteous Caliph, Ali Ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him said: “The blood of the Dhimmi is like the blood of a Muslim, his goods and chattels are like those of Muslims”.
    Our Noble Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, ordered the retaliation in the day Khaybar and a Muslim was put to death for killing a non-Muslim. In the time of Umar Ibn abd El-Aziz wrote to one of his governors in the case of a Muslim who had killed a non-Muslim Dhimmi that the killer must be handed over to his guardian. If he wished to kill him, he might, if he wished to forgive him, it was up to him. According to this instruction, he was handed over to his guardian who killed him.
    Our Noble Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “Whosoever killed a Dhimmi, he will not even smell the fragrance of paradise although its fragrance will be smelt from the distance of forty years’ journey”
    2-Theft
    If a Muslim steals the property of a non-Muslim, the hadd punishment will be applicable to him and his hand will be cut off after due process of law.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  3. #13
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    Special prerogative for Non-Muslims in their Personal law

    As regards Personal law however, non Muslims will not be forced to be governed by the Islamic Jurisprudence. All laws for marriage, divorce, inheritance and related matters will not be interfered with by the Muslims. If pork, alcoholic drinks, marriages regardless of consanguinity…etc. is lawful in their religion then they will not be prohibited from them.
    The righteous Caliphs had delegated many temporal judicial powers to Christian priests. During the Abbasid Caliphate, the Christian Patriarch as well as the Jewish Rabi and The Hakham were considered to be the highest dignitaries of the Muslim state and the Caliph used to consult them in the affairs of their respective communities.
    The Jews in Medina had set up their own religious and educational institution called Bait al-Midras during the time of the prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. The Jewish and Christian institutions were left to their communities to manage their affairs during the Umayyid and Abbasid Caliphates. Muslims, Jews, Christians and Magians had conserved their modes of dressing and social customs.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  4. #14
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    More Rights

    Non-Muslims under the Shariah have every right to keep their own languages and customs, to open their own schools and colleges and to be visited by missionaries of their own faith from the Christendom.
    Rights of non-Muslim minor: If a non-Muslim minor is taken as a prisoner of war with his parents, the child still has the right to continue the religion of his fore-fathers, even if his parents die later.
    Muslims are commanded not to abuse or speak ill of the non-Muslim religious leaders or saintly persons. Likewise every Muslim is commanded not to insult other religions.
    If Muslims enter victoriously a town that is inhabited by non-Muslims, they have no right to confiscate their places of worship.
    A Muslim has no right to enter the house of his non-Muslim neighbour without his permission.
    In the lifetime of the Prophet and the righteous Caliphs, non-Muslims were free to visit Muslim countries without and restrictions or requirements (the only exception is Mecca and Medina). They were free to carry on business and even the Prophet himself used to buy from them.
    Non-Muslims are allowed to enter even the holy sanctuary. The proof is when the second righteous Caliph Umar Ibn Elkhattab, may Allah be pleased with him, received Christian complainants even when delivering the Jumaa (Friday) sermon.
    Non-Muslims can seek asylum in Muslim lands and Muslims can get asylum in non-Muslim lands like the earliest Muslims whom the prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, told to go to Abyssinia and seek refuge in the Christian country of Negus.
    All Muslim jurists are unanimous in their opinion that Muslims as well as non-Muslims are to be treated equally in their rights to be looked after from the funds of Bait al-Mal in any Muslim state. The argument was based on several incidents such as:
    1. The messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, gave charity to the families of Jews since it is permitted to them.(Abu ubaid, al-Qasim bin Salam, AlAmwal, cairo,1969, P.804)2. Imam Muhammad, the pupil of Imam Abu Hanifa has reported that our noble prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, sent some property to the people of Mecca to be distributed among the poor during the period of famine. They were idolaters and were engaged in fighting against Muslims. (Al-Sharakhsi, sharh siyar Al-Kibar, vol. 1, P. 144)

