WOMAN, BEFORE & AFTER THE ADVENT OF ISLAM

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شبكة الفرقان الإسلامية شبكة سبيل الإسلام شبكة كلمة سواء الدعوية منتديات حراس العقيدة
البشارة الإسلامية منتديات طريق الإيمان منتدى التوحيد مكتبة المهتدون
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غرفة الحوار الإسلامي المسيحي مكافح الشبهات شبكة الحقيقة الإسلامية موقع الدعوة الإسلامية
شبكة البهائية فى الميزان شبكة الأحمدية فى الميزان مركز براهين شبكة ضد الإلحاد

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WOMAN, BEFORE & AFTER THE ADVENT OF ISLAM

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    Default WOMAN, BEFORE & AFTER THE ADVENT OF ISLAM




    Woman, Before & After The Advent of Islam
    As a matter of fact, it's a commonly held belief that Islam oppresses women, treats them unjustly and deprives them of their rights. Yet, In order to provide a fair evaluation of women status in Islam and of what Islam contributed (or failed to contribute) toward the restoration of woman's dignity and rights, it may be useful to review briefly how women were treated before the advent of Islam.
    Before the advent of Islam, the status of woman was miserable; women suffered great injustices in the pagan Arab society and were exposed to diverse kinds of humiliation. They were treated like material property to be disposed of at the whim of the male guardian. They were not entitled to inherit from their parents or husbands and what's more they were themselves inherited like any moveable commodity. As a general practice, men had the freedom to acquire as many wives as they desired with no set limits. There was no system of law and justice that would forbid a man from committing any injustice towards his wives. Women had no right to choose, or even consent to being chosen as a partner for marriage; they were simply given away. Women were forbidden to remarry if a husband divorced them. It was the idea of treating daughters as sources of shame that led the pagan Arabs to practice female infanticide. Women were not even able to practice some of the most natural of rights. For instance eating certain types of foods was allowed only for males.
    Women in the Pre-Islamic era lived in servility and misery. They had no rights whatsoever until the advent of Islam, which liberated them and delivered them from the injustice which they had suffered for a long time. This situation of women in the Arab society led Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Caliph of the Muslims (may Allah exalt their mention) to say, as reported by Muslim:
    "By Allah, we didn't use to think that women had anything until Allah revealed about them what He revealed in the Qur'an, and distributed to them what He distributed..."
    It is interesting to note that the rights granted to women by Islam more than fourteen hundred years ago are the very same rights granted to women by the United Nations in the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights. Islam elevated the status of women and granted them all the rights of which they had hitherto been deprived and granted them the rights accorded to men.
    Moreover, Islam proved Eve’s innocence of tempting Adam to disobey God’s Command, and being the cause of banishment from Paradise. Islam also refutes the myth that Eve was the origin of evil in the world, stating that it was Satan who tempted both Adam and Eve. The story is found in several places in the Quran, for example in (Quran19:23).
    In fact , Islam grants women a status never known before. Islam deals with women in a comprehensive way in the context of her relationship with God (Allah), her Creator and Lord, with herself as a part of humanity, and with man, her partner and natural spouse in the family. It has honored women greatly; as daughters, mothers and wives. Moreover it gives those rights and virtues, and enjoins good treatment in ways that are not shared by men in many cases. .Islam entitles women to the same rights as men in terms of ; education , humanity , social responsibilities , independent property , working , Equality of reward for equal deeds , advocate opinion to be heard , voting , marriage in terms of choice , getting sexual satisfaction from marriage , divorce and , re-marring after divorce , and so on . In Islam, men and women are different from each other and each has their respective roles. Honoring and respecting women in Islam is a sign of a good, wholesome character and an unadulterated nature.
    If we now turn our attention to what the Quran has to say about women, we will soon realize how Islam appreciates women and put them on equal footing with men. Let the Quran speak for itself:
    "For Muslim men and women, for believing men and women, for devout men and women, for true men and women, for men and women who are patient, for men and women who humble themselves, for men and women who give in charity, for men and women who fast, for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in Allah's praise-- For them all has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward" (33:35).
    "Whoever works righteousness, man or woman, and has faith, verily to him/her we will give a new life that is good and pure, and we will bestow on such their reward according to the best of their actions" (16:97).
    It is clear that the Quranic view of women is no different than that of men. They, both, are God's creatures whose sublime goal on earth is to worship their Lord, do righteous deeds, and avoid evil and they, both, will be assessed accordingly. The Quran never mentions that the woman is the devil's gateway or that she is a deceiver by nature. The Quran, also, never mentions that man is God's image; all men and all women are his creatures, that is all. According to the Quran, a woman's role on earth is not limited only to childbirth. She is required to do as many good deeds as any other man is required to do. The Quran never says that no upright women have ever existed. To the contrary, the Quran has instructed all the believers, women as well as men, to follow the example of those ideal women such as the Virgin Mary and the Pharoah's wife:
    "And Allah sets forth, As an example to those who believe, the wife of Pharaoh: Behold she said: 'O my lord build for me, in nearness to you, a mansion in the Garden, and save me from Pharaoh and his doings and save me from those who do wrong.' And Mary the daughter of Imran who guarded her chastity and We breathed into her body of Our spirit; and she testified to the truth of the words of her Lord and of His revelations and was one of the devout" (66:11-13).
    It's worth mentioning that the Prophet ( Peace be upon him ) ,in his last sermon in the Farewell Pilgrimage, said :" “O People! it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with anyone of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste."
    To sum up, Muslim women enjoy rights never granted to them before. Such rights highlight the difference between Muslim and Western Women. This is crystal clear in this video:
    Bibliography :
    Websites :
    * http://www.islam4theworld.net/eBooks...Fact/index.htm
    * http://womeninislam.ws/en/status-of-women.aspx
    * http://www.cyberistan.org/islamic/sermon.html
    Books :
    * The Status of Women in Islam
    By Jamal A. Badawi
    * Women in Islam
    By Muhammad Zafrulla Khan
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Upbringing and education
    Islam cherishes women since their birth and throughout their lives. It was the idea of treating daughters as sources of shame that led the pagan Arabs, before the advent of Islam, to practice female infanticide. The Quran severely condemned this heinous practice:
    "And when the news of (the birth of) a female (child) is brought to any of them, his face becomes dark, and he is filled with inward grief! (58) He hides himself from the people because of the evil of that whereof he has been informed. Shall he keep her with dishonour or bury her in the earth[]? Certainly, evil is their decision. "(16:58-59).It has to be mentioned that this sinister crime would have never stopped in Arabia were it not for the power of the scathing terms the Quran used to condemn this practice (16:59,43:17, 81:8-9).
    The Quran, moreover, makes no distinction between boys and girls. The Quran considers the birth of a female as a gift and a blessing from God, the same as the birth of a male. The Quran even mentions the gift of the female birth first: " To Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. He creates what He wills. He bestows female children to whomever He wills and bestows male children to whomever He wills" (42:49).
    In order to wipe out all the traces of female infanticide in the nascent Muslim society, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) promised those who were blessed with daughters of a great reward if they would bring them up kindly:"He who is involved in bringing up daughters, and accords benevolent treatment towards them, they will be protection for him against Hell-Fire" (Bukhari and Muslim).Islam does not only consider women equal to men in many respects but also urges treating them better than men; the Prophet ( peace be upon him) said "Observe equality in gifting your children. Were I to give priority (on this respect), I would prefer females (i.e daughters ) .Islam also promises great reward for those who treat daughters kindly; Aishah, the Prophet's wife and the mother of the believers (may Allah exalt their mention) said: A poor woman came to my door carrying two little girls. I offered them three dates (i.e. since I had nothing else). She gave each of her two girls a date, and lifted the third one to her mouth to eat. Both her daughters urged her to feed them more, so she split the last date into two pieces and gave one half to each of her two daughters. I admired what the woman had done and told the story to the Prophet of Allah (Peace be upon Him) who said upon hearing it:"Verily Allah obligated paradise for her due to this act of hers" or "liberated her from the Hellfire due to this act of hers." [Muslim #2630] . In another authentic narration he said at the end: "Whoever is tested by trials in caring for these daughters, they will be a cover for him from Hellfire." [Bukhari #1352 & Muslim #2629 ]
    Islam calls for material and emotional justice and fair treatment from both parents to their children, regardless of their sexes. A male child is not to be given special preference over a female child, or vice versa. The Prophet of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said to one of his companions who had given a present to only one of his children:"Did you give all your children like this?" He said: "No." He said: "Fear Allah and be just with all of your children." (Muslim,1623)