    According to Islam, even the dead body and bones of a non-Muslim are to be treated with respect just as in the case of any Muslim. Anyone showing disrespect to a corpse of a non-Muslim is therefore committing a great sin.
    Islamic Shariah gives so much importance to the sanctity of human life and blood, it is understood that the same principle will apply to beating, torturing and injuring of a non-Muslim as well as a Muslim. Even in the case of not paying the Jizyah they should be treated kindly.
    Even among enemies of Islam, actively fighting against Islam, there may be individuals who may be in position to require asylum. Full asylum is to be given to them, and opportunities provided for hearing the word of Allah. If they accept the word, they become Muslims and no further question arises. But if they do not accept Islam they will require double protection:
    (1) from the Islamic forces openly fighting against their people and
    (2) from their own people, as they detached themselves from them.
    Both kinds of protection should be ensured for them and they should be safely escorted by Muslims to a place where they can be safe.
    The right of peaceful assembly and association is granted for both Muslims and non-Muslims alike.
    According to Shariah, no person whether a Muslim or non-Muslim is to be arrested or detained without a valid accusation. Such valid accusation must be made in the presence of the defendant who confronts his accuser in this case, then accusation is made, the defendant has every right to cross examine and ask the accuser to take an oath. According to Imam Khatabi, there are only two kinds of detention in Islam:
    (1) Detention in order of the court, and that is usually when a person has already been sentenced by the court.
    (2) Detention before sentencing during the courts' investigations of a criminal violation.
    Freedom of Expression:
    Non-Muslims living in an Islamic state are entitled to enjoy the same rights of Muslims in expressing their views and opinions in public affairs. They will have freedom to express their views through speeches, protests and questioning. They can criticize the government and its officials, including the head of the state.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  5. #15
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    1. “A Muslim is not killed in lieu of an infidel”…What does that Hadith REALLY mean?

    Allegations
    This hadith is often misinterpreted either by:
    A- Claiming that it permits the Muslim to kill an infidel without being suitably punished as in Islam the one who kills a Muslim intentionally is to be executed. Does the above Hadith discriminates a Muslim from a non Muslim so that if a Muslim kills a non Muslim intentionally he is not to be executed but if he kills a Muslim he is to be executed…?
    B- Claiming that it contradicts with another Hadith that says: “He who kills a muahid (a term used for Dhimmis and for pagans who had entered in a treaty with the Muslims to end a state of war) will never smell the fragrance of paradise, the fragrance of which can be smelled from a distance of 40 years travel”.
    Answer
    Islam is the religion of justice where all kinds of discriminations are refused. Non Muslims and Muslims have equal rights in the Islamic society. As for the Hadith above it is by the consensus of all Islamic scholars that killing a non Muslim is a great sin. The hadith “A Muslim is not killed in lieu of an infidel” actually refers to a non Muslim who fights against Muslims in the battlefield.
    Imams Malik and Al-Laith said: “A Muslim who intentionally kills a non Muslim for no reason will be put to death. If his action is justified, he shall not be killed”. This is according to Ibn Uthman’s verdict, who was one of the eminent scholars and the governor of Madinah, He sentenced to death a Muslim who killed a Copt.
    The fourth of the righteous Caliphs, Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib who, after hearing witnesses testimonies, ordered that a Muslim who had killed a non Muslim be put to death. The deceased’s brother came and said, “I have forgiven him”
    Ali said: “Perhaps they have threatened or frightened you”
    He said: “Not at all, but his death cannot restore my brother’s life. They hav compensated me, and now I’m satisfied”
    Ali said: “You know better. The blood of the person who is in our covenant is like ours and his blood compensation (diyah) is like ours”
    (Related by Altabarani and Al-Baihaqi, as-Sunan Alkobra. Volume III).
    Imam Ali Ibn Abu Talib said, “They pay Capitation tax so that their blood and wealth become like our blood and wealth immune from all harm”
    The Islamic caliphs Umar Ibn Abd Elaziz, once wrote to a governor concerning a Muslim who had killed a non-Muslim, telling them to hand the Muslim over to the legal heir of the slain person and give him the authority either to forgive the Muslim or to kill him. The heir later chose to behead the Muslim.
    Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, a senior lecturer and an Islamic scholar at the Islamic Institute of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, states:
    “Islam is indeed a religion of love and peace. Islam does not teach people to kill all those who disagree with them simply because they disagree with them. If certain bigoted Muslims did so that is not the fault of Islam. How unjust would it be to say that Christianity is a religion that teaches violence and blood shed by looking at the historical performance of some so-called Christians: After all, Hitler who committed genocide against the Jews, the white supremacists in South America who practiced barbarities against the blacks, the Serbs who committed genocide against the Muslims in Bosnia, those who systematically practiced mass slaughter of Muslims and Jews in Spain, and burned heretics, etc. all claimed to be Christians. What about the Christians still killing each other in Ireland? So why use double standards in judging Islam? Stereotyping is wrong regardless of against whom we use it.
    Vast majority of Muslims have nothing to do with such violence or bloodshed that may or may not have been committed by those who claim to be Muslims. According to the strict verdict of the Qur’an, taking life of a single human being unjustly is akin to taking the life of all humanity. A good Muslim, therefore, is one who believes in sanctity of all life. The Prophet, peace be upon him, taught us that if a person were to kill even a single little sparrow, it would appear before the Lord of the worlds seeking God’s justice against the person!”
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  6. #16
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    Are Non Muslims REALLY not allowed to hold high ranks in an Islamic state..?