    Women's education
    Islam definitely does not deprive women of education. On the contrary, it urges both men and women alike to seek knowledge and acquire learning. The History of Islam records the achievements of many women who excelled in religious sciences, literature, and poetry. When the Prophet married Hafsa, who had just begun to study the rudiments of reading and writing, he entrusted Al-Shafaa; Al ‘Adawiyya to teach her to improve her handwriting and reading. ‘Aisha, daughter of Abu Bakr, the Prophet’s wife, was far more learned than many of the Companions of the Prophet, who recommended that she should be consulted on religious matters, for she was very well versed in all branches of religion, in addition to her knowledge of literature and the principles of the lineage of the Arab tribes Which was a recognized science in that era. Women have the right to obtain education and they are not restricted to get it from their husbands as they are allowed to attend informal lectures and study sessions at mosques, madrassas and other public places. Women could study, earn ijazahs (academic degrees), and qualify as scholars and teachers.
    Unlike other practices in other religions which forbid women to learn her religion and order her to remain silent in places of worship, Islam praises a woman trying to learn her religion; Aaisha the prophet's wife praised the women of Medina because of their desire for religious knowledge " How splendid were the women of the Ansar; shame did not prevent them from becoming learned in the faith." Women ,in Islam, have the right to argue even with the Prophet of Islam or Islamic leaders . It is reported in the Qur'an and history that woman not only expressed her opinion freely but also argued and participated in serious discussions with the Prophet himself (Qur'an, 58:1-4; 60:10-12).
    It is essential to differentiate between the laws of Islam, which safeguard and protect the dignity and safety of women, and the pre-Islamic traditions and customs, which prevented women from being educated or taking part in any activities. Islam, which honors women and grant them their due, is concerned with the development of a waman’s character, since that enables her to be a more capable and efficient mother and wife who will accordingly be able to play her role in raising a strong generation capable of developing their society, thus increase the welfare of community.
    Bibliography :
    Websites :
    *http://www.islam4theworld.net/eBooks...Fact/index.htm
    *http://womeninislam.ws/en/women-righ...daughters.aspx
    *http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_i...male_education
    *http://www.jannah.org/sisters/statuswomen.html
    Books :
    *WOMEN IN ISLAM VERSUS WOMEN IN THE JUDAEO-CHRISTIAN TRADITION: THE MYTH & THE REALITY
    BY Dr. Sherif Abdel Azeem
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Marriage
    Marriage highlights the plenty of rights and the great status that women enjoy in Islam. In Islamic jurisprudence one requirement for a sound marriage is the total agreement of the woman concerned. If a woman is coerced into accepting an undesired marriage, she is entitled to present her case before a Muslim judge to seek annulment. A woman by the name of al-Khansa bint Khadam, who had been previously married (and was now divorced or widowed), came complaining to the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) that her father had forced her to marry a person she despised. He disapproved and invalidated it.
    Another requirement is that she does not give herself in marriage to anyone without guardianship. Her father, or in case he is not alive, her grandfather, paternal uncle, brother or even her mature son, or the ruler of the State, must act as her guardian in this affair to assure her rights are protected and to sign the marriage contract along with her signature. His role is to make sure that the groom is sincere and of standard, that she has a proper dowry, and that two witnesses testify to the contract which she willfully accepts. All these measures are to protect her rights and the sanctity of marriage. The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) made this perfectly clear when he said:" There is no marriage without a guardian." Therefore, if she elopes and marries herself, this marriage is considered unlawful. The institution of guardianship is only to protect her interests. The fact that the ruler or governor becomes her legal guardian to assure that all is in order and that no criminal injustice is perpetrated reinforces the sacredness of the marriage contract and the sanctity of her rights in Islam. Islamic jurisprudence gives the right to the guardian to refuse and reject proposals if the suitor is not deemed a sound and sincere match. If an appropriate man proposed for marriage and the guardian refused for no valid reason, then the guardianship can be contested in the court of law. The guardianship is then given to the nearest responsible male relative of the woman, or, in case she has no responsible male relatives, the Muslim Judge assumes guardianship.
    The basic foundation of the society is the family, and the husband and the wife are co-partners in that family upon which a Muslim home is established. For the success of the family and the tranquility of the home, Islam grants each spouse certain rights and duties. Besides all other provisions for her protection at the time of marriage, it was specifically decreed that woman has the full right to her Mahr(dowry), a marriage gift, which is presented to her by her husband and is included in the nuptial contract, and that such ownership does not transfer to her father or husband. The concept of Mahr in Islam is neither an actual or symbolic price for the woman, as was the case in certain cultures, but rather it is a gift symbolizing love and affection.A dowry is the right of every bride at the time of marriage. A marriage contract is not considered legal and complete unless and until a dowry has been specified. This right cannot be forfeited, even if the bride approves, until after the marriage contract is completed. The dowry belongs to the woman entering marriage, and she has the freedom to do whatever she wants with what she owns after the marriage contract is fulfilled. Allah, the Exalted, states in the Glorious Qur'an:(Give the women whom you marry their dowry with a good heart. If they remit any part of it to you, of their own good pleasure, take it and enjoy it fully without fear of any harm.)[4:4] The husband is not allowed to take anything back from the dowry if he decides later to divorce her; as Allah, the Exalted, states in the Glorious Qur'an: (If you intend to replace a wife by another and you have given one of them a huge sum of gold as dowry, take not the least of it back; would you take it wrongfully without a right and with a manifest sin. And how can you take it back while you have entered with intimate relationship unto each other, and they (the wives) have taken from you a firm and strong covenant?)[4:20-1] This verse indicates, significantly, the sacredness of the marriage vows and the intimacy of the marriage relationship, as well as the right of retaining the dowry gift in case of divorce. Allah, the Exalted, also states in the Glorious Qur'an:(O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will, and you should not treat them with harshness, that you may take away part of the dowry you have given them, unless they commit open illegal sexual intercourse. Live with them honorably; if you dislike them, it may be that you dislike a thing and Allah brings through it a great deal of good.[4:19]This verse ensures the wife's rights and complete justice even if the man dislikes her for any reason.