    As we stated before the general rule in Islamic jurisprudence is that: “Non Muslims have the right to serve in any governmental positions which do not have a direct impact on the religious life of Muslims. For example, non Muslims may not serve as Imams (head of state), head of army, arbiters in inter-Muslim disputes or as Zakah (Islamic tax) collectors.”
    The Imam (Caliph) is responsible for both religious and secular authorities since they are the successors of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. The leadership of the army is not a secular post, for Islam regards Jihad as the greatest act of worship. This also applies to the Islamic Judiciary system, as it is rooted on the Islamic Jurisprudence (shariah). The same is true for the position of zakah collectors and officials entrusted with other posts of religious nature. Other than the above, non Muslims are allowed to hold any position. Real-life examples of non-Muslims holding high positions in the Islamic state are so vast.
    Examples:

    The first Umayyid Caliph, Muawyah Ibn Abu Suffian had a Christian named Sarjun as the head office clerk.

    Nasr ibn harun in 369 AH and Isa Ibn Nasturis in 380 AH occupied the post of executive minister in the Abbasid dynasty.

    In the era of Haroun ElRasheed, All schools were under the supervision of Hanna Masnia

    Caliph AlMansour’s doctor was Ibn Bakhtishu
    Non Muslims testimony:

    Western historian Adam Mitz says in his book Islamic Civilization in the Fourth Hijri Century, “We find it very surprising the abundance of non-Muslim laborers and senior staff within the Muslim state; where Christians governed Muslims in Muslim provinces, and complaints against non-Muslims’ seniority in these provinces dates far back” (part 1, p. 105).
    Adam Mitz writes: “The Islamic Shariah did not deny the non Muslims any opportunity to work. They were engaged in lucrative professions; they were money exchangers, traders, jewelers and businessmen, physicians and landlords. They organized themselves in lucrative manner. For example, most of the physicians, clerks and scribes were Christians. Whereas most of the dealers in currency and jewelry in Syria were Jews. The Christian leader in Baghdad was the physician of the caliph; the Jews leaders and businessmen were employees of the caliph”
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  7. #17
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    4. Non Muslims had to pay AlJizyah and AlKharaj… Is that REALLY unfair?

    What is the Jizyah:
    The word itself comes from the Arabic root jaza which means compensation. According to the famous Islamic Scholar Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qardawi in his book “Non Muslims in the Islamic society” he said: “They are small per capita annual obligations levied on adults who can financially afford it.”
    What is the Kharaj:
    It is a property tax levied on the land owned by non-Muslims.
    Who pays the Jizyah:
    Jizyah is to be paid by non-Muslim healthy adult males only. It is accepted from all non-Muslims whether they are Christians, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists…etc.
    Who levied the Jizyah:
    The Jizyah was levied based on the Quranic verses like:
    “Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyahwith willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.” (AlTawba:29)
    How much is the Jizyah:
    It has no fixed limit and is left for the discretion of the Imam to decide how much each one should pay.
    The Kharaj too is decided by the Imam. He should fix a ration of the land’s yield, such as one third or one fourth, or to fix a specific quantity in weight or measure according to its agricultural yield
    The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, when he sent his deputy to Yemen he told him to take one dinar from every adult.
    Umar Ibn ElKhattab fixed it at 48 dirhams for the wealthy, 24 dirhams for the middle class and 12 dirhams for craftsmen and manual laborers.
    Caliph Uthman, the third of the righteous Caliph’s, may Allah be pleased with them fixed it equivalent to one shilling (12p) per month for the rich, 6p for the middle class and 3p for the ordinary people.
    Imam Al-Shafii suggests one Dinar per year (about 40p sterling) but adds that it would differ according to the time of ease or difficulty and the capacity of those whom it is imposed. (Al-Shaffi, Al-Umm, vol. 4 p.122)
    Can anyone be exempted from the Jizyah:
    Jizyah is levied only on males capable of performing military services. Any one who is not fit for military services is exempted from it. Consequently the following are exempted from paying Jizyah:
    Women
    Minors
    The aged people
    Those who were out of work or were chronically sick or crippled.
    Lunatics
    Monks
    Any disabled person whether he has mental or physical disability.
    Financially incapable persons
    If a non-Muslim rendered an important service to the country, he is exempted from paying the Jizyah for the life time. During the caliphate of Umar Ibn El-Khattab, the second righteous caliph, may Allah be pleased with him, a non-Muslim Egyptian laid before the Islamic government the project of cleaning and re-digging the ancient canal named, Nahr Amir al-Muminin, from Cairo down to the red sea which would facilitate the transportation of food stuff from Egypt to Medina, the capital. Umar, may Allah be leased with him, exempted the man from paying the Jizyah throughout his life.
    Why must male adult non Muslims pay the Jizyah:
    The reasons behind the Jizyah are:
    1- It is a financial substitute for military service and it is levied only on every non Muslim fit for combat. A non-Muslim is never asked to fight with the Islamic army against his will so he pays the Jizyah as a compensation for not performing the military service. It is also a contribution to the expenses of the state defense and protection similar to the now called defense tax.
    The clearest incidence in history to prove this was when Abu Ubaidah, May Allah be pleased with him, knew that the Romans were gathering troops to regain Syria from the Muslims, he returned the Jizyah money and announced that: “We have returned your money back to you because we have been informed of the gathering of enemy troops. You people, according to the conditions stipulated in the contract, have obliged us to protect you. Since we are now unable to fulfill these conditions, we are returning your money to you. We will abide by the conditions as agreed upon if we overcome the enemy.” (Related by Abu Yusufin Al-Kharaj)
    2- A payment in return for the public services in the state (like today’s tax that we pay the government but only much less than what we pay now…) in which the non Muslim is living like courts, roads...etc. Muslims too contribute in these public services by their paying of Zakat and other alms that are obligatory on the Muslim.
    3- Jizyah, from this point of view, is not only a symbol of loyalty but it is also a contributory compensation for exemption from military, and that is why it is imposed only on males capable of military service.
    What if a non Muslim is ready to join the Islamic Army? The obligation of paying the Jizyah is cancelled if the non Muslim joins the Islamic army and participates with the Muslims in defending the Islamic state.
    This verdict was applied more than once in the Islamic history one example is the treaty between Muslims and the Christians of Jarjima where it was stated that they would support Muslims against their enemies and they would not have to pay the Jizyah.
    Rules of Collecting the Jizyah in Islam:
    It was collected once every lunar year.
    It can be paid in cash or in goods except carrion and swine.
    It must be collected as easy as possible
    1. Umar Ibn Elkhattab told his Jizyah collectors: "Accept whatever is possible from those who are unable to pay the jizyah and help those who have become incapable , since we don’t want it from them for a year or two.”
    2. The Islamic state, as reported by Abu Ubaid, would often postpone the Jizyah collection until the harvesting season so that non Muslims would be able to pay it without being inconvenienced in any way.
    3. The fourth of the righteous Caliphs, Ali Ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, wrote to the collectors of the Kharaj: “When you come to them, do not sell their garments preserved for winter or summer, or the food they eat, or the animals they need. Don’t whip any of them for a Dirham, and do not oblige them to stand on one leg for a dirham. Do not sell any of their household goods for the payment of Kharaj, because we accept from them what they have. If you do not comply with my orders, Allah will punish you in my absence. And if I receive any complaint against you in this concern, your service will be terminated.”
    Jizyah Today
    Is the imposition of Jizyah tax obligatory on the part of Muslim rulers over the non-Muslim subjects in the modern times? The answer is that it will depend squarely on the circumstances of the country concerned.
    If the oil-rich Muslim countries like Saudi Arabia can do away with a number of taxes which are payable by the citizens in other countries that may as well exempt the Jizyah. I don’t think there is any Islamic country now that collects the Jizyah from non-Muslims. It is an irony, however, that critics of the Islamic Shariah still dwell upon the Jizyah which they consider as a discrimination against non-Muslims.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    5. Apart from the Jizyah and Kharaj, Are there any other obligations on non Muslims living in the Islamic state…?