    Financial Support
    The husband must give honorable and sufficient sustenance to his household according to his status and means. Allah, the Exalted, says(Let the rich man spend according to his means, and the man whose resources are restricted, let him spend according to what Allah has given him. Allah puts no burden on any person beyond what He has given him. Allah will grant after hardship ease.)[65:7]
    If a sufficiently rich man refuses to spend on his family in accordance with his level of means, and the wife was able to take a portion of his wealth, she may take that which satisfies her essential needs and that of her children, avoiding wastage and extravagance. Hind bint 'Utbah came to the Prophet (Peace be upon Him) complaining about her husband, saying:"My husband is a miser and does not spend enough on me and his children."He replied: "Take whatever suffices you and your child within proper bounds."[Bukhari #5049]
    If a husband came under heavy financial strain and was incapable of fulfilling his family's financial needs, or if he left his wife for an extensive period of time, whereby the wife was harmed due to that absence, the wife is entitled to seek court intervention, if she desires to annul that marriage, as indicated by the verdicts of the jurists in Islamic jurisprudence. The Prophet of Allah (Peace be upon Him) explained these rights when he said:"Fear Allah in (the affairs of) women for you have taken them by the oath of Allah, and made their intimate relations legal by the sacred word of Allah: your right is that no one you dislike should (be allowed to enter) sit on your bed (or cushions), and if this happens then you may hit them lightly, and their right is that you feed and clothe them within proper bounds."[Muslim #1218]
    The Prophet (Peace be upon Him) said to his companion Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqas (may Allah exalt their mention):"No amount you spend on your family seeking reward from Allah but that He will reward you even if it is a bite of food that you put in your wife's mouth.
    [Bukhari #2592 & Muslim #1628]