    Yes there are...
    Both Muslims and non Muslims in the Islamic state are obliged to abide by the Islamic constitution since they are members of the Islamic state. This should not deprive them of their religious freedom which means: They are not required to fulfill any Islamic religious duties such as the Zakat (alms) or the Jihad (fighting).
    They are not obliged, either in their personal or social affairs, to abstain from anything which is lawful in their religion even if it is not lawful in Islam such as consuming pork and wine.
    Non Muslims Personal and social affairs are dealt with in their traditional courts or in the Islamic courts according to THEIR choise. The Holy Quran states:
    “So if they come to you (O Muhammad), either judge between them, or turn away from them. If you turn away from them, they cannot hurt you in the least. And if you judge, judge with justice between them. Verily, Allah loves those who act justly.” (AlMaidah: 42)
    This case has been applied throughout the Islamic history so clearly that no one dares denying it. Adam Mitz says: “Since the Islamic Shariah was intended for Muslims, the Islamic state let non-Muslims settle their disputes in their own courts. Bounded by the Shariah, the Islamic court did not interfere with the jurisdiction of these courts which adjudicated upon matrimony, succession and related issues among the Christians.”
    This way of dealing with non Muslims disputes is still applied till now in Egypt where disputes concerning marriage and divorce among Egyptian Christians are settled by the Egyptian church, not the Egyptian courts, according to Christian rules.
    Non Muslims however should abide by the Islamic constitution in cases of murder, wealth, honor, civil and criminal affairs, selling and so on just like the Muslims. In this case they have the same rights that Muslims have and the same obligation as on Muslims. Thus if a non-Muslim is found guilty of a certain charge, he would be punished exactly as a Muslim would if accused of the same charge for the non Muslim is supposed to abide to the Islamic constitution in matters which do not contradict with religion.
    Non Muslims should live with the Muslims in a state of mutual respect to ensure peaceful co-existence in the Islamic state. Based on this rule both Muslims and non Muslims are not allowed to publicly abuse the others religious beliefs. Non Muslims are not allowed to openly indulge in the consumption of wine, pork or other items prohibited in Islam and they are not allowed to sell those prohibited items to Muslims (they can sell it to other non Muslims).
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    6. Are there REALLY Quranic verses that orders Muslims to kill non-Muslims…?

    Intentional Misinterpretation of Quranic verses and removing them from their original context has been an old trick that some may use to try to give the impression that Islam is a religion for war and that it always the killing of non Muslim. They depend here on the ignorance of those superficial readers who believe them and rely on the idea that if you can fill someone with hatred towards something then he will not be ready to hear the other point of view that can clarify the truth and hence destroy these allegations…
    This is not the case for the reader who is seeking the truth and is open minded enough to listen to different points of view then form his own opinion which will then be based on a solid foundation.
    I have read on the Internet some fanatics who chose some Quranic verses and claimed that they are calls for violence and killing of non Muslim…Let’s read some of these verses:
    First: Surah2:191-193
    “And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing. And fight not with them at Al-Masjid-al-Haram (the sanctuary at Makkah), unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers. But if they cease, then Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allah) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allah (Alone). But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against Az-Zalimun (the polytheists, and wrong-doers, etc.)” (Surah2:191-193)First let’s put the verse in its original context, the Holy Quran says: “And fight in the Way of Allah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors." [This Verse is the first one that was revealed in connection with Jihad, but it was supplemented by another (V.9:36)].
    "And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing. And fight not with them at Al-Masjid-al-Haram (the sanctuary at Makkah), unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers. But if they cease, then Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allah) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allah (Alone). But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against Az-Zalimun (the polytheists, and wrong-doers, etc.) The sacred month is for the sacred month, and for the prohibited things, there is the Law of Equality (Qisas). Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him. And fear Allah, and know that Allah is with Al-Muttaqun (the pious)" - (V.2:2).
    "And spend in the Cause of Allah (i.e. Jihad of all kinds, etc.) and do not throw yourselves into destruction (by not spending your wealth in the Cause of Allah), and do good. Truly, Allah loves Al-Muhsinun (the good-doers).” (2:190-195)
    The verse clearly states to fight those who fight you, yet do not transgress limits. In so sense therefore does it promote killing of innocent but allows self-defense. It further goes on to state "And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice" and "if they cease, let there be no hostility except to those who practice oppression". Hence, once again when the whole context is examined the verses do not promote killing of innocent in anyway.

    Second Surah9:5:
    “Then when the Sacred Months (the Ist, 7th, 11th, and 12th months of the Islamic calendar) have passed, then kill the Mushrikun (see V.2:105) wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and prepare for them each and every ambush. But if they repent and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat, then leave their way free. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Surah9:5)First let’s put the verse in its original context, the Holy Quran says:
    “Freedom from (all) obligations (is declared) from Allah and His Messenger to those of the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah), with whom you made a treaty. So travel freely (O Mushrikun - see V.2:105) for four months (as you will) throughout the land, but know that you cannot escape (from the Punishment of) Allah, and Allah will disgrace the disbelievers. And a declaration from Allah and His Messenger to mankind on the greatest day (the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah - the 12th month of Islamic calendar) that Allah is free from (all) obligations to the Mushrikun (see V.2:105) and so is His Messenger. So if you (Mushrikun) repent, it is better for you, but if you turn away, then know that you cannot escape (from the Punishment of) Allah. And give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful torment to those who disbelieve. Except those of the Mushrikun with whom you have a treaty, and who have not subsequently failed you in aught, nor have supported anyone against you. So fulfill their treaty to them to the end of their term. Surely Allah loves Al- Mattaqun (the pious - see V.2:2). Then when the Sacred Months (the Ist, 7th, 11th, and 12th months of the Islamic calendar) have passed, then kill the Mushrikun (see V.2:105) wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and prepare for them each and every ambush. But if they repent and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat, then leave their way free. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And if anyone of the Mushrikun (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah) seeks your protection then grant him protection, so that he may hear the Word of Allah (the Qur'an), and then escort him to where he can be secure, that is because they are men who know not.” (Surah9:1-6)
    These verses were revealed during a historical period when the small Muslim community had entered into treaties with neighboring tribes (Jewish, Christian, and pagan). Several of the pagan tribes had violated the terms of their treaty, secretly aiding an enemy attack against the Muslim community. These verses instruct the Muslims to continue to honor treaties with anyone who has not since betrayed them, because fulfilling agreements is considered a righteous action. Then the verses continue, that those who have violated the terms of the treaty have declared war, so fight them... (as quoted above).
    In the verse (9:6) Quran does not only say that you release those who seek protection but it goes even further and states to protect them! In the present international scenario, even a kind, peace-loving army General, during a battle, may let the enemy soldiers go free, if they want peace. But which army General will ever tell his soldiers, that if the enemy soldiers want peace during a battle, don’t just let them go free, but also escort them to a place of security?