    Protection and Preservation
    A husband must protect and prevent his wife and children from any possible harm or immorality to the best of his abilities.
    QWAMA
    The rules for married life in Islam are clear and in harmony with upright human nature. In consideration of the physiological and psychological make-up of man and woman, both have equal rights and claims on one another, except for one responsibility, that of leadership. This is a matter which is natural in any collective life and which is consistent with the nature of man.The Qur'an thus states: "And they (women) have rights similar to those (of men) over them, and men are a degree above them." (Qur'an 2:228).Such degree is Quiwama (maintenance and protection). This refers to that natural difference between the sexes which entitles the weaker sex to protection. It implies no superiority or advantage before the law. Yet, man's role of leadership in relation to his family does not mean the husband's dictatorship over his wife. Islam emphasizes the importance of taking counsel and mutual agreement in family decisions. The Qur'an gives us an example: "...If they (husband wife) desire to wean the child by mutual consent and (after) consultation, there is no blame on them..." (Qur'an 2: 233).
    Over and above her basic rights as a wife comes the right which is emphasized by the Qur'an and is strongly recommended by the Prophet (P); kind treatment and companionship. The Qur'an states: "...But consort with them in kindness, for if you hate them it may happen that you hate a thing wherein God has placed much good." (Qur'an 4: l9).
    Prophet Muhammad. (P) said: The best of you is the best to his family and I am the best among you to my family.The most perfect believers are the best in conduct and best of you are those who are best to their wives. (Ibn-Hanbal, No. 7396)
    Behold, many women came to Muhammad's wives complaining against their husbands (because they beat them) - - those (husbands) are not the best of you. As the woman's right to decide about her marriage is recognized, so also her right to seek an end for an unsuccessful marriage is recognized. To provide for the stability of the family, however, and in order to protect it from hasty decisions under temporary emotional stress, certain steps and waiting periods should be observed by men and women seeking divorce.
    Considering the relatively more emotional nature of women, a good reason for asking for divorce should be brought before the judge. Like the man, however, the woman can divorce her husband without resorting to the court, if the nuptial contract allows that. More specifically, some aspects of Islamic Law concerning marriage and divorce are interesting and are worthy of separate treatment. When the continuation of the marriage relationship is impossible for any reason, men are still taught to seek a gracious end for it.The Qur'an states about such cases: When you divorce women, and they reach their prescribed term, then retain them in kindness and retain them not for injury so that you transgress (the limits). (Qur'an 2:231). (See also Qur'an 2:229 and 33:49).
    Companionship, care and intimate relationships
    A husband must live with his wife honorably, kindly and with respect. He must maintain a decent, clean and acceptable appearance when he relaxes in his household, just as he likes his wife to do for him at home, since this is only mutual respect and decency to one another. The Prophet of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said, encouraging and explaining the comprehensive principle about good character and behavior:"The most complete believers are those with the best characters, and the best of you are those who are best to their womenfolk." [Tirmidhi #1162 & Ibn Hibbaan and verified]
    The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) used to mend his own clothes or shoes and help his wives with their daily chores. His wife Aishah (may Allah exalt their mention) was once asked:"What did the Messenger of Allah use to do while at home?" She responded: "He used to serve and assist his household, and when he would hear the call to prayer, he would leave to pray."[Bukhari #644]
    The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) was always pleasant, kind and caring to all, and would occasionally play and joke politely with his family members. The Prophet of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said:"Everything without containing the remembrance of Allah is just amusement and play except four: to joke and play with one's wife, to train one's horse, to walk between two destinations, and to learn swimming."[Nasa'e # 8939 and verified] Allah's Prophet (Peace be upon Him) is also well known for being cheerful and decent in joking with his family and playing with them. An example of this fun pastime is when 'Aishah (may Allah exalt her mention) the mother of the believers, said: Allah's Prophet (Peace be upon Him) raced with me and I won the race before I grew and gained weight. After I became a bit older and put on weight he raced with me again and he won. The Prophet of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said to me upon winning the race:"This (win of mine makes up) for that (win of yours)." [Ahmad #26320 & Abu Dawood #2578 ]
    The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) is reported to have sat in the house for a short while with his family, talking to them, giving them company and showing kindness, before going to sleep, and after offering the late evening prayer. In the authentic traditions we find that Ibn Abbas (may Allah exalt their mention) narrated: "I slept at the house of Maymunah (his aunt and the Prophet's wife) one night to see the Prophet's worship in night prayer. He talked with his wife for a period of time, and then slept. Later in the night he awakened and prayed what Allah had written for him."[Bukhari #4293 & Muslim #763 ]
    All the secrets of the wife should be kept and preserved and her shortcomings hidden. No private affairs should be made public or shared as a conversation item, even among the closest friends. The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said:"One of the worst people in the sight of Allah on the Day of Resurrection is a man who has intimate relations with his wife, or a wife who has the same with her husband, then one of them discloses that privacy to others."[Muslim #1437 & others]
    It is the right of the married woman to spend the night with her husband and have sexual fulfillment, satisfaction, and gratification. This right is one of the most emphasized rights in Islam, equal to the need of man to have his fulfillment. The husband is required and obliged by Islamic law to fulfill the sexual rights of his spouse, to ensure the satisfaction of the spouse so as to prevent her from being inclined towards shameful acts, may Allah forbid. A spouse, as any other female, has a great need for being loved and cherished, cared for, and fulfillment of her natural and physical rightful desires. Islam forbids husbands from engaging themselves in matters of physical worship and devotions, like prayers and fasting, in a way that may detract them from attending to their spouses' physical, sexual and social needs.
    Considering the needs of his wife, a husband should not be away from home for an extended period of time. Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah exalt his mention) after consulting with his daughter Hafsa (may Allah exalt their mention) about the length of the period a woman can patiently bear her husband's absence, set this period six months. After this, Umar would close a campaign within six months so that they could return to their wives within that time. This period is approximate since circumstances may allow it to be less, or force it to be more. She may tolerate the absence of her husband for more than six months, or she may demand him to come back before that time.
    The husband may not refuse or deny his spouse's legitimate request unless he has a valid excuse. A husband must not make any financial decisions on behalf of his spouse unless she gives him such permission. The husband has no right to take any of his spouse's financial assets without her approval. He should also consult his spouse in the major household decisions, children's affairs and other mutual affairs. It is not wise to dictate a man's opinion upon the other members of the family without listening to the spouse's opinion, as long as her opinion is wise and correct. Allah's Prophet (Peace be upon Him) gave us a practical example in this matter. On the "Day of the Pact" with the Quraish tribe, the Prophet (Peace be upon Him) commanded his companions to shave their heads and to exit the state of Ihraam', but they were slow and did not hasten to fulfill his command. Um Salamah (may Allah exalt their mention) his wife, recommended that he do so himself and then go out before his companions. Allah's Prophet acted upon the recommendation of his wife, doing what she suggested, and when the companions saw his action they all hastened in obedience.
    A husband must avoid counting every innocent mistake his spouse may make. For instance, the Prophet of Allah (Peace be upon Him) said: "A husband should not come to his home from a journey late at night (i.e. without announcing his arrival in advance)."[Bukhari #4948 & Muslim#715]
    This recommendation is given so that the wife may comb her hair or wash herself and that the husband may not find his spouse in an unprepared state, which might become a reason for his displeasure. Of course with the modern facilities, nowadays husbands have the ability to inform their wives well in advance, whether the arrival is during the daytime or late in the night. It is the obligation of a husband to be kind, attentive, sharing and caring with his spouse. He must deal with her with honesty, decency, patience and care, and must take into consideration her human nature. Women appreciate being loved tenderly and well taken care of. A husband must demonstrate his affection, love, appreciation, caring, consideration and genuine keenness of his spouse.

    Wife Discipline
    Allah, the Exalted, stated in the Glorious Qur'an:
    (... As to those women on whose part you see ill-conduct, admonish them (first), (next,) refuse to share their beds, (and last,) beat them (lightly, if it is useful). But if they return to obedience, seek not against them means (of annoyance). Surely, Allah is Most High, Most Great.) [4:34]
    Islam forbids beating women and warns strictly against it. The Prophet (Peace be upon Him) never beat any of his wives or servants, as his wife Aishah (may Allah exalt her mention) reported in an authentic tradition (Bukhari #2328). Women are, in general, weaker than men in their physique and stamina. Women are often unable to defend themselves against violence. Although beating of women is generally forbidden, Islam permits the beating of wives in a restricted and limited sense only as a final solution and acceptable valid reason when all else fails. This is analogous to spanking children when all else fails and they must learn a lesson in obedience for their own protection and success.
    In the verse we quoted, Allah deals with the case of a wife who behaves immorally towards her husband's rights. The treatment of this extremely sensitive issue comes in gradual stages, as we have noticed from the verse. Medicine, or treatment of any ailment, can be very bitter at times. But an ill person will take the remedy gladly and bear the bitterness of the medicine in order to be cured from his illness. The remedy to treat a wife blameworthy of immoral behavior, as we have noticed, comes in three gradual stages:
    First stage: The stage of advice, counseling and warning against Allah's punishment. A husband must remind his wife of the importance of protecting his rights in Islam. This stage is a very kind and easy one. But, if this treatment does not work and proves to be ineffective, then the husband may resort to the next stage.
    Second stage: To leave the wife's bed. Or, if one sleeps in the same bed with her, he will turn his back to her, not touch her, talk to her or have intercourse with her. This stage, as noticed, combines both strictness and kindness, although it is a very harsh practice on both. But, if this treatment does not work, then the husband may resort to the final stage of discipline explained below.
    Third and final stage: Beating without hurting, breaking a bone, leaving black or blue marks on the body, and avoiding hitting the face or especially sensitive places at any cost. The purpose of beating her is only to discipline and never retaliation or with desire to hurt by any means. Islam forbids severe beating as punishment.
    The Prophet (Peace be upon Him) said: "None of you should beat his wife like a slave-beating and then have intercourse with her at the end of the day".
    Beating, according to the Islamic teachings, is listed as the last and final stage of disciplining methods. Islam does not permit, allow or even condone beating unless the first two stages are proven to be ineffective. Moreover, beating must not be employed as a remedy, if a wife prefers to be divorced.
    Bibliography :
    Websites :
    *http://womeninislam.ws/en/women-righ...daughters.aspx
    *http://womeninislam.ws/en/
    *http://womeninislam.ws/en/misconcept...-contract.aspx
    *http://womeninislam.ws/en/women-right-islam_wives.aspx
    *http://www.islam4theworld.net/eBooks...Fact/index.htm
    Books :
    *Woman in Islam by Muhammad Zafrulla Khan
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Divorce
    Marriage in Islam is a sanctified bond that should not be broken except for compelling reasons. Couples are instructed to pursue all possible remedies whenever their marriages are in danger. Divorce is not to be resorted to except when there is no other way out. In a nutshell, Islam recognizes divorce, yet it discourages it by all means. Let us focus on the recognition side first. Islam does recognize the right of both partners to end their matrimonial relationship. Islam gives the husband the right for Talaq (divorce). Moreover, Islam, unlike Judaism, grants the wife the right to dissolve the marriage through what is known as Khula'. If the husband dissolves the marriage by divorcing his wife, he cannot retrieve any of the marriage gifts he has given her. The Quran explicitly prohibits the divorcing husbands from taking back their marriage gifts no matter how expensive or valuable these gifts might be:


    "But if you decide to take one wife in place of another, even if you had given the latter a whole treasure for dower, take not the least bit of it back; Would you take it by slander and a manifest wrong?" (4:20).
    In the case of the wife choosing to end the marriage, she may return the marriage gifts to her husband. Returning the marriage gifts in this case is a fair compensation for the husband who is keen to keep his wife while she chooses to leave him. The Quran has instructed Muslim men not to take back any of the gifts they have given to their wives except in the case of the wife choosing to dissolve the marriage:
    "It is not lawful for you (Men) to take back any of your gifts except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah. There is no blame on either of them if she give something for her freedom. These are the limits ordained by Allah so do not transgress them" (2:229) Also, a woman came to the Prophet Muhammad seeking the dissolution of her marriage, she told the Prophet that she did not have any complaints against her husband's character or manners. Her only problem was that she honestly did not like him to the extent of not being able to live with him any longer. The Prophet asked her: "Would you give him his garden (the marriage gift he had given her) back?" she said: "Yes". The Prophet then instructed the man to take back his garden and accept the dissolution of the marriage (Bukhari). In some cases, A Muslim wife might be willing to keep her marriage but find herself obliged to claim for a divorce because of some compelling reasons such as: Cruelty of the husband, desertion without a reason, a husband not fulfilling his conjugal responsibilities, etc. In these cases the Muslim court dissolves the marriage.



    In pre-Islamic times divorce was a weapon used against the woman solely in a man's hands; when he wanted to harm the wife he would seek to divorce her and then take her back as he pleased. There were no set rules and the woman had no rights in the matter. So Allah Allah (The Almighty) invalidated this injustice by revealing the verse which says:(Divorce is two times: then one may retain with goodness (and reasonable terms), or let go with goodness (and reasonable terms).)[2:229] As a way to help preserve the marriage even when some differences occur, a Muslim man following the Sunnah (way)of the Prophet (Peace be upon Him) may only divorce his wife while she is clean from menses wherein he has not had sexual relations with her in that month. Since this requires some waiting period before the pronouncement of divorce, this allows time for any anger to subside or misunderstandings to be cleared up, and gives time to other family members or mediators to help in reconciliation. If they continue on the path towards divorce, then she must wait three menstrual periods. During this time, he may take her back honorably into marriage. This will be counted as the first divorce and return. If the time lapses and he lets her go her way, she will be fully divorced for the first time, and is free to marry another man.
    Her first husband may remarry her with a new contract, if they both choose that option. If he does, and he then again divorces her, he may take her back her within the three menstrual periods, and this will be two divorces and returns. After two divorces and returns, if he divorces her a third time this is called the final and separating divorce wherein they are not allowed to remarry unless she waits the specified time of three menstrual cycles and then freely marries a different man with no intention of availing herself to this means in order to be able to lawfully marry her previous husband . If, for any reason, she becomes divorced from that man, only then, and on the condition that no shady pre-arranged dealings were made to circumvent this rule, can she re-marry her first husband. All these measures are designed to help protect the family and sanctity of the marriage bond, and the rights of the man and the woman. The waiting period is to determine that she is free from pregnancy. In case of pregnancy, the woman has to wait until after delivery before she marries a second husband.
    Divorce is ultimately allowed in Islam to escape from any harm caused by the irreconcilable differences. It may become necessary in certain cases. There are strict rules about divorce to protect the interests and rights of the parties involved: the husband, wife and children. Some of them have been mentioned above. Divorce might be forbidden in the case where it would not solve the problem and cause undue harm to one of the two marriage partners, without achieving a needed benefit.Islamic jurisprudence obligates that in order to avoid divorce, solutions should be sought when critical disputes and differences occur between husband and wife; Allah, the Exalted, states in the Glorious Qur'an:(And if a women fears cruelty or desertion from her husband, there is no sin on both of them if they make terms of peace between themselves; and making peace is better.)[4:128]
    Allah, the Exalted, also says: (If you fear a breach between them appoint two arbitrators, one from his family and the other from her family: if the two of them both wish for correction, Allah will cause their reconciliation. Indeed Allah is Omniscient and Well-Acquainted with all things.)[4:35]