    Third Surah 4:89:
    “They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected (Faith), and thus that you all become equal (like one another). So take not Auliya' (protectors or friends) from them, till they emigrate in the Way of Allah (to Muhammad). But if they turn back (from Islam), take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Auliya' (protectors or friends) nor helpers from them.”Once again the context is ignored; they don’t quote previous and next verses.
    “They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected (Faith), and thus that you all become equal (like one another). So take not Auliya' (protectors or friends) from them, till they emigrate in the Way of Allah (to Muhammad). But if they turn back (from Islam), take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Auliya' (protectors or friends) nor helpers from them. Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with their breasts restraining from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, then Allah has opened no way for you against them. You will find others that wish to have security from you and security from their people. Every time they are sent back to temptation, they yield thereto. If they withdraw not from you, nor offer you peace, nor restrain their hands, take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them. In their case, We have provided you with a clear warrant against them.”(Surah4:89-91)
    Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi says with regards to this verse:
    "Now tell me honestly, do these verses give a free permission to kill any one anywhere? These verses were revealed by God to Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), at the time when Muslims were attacked by the non-Muslims of Makkah on a regular basis. They were frightening the Muslim community of Madinah. One may say using the contemporary jargon that there were constant terrorist attacks on Madinah and in this situation Muslims were given permission to fight back the "terrorist". These verses are not permission for "terrorism" but they are a warning against the "terrorists." But even in these warnings you can see how much restraint and care is emphasized."
    Therefore, it is clear that the verse only allows self-defense against those who "withdraw not from you nor give you (guarantees) of peace besides restraining their hands". Naturally, it would be necessary for the enemies to withdraw and make peace in order to achieve peace. Verse is not referring to "those who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you as well as fighting their own people".
    In "…withdraw not from you nor give you (guarantees) of peace besides restraining their hands", it is obviously necessary to give guarantees of peace or form a treaty in addition to stop fighting. Otherwise, anyone can pretend to be "restraining their hands" when they are weak, and when they are strong again they come back and attack again. Thus to make it official Quran says to give you (guarantees) of peace, and not act as two-faced.

    Fourth Surah 4:76:
    “Those who believe, fight in the Cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of Taghut (Satan, etc.). So fight you against the friends of Shaitan (Satan); Ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaitan (Satan).” (Surah4:76)Again the context is ignored; Put it in its context and let’s read again. “Let those (believers) who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter fight in the Cause of Allah, and whoso fights in the Cause of Allah, and is killed or gets victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward. And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the Cause of Allah, and for those weak, ill*treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help." Those who believe, fight in the Cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of Taghut (Satan, etc.). So fight you against the friends of Shaitan (Satan); Ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaitan (Satan).” (Surah4:74-76)
    Verse 4:76 is specific to those who have been oppressed. In order to help those who cannot help themselves is indeed a great deed and to shun away tyranny and help those who are weak and oppressed. Islam-critics seek to present a view of violence and hate on behalf of Quran, however, when the verse is examined carefully in a correct context, their deceit is clearly exposed.

    Fifth Surah 5:51:
    “you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as Auliya' (friends, protectors, helpers, etc.), they are but Auliya' to one another. And if any amongst you takes them as Auliya', then surely he is one of them. Verily, Allah guides not those people who are the Zalimun (polytheists and wrongdoers and unjust).” (Surah5:51)A similar meaning is in the verse:
    “Let not the believers take the disbelievers as Auliya (supporters, helpers, etc.) instead of the believers, and whoever does that will never be helped by Allah in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allah warns you against Himself (His Punishment), and to Allah is the final return.” (Surah3:28)
    The Arabic word Auliya used in 5:51 is often mistranslated by some major translators as “friends”. More accurate translation of the word Auliya would be "Protector", "allies" or "intimate friends". In addition, according to Ectaco Online Dictionary (http://www-old.ectaco.com), root word of Awliya (walii) means PROTECTOR. Allah says that Allah alone is the Wali (in a sense of a protector). Other verses carry the same meaning like:
    1. “The likeness of those who take Auliyâ' (protectors and helpers) other than Allâh is as the likeness of a spider, who builds (for itself) a house, but verily, the frailest (weakest) of houses is the spider's house; if they but knew.” (Surah 29:41)
    2. “Or have they taken (for worship) Auliyâ' (guardians, supporters, helpers, protectors, etc.) besides Him? But Allâh, He Alone is the Walî (Protector, etc.). And it is He Who gives life to the dead, and He is Able to do all things.” (Surah 42:9) 3. “They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected (Faith), and thus that you all become equal (like one another). So take not Auliya' (protectors) from them, till they emigrate in the Way of Allah (to Muhammad). But if they turn back (from Islam), take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Auliya' (protectors or friends) nor helpers from them.” (Surah4:64)
    The word Auliya is also used as a substitution for God/Lord:
    1. “Say (O Muhammad): "Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth?" Say: "(It is) Allâh." Say: "Have you then taken (for worship) Auliyâ' (protectors, etc.) other than Him, such as have no power either for benefit or for harm to themselves?" Say: "Is the blind equal to the one who sees? Or darkness equal to light? Or do they assign to Allâh partners who created the like of His creation, so that the creation (which they made and His creation) seemed alike to them." Say: "Allâh is the Creator of all things; He is the One, the Irresistible." (Surah 13:16)
    2. “Do then those who disbelieve think that they can take My slaves [i.e., the angels, Allâh's Messengers, 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), etc.] as Auliyâ' (lords, gods, protectors, etc.) besides Me? Verily, We have prepared Hell as an entertainment for the disbelievers (in the Oneness of Allâh Islamic Monotheism).” (Surah 18:102)
    As it is clear once a verse is placed in its original context one can understand the rule, when and why it is applied. Lots of similar verses are found in the Holy Quran which always relate to a specific incidence or a certain case and to understand it correctly you have to read it in its original context (i.e. verses before and after it) and also know when and why was that verse revealed to be able to have a complete picture and only then you can judge…
    For further readings on the subject please visit (where the answers above were taken) The so-called Violent Verses in the Quran
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    7. Is it forbidden for Non Muslims to enter military service


    No it is not. They can join the army to defend their country and if they do so they are exempted from paying the Jizyah. History reported many similar cases where non Muslims joined the Islamic army to defend the Islamic state they live in. We have mentioned previously some of these examples. It was reported that the Islamic army led by Salah Eldin to defend Jerusalem against the crusades had many Christian soldiers in it who were actually defending their country against European occupation.
    According to Shariah, it is not essential for any non-Muslim to render military service in an Islamic state because Jihad (military service) is only an obligatory religious duty compulsory only on Muslims.
    In lieu of the military service, the non-Muslims will have to pay the Jizyah for their protection by the Islamic state but Muslim jurists have not stopped the non-Muslims from taking part in fighting voluntarily along with the Muslims in the interest of their state provided the authorities are convinced that they would not betray them in the battle field while fighting against their co-religionists if they happened to be the enemy. If they fight with Muslims they will not have to pay the Jizyah tax.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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Rights of Non Muslims in Islam

Rights of Non Muslims in Islam