    Let us now focus our attention on how Islam discourages divorce. The Prophet of Islam told the believers that: "among all the permitted acts, divorce is the most hateful to God" (Abu Dawood).A Muslim man should not divorce his wife just because he dislikes her. The Quran instructs Muslim men to be kind to their wives even in cases of lukewarm emotions or feelings of dislike:"Live with them (your wives) on a footing of kindness and equity. If you dislike them it may be that you dislike something in which Allah has placed a great deal of good" (4:19). Prophet Muhammad gave a similar instruction:
    " A believing man must not hate a believing woman. If he dislikes one of her traits he will be pleased with another" (Muslim). The Prophet has also emphasized that the best Muslims are those who are best to their wives: "The believers who show the most perfect faith are those who have the best character and the best of you are those who are best to their wives" (Tirmidthi).


    One of the most natural and logical ways to help maintain a successful marriage is to let the man have more control over the divorce process than the woman because it is the man who is financially obliged to take care of his wife, household and family, and has ultimate responsibility of their welfare. Therefore, he must rationally assess the situation, grave consequences, and huge financial and emotional loss that will result from a divorce. The husband will lose the dowry he spent for the marriage, and will have to pay the alimony and child support, as well as any newly acquired expenses from a new marriage on top of that. Thus, with all these considerations, he will not act just out of quick anger, fickleness or passing emotion.


    A man is more capable - at least theoretically - of controlling his flitting emotions and personal reactions when upset about the smaller issues in life, especially in terms of disputes with his wife. Divorce should never be a quick reaction for some suffering, misunderstandings, or differences of viewpoints, but only as a last resort and final solution when life becomes dangerously problematic and intolerable, wherein both spouse are afraid that they will not be able to abide by the limits set by Allah and His Prophet about respectable behavior with one another.
    Islamic jurisprudence permits the wife to have her marriage nullified upon her request if the husband abuses her physically or verbally. She is also entitled to have the marriage nullified for the following general reasons: if the husband is impotent and cannot perform his marital duties, or if the husband for any reason, refuses to have sexual relations with his wife and fulfill her lawful needs, or is afflicted with a disabling terminal illness after the marriage, or contracts any type of venereal or reproductive disease that may harm the wife or make her lose her desire to be with her husband. Thus, we see that the woman is given the right to seek separation from her husband for legitimate reasons in many situations, exactly as the man has the right to seek divorce. If a wife reaches the extreme limits of patience and abhors her husband, feeling that life is unbearable, then she has the right to divorce. This form of divorce is called annulment, or "Khula", wherein she pays compensation by returning her dowry or some other property. A competent Muslim judge will look into the individual case if the husband refuses to accept the wife's request and if the request is considered sound and valid, will pass a judgment in favor of the woman.
    Bibliography :


    Websites :


    *http://womeninislam.ws/en/misconcept...o-divorce.aspx
    Books :
    *WOMEN IN ISLAM VERSUS WOMEN IN THE JUDAEO-CHRISTIAN TRADITION:THE MYTH &THE REALITY
    BY Dr. Sherif Abdel Azeem
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  5. #5
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    Polygamy
    Marriage to more than one wife at the same time - Polygamy - is a practice as old as the history of man. In the pre-Islamic era, polygamy was practiced not only by Arabs but also by many other nations all over the world. Among others, Polygyny was well known to the Ancient Hebrews, Egyptians, Greeks, Persians, Assyrians, Japanese, Hindus, Russians and Germanic peoples. The Old and New Testaments are at the foremost in the list of the religious Books that legalized and practiced it. Many of the Prophets of Allah before Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) entered into plural marriages. Prophet Abraham had two wives; Prophet Jacob had four wives; and Prophet David had ninety-nine wives (may Allah exalt their mention). Prophet Solomon (may Allah exalt their mention) had seven hundred wives who were free noble women, and three hundred other wives who were slave women. Nowhere does the law of the Prophet Moses (may Allah exalt his mention) set or determine a specific number of wives to which a husband was entitled. The compilers of the Talmud, who lived around Jerusalem, decided upon a certain number of wives for a man, and some Jewish scholars only permitted a second wife or more if the first wife was permanently ill or barren. Still other Jewish scholars did not permit plural marriages at all.
    In the New Testament of the Bible, Jesus is commissioned to comply with and complete the Laws of Moses (may Allah exalt his mention) and we cannot find a single quote in the Bible that forbids plural marriage. The prohibition of plural marriages in Christianity came about only as a result of legislation set forth certain segments of the Christian church, and not by the original teachings of Christianity itself. For this reason we find many examples of Christians taking multiple wives. The Irish king, Ditharmet, for instance, had two wives. King Frederick the Second had two wives with the church's approval. Thus, it must be noticed that prohibition was in the hands of the priests of the church, and not in accordance with any universally recognized original law of Jesus Christ himself (may Allah exalt his mention). Martin Luther, the German priest who first established the Protestant sect, considered plural marriage acceptable and advocated it on many occasions. Polygamy was well known amongst pagan Arab tribes prior to the advent of Islam but there was no limitation for the number of wives, like in the cases of some of the Prophets mentioned above.
    Islam was by no means the first religion to permit polygamy, nor did Islam introduce it. On the contrary, Islam was the first religion to organize marriage and to limit the number of wives according to strict stipulations. There are numerous examples in the authentic traditions wherein the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) obligated those who had more than four wives, when they accepted Islam, to choose four and divorce the rest honorably. Allah, the Most Beneficent, said:(And if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphan-girls, then marry (other) women of your choice, two or three, or four but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one or (the captives and the slaves) that your right hands possess. That is nearer to prevent you from doing injustice.)[4:3]
    Thus we see that strict justice and fairness in treatment, and avoiding any injustice and wrong practices against all wives, is stipulated and conditional for those who wish to take more than one wife. The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon Him) warned against favoritism saying:"He who has two wives and is not just between them, he will come on the Day of Resurrection with one of his sides fallen."Justice and fairness, in this context, applies to material things such as expenditure, fair division of wealth, gifts, time, etc. As for emotional matters, such as love and inclination of the heart towards one wife over the other, it is recognized that man has no control over his innermost heart and emotions, as they are involuntary. Allah, the Most Beneficent, said:(You will never be able to do perfect justice between wives even if it is your ardent desire (i.e. emotions of the heart), so do not incline too much to one of them (by giving her more of your time and provision) so as to leave the other hanging (i.e. neither divorced nor married). [4:129]
    A man who is impotent should not seek any marriage since he is unable to fulfill its basic requirement. He who knows for sure that he is financially incapable of supporting another wife and household, is not allowed to seek another marriage, just as the bachelor who seeks to marry must strive to earn the wherewithal and must be able to sustain his wife and future children. As Allah says, and which can be taken as a general rule :(And let those who find not the financial means for marriage keep themselves chaste, until Allah enriches them with His Bounty.)[34:33]
    Let us take a look of some conditions that befall people of any society, and then assess whether Polygyny is a good solution for the problems that occur, and also the practice of Polygyny is in favor of a woman or against her! The following points prove that monogamy in many situations leads to promiscuity, prostitution or divorce: If a woman is sterile and the husband is interested in having children, should he divorce the woman and marry a second wife? Or, if she chooses to stay married to him, should he take a second wife giving them both equal rights as his lawful wives?
    If a wife is chronically ill and cannot maintain her marital relations with her husband, should he keep her and take a second wife wherein she remains perfectly honored, cared for and provided for by her husband? Or should he divorce her?
    Some men are financially strong, and sexually demanding and potent with higher levels of hormonal testosterone. One wife may not be able to fulfill his lawful and natural sexual desire. If the menstrual period or after-birth-confinement period is notably longer than normal, or if she has no natural sexual desire to match that of the husband, or other scenarios, what is better for both husband and wife in such a case? Is it better for the man to remain frustrated and pent up, or seek unlawful sexual satisfaction outside the marriage? Or to acquire other lawful wives who can help to keep him chaste and satisfied?
    In various parts of the world international and civil wars and other catastrophes often take their toll on men more than women. Even naturally, the demographic number of females, for various reasons, is often more than males in most countries. The best example of this is the case of the First World War, and the Second World War, which claimed the lives of an astronomical number of men who had participated in the fighting, with tens of millions of them being killed. In other trouble spots the disproportionate death ratios are similar. In such a case, if every man had only one wife, what would be the necessary destiny of the women left without lawful marriage to satisfy their social, financial and sexual needs? Some women may be tempted to satisfy their sexual desires in unlawful ways through fornication, lesbian activities or prostitution, a destabilizing factor for any society. The abundance of women without husbands, or male relatives to care and protect their interests, is one factor that helps spread corruption and illegitimate sexual activities in societies. What is better for a society and for such women in this case: to remain single and suffer all the consequences of life without marriage; or to accept to be a second wife with an honest, protective, honorable and chaste man?
    Promiscuity unfortunately exists in all modern societies, but should it be legalized or condoned, as is the case under man-made laws, with all the social consequences? In most contemporary societies only monogamous marriage is legal, but extra martial relations are allowed as a socially acceptable substitute for the situations mentioned above, in the form of mistresses, girlfriends, escort services, prostitution and common law marriages. These types of relationships have no merits of their own to stand on, and if the couple does not eventually get legally married, the illicit relationship often leads to abuse and conflict. These illicit relationships are only meant to fulfill sexual interests of the two parties involved without the responsibilities, and abuse the rights of the women in general. Legally it imposes no financial, social, or emotional obligations, and if the woman becomes pregnant, it is her own problem, with the illegitimate children left without the support of a family and sometimes abandoned to the social service system. Men, generally, are not obliged to admit the paternity of the child, thus not obliged to take financial responsibility for the child. Abortions proliferate in this kind of society. In accordance with Islamic law, a second, third, or fourth wife enjoys all the rights and privileges of the first wife without an iota of injustice or dishonor to her.
    Polygyny in the Islamic society is limited to four wives only; the marriages being performed lawfully with a proper marriage contract, witnesses, etc. The man must bear all financial burdens and responsibilities to his wives and children that arise from his marriages. All the children are legitimate and must be raised and cared for under the responsibility of both parents.
    Bibliography :
    Websites :
    *http://www.islam4theworld.net/eBooks...Fact/index.htm
    *http://womeninislam.ws/en/misconcept...-in-islam.aspx
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    In terms of Islam - men and women are equal
    The Qur'an provides clear-cut evidence that woman is completely equated with man in the sight of God in terms of her rights and responsibilities. The Qur'an states:
    "Every soul will be (held) in pledge for its deeds" (Qur'an 74:38). It also states:...So their Lord accepted their prayers, (saying): I will not suffer to be lost the work of any of you whether male or female. You proceed one from another ...(Qur'an 3: 195).
    Whoever works righteousness, man or woman, and has faith, verily to him will We give a new life that is good and pure, and We will bestow on such their reward according to the their actions. (Qur'an: 16:97, see also 4:124).
    Woman according to the Qur'an is not blamed for Adam's first mistake. Both were jointly wrong in their disobedience to God, both repented, and both were forgiven. (Qur'an 2:36, 7:20 - 24). In one verse in fact (20:121), Adam specifically, was blamed. In terms of religious obligations, such as the Daily Prayers, Fasting, Poordue, and Pilgrimage, woman is no different from man. In some cases indeed, woman has certain advantages over man. For example, the woman is exempted from the daily prayers and from fasting during her menstrual periods and forty days after childbirth. She is also exempted from fasting during her pregnancy and when she is nursing her baby if there is any threat to her health or her baby's. If the missed fasting is obligatory (during the month of Ramadan), she can make up for the missed days whenever she can. She does not have to make up for the prayers missed for any of the above reasons. Although women can and did go into the mosque during the days of the prophet and thereafter attendance at the Friday congregational prayers is optional for them while it is mandatory for men (on Friday). This is clearly a tender touch of the Islamic teachings for they are considerate of the fact that a woman may be nursing her baby or caring for him, and thus may be unable to go out to the mosque at the time of the prayers. They also take into account the physiological and psychological changes associated with her natural female functions.
    Bibliography :
    Books :
    *THE STATUS OF WOMAN IN ISLAM
    By Jamal A. Badawi
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Veil, is it really Dishonour or unsuitable for Modern life ?
    Finally, let us shed some light on what is considered in the West as the greatest symbol of women's oppression and servitude, the veil or the head cover. Is it true that there is no such thing as the veil in the Judaeo-Christian tradition? Let us set the record straight. According to Rabbi Dr. Menachem M. Brayer in his book, The Jewish woman in Rabbinic literature, it was the custom of Jewish women to go out in public with a head covering which, sometimes, even covered the whole face leaving one eye free. He quotes some famous ancient Rabbis saying," It is not like the daughters of Israel to walk out with heads uncovered" and "Cursed be the man who lets the hair of his wife be seen....a woman who exposes her hair for self-adornment brings poverty." Dr. Brayer also explains that veil of the Jewish woman was not always considered a sign of modesty. Sometimes, the veil symbolized a state of distinction and luxury rather than modesty. The veil personified the dignity and superiority of noble women. Women of lower classes would often wear the veil to give the impression of a higher standing. It also represented a woman's inaccessibility as a sanctified possession of her husband.
    What about the Christian tradition? It is well known that Catholic Nuns have been covering their heads for hundreds of years, but that is not all. St. Paul in the New Testament made some very interesting statements about the veil: "Every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonours her head - it is just as though her head were shaved. If woman does not cover her head, she should have her hair cut off; and if it is a disgrace for a woman to have her hair cut off or shaved off, she should cover her head. A man ought not to cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God; but the woman is the glory of man. For man did not come from woman, but woman from man; neither was man created for woman, but woman for man. For this reason, and because of the angels, the woman ought to have a sign of authority on her head" (I Corinthians 11:3-10). The reason for the veil, as offered by their Church leaders, is that "The head covering is a symbol of woman's subjection to the man and to God", which is the same logic introduced by St.Paul in the New Testament.
    From all the above evidence, it is obvious that Islam did not invent the head cover. However, Islam did endorse it. The Quran urges the believing men and women to lower their gaze and guard their modesty and then urges the believing women to extend their head covers to cover the neck and the bosom: "Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty......And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what ordinarily appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms...." (24:30,31).
    The Quran is quite clear that the veil is essential for modesty, but why is modesty important? The Quran is still clear: "O Prophet, tell your wives and daughters and the believing women that they should cast their outer garments over their bodies (when abroad) so that they should be known and not molested" (33:59).
    This is the whole point, modesty is prescribed to protect women from molestation or simply, modesty is protection. Thus, the only purpose of the veil in Islam is protection. The Islamic veil, unlike the veil of the Christian tradition, is not a sign of man's authority over woman nor is it a sign of woman's subjection to man. The Islamic veil, unlike the veil in the Jewish tradition, is not a sign of luxury and distinction of some noble married women. The Islamic veil is only a sign of modesty with the purpose of protecting women,all women. The Islamic philosophy is that it is always better to be safe than sorry.
    Some people, especially in the West, would tend to ridicule the whole argument of modesty for protection. Their argument is that the best protection is the spread of education, civilized behavior, and self-restraint. We would say: fine but not enough. If 'civilization' is enough protection, then why is it that women in North America dare not walk alone in a dark street - or even across an empty parking lot ?
    If Education is the solution, then why is it that a respected university like Queen's has a 'walk home service' mainly for female students on campus? If self-restraint is the answer, then why are cases of sexual harassment in the workplace reported on the news media every day? A sample of those accused of sexual harassment, in the last few years, includes: Navy officers, Managers, University professors, Senators, Supreme Court Justices, and the President of the United States! I could not believe my eyes when I read the following statistics, written in a pamphlet issued by the Dean of Women's office at Queen's University:
    · In Canada, a woman is sexually assaulted every 6 minutes,
    · 1 in 3 women in Canada will be sexually assaulted at some time in their lives,
    · 1 in 4 women are at the risk of rape or attempted rape in her lifetime,
    · 1 in 8 women will be sexually assaulted while attending college or university, and
    · A study found 60% of Canadian university-aged males said they would commit sexual assault if they were certain they wouldn't get caught.
    Something is fundamentally wrong in the society we live in. A radical change in the society's life style and culture is absolutely necessary. A culture of modesty is badly needed, modesty in dress, in speech, and in manners of both men and women. Otherwise, the grim statistics will grow even worse day after day and, unfortunately, women alone will be paying the price. Actually, we all suffer but as K. Gibran has said, "...for the person who receives the blows is not like the one who counts them." 84 Therefore, a society like France which expels young women from schools because of their modest dress is, in the end, simply harming itself. It is one of the great ironies of our world today that the very same headscarf revered as a sign of 'holiness' when worn for the purpose of showing the authority of man by Catholic Nuns, is reviled as a sign of 'oppression' when worn for the purpose of protection by Muslim women.

    Is the Islamic attire for women unsuitable for modern life?
    1. Every nation has its own distinct character and way of life. It has its traditional meals, drinks, attire, and architecture. All this reflects the nation’s culture, civilization and beliefs. God has created people different from each other in many aspects, and nations also differ from each other, and this difference will continue until the end of the world. Furthermore, what suits and pleases one nation might not suit or be accepted by another. For example, Indian women wear the sari and this attire is not criticized by the western world although the sari is not practical in modern life. The sari is worn by all women in India and the ;ate Mrs. Indira Gandhi, former Prime Minister of India, also wore it and nobody ever objected to it and claimed that it prevented Indian women from pursuing their careers or that it hindered their ability to be productive citizens.
    2. Most European women until the beginning of the twentieth century, wore clothes that reached the ground and they all wore hats or some form of head-dress when they went outside the house, yet nobody ever criticized this. The style of women’s clothes developed year after year till it reached its current style, which is no longer subject to any rules and it will continue to change according to the ideas and whims of those responsible for the fashion of women’s clothes.
    3. Islam does not impose any particular style of attire on Muslim women other than its being decorous so that she would not subject herself to the harassment of any irresponsible youth. Furthermore, this decorous and respectable attire does not hinder the Muslim women in any kind of post or work which she practices. Women in all walks of life wearing the Islamic attire are officials in factories, companies, departments of Ministries, schools, and colleges of the universities. They perform their duties just as efficiently as their colleagues who wear European fashioned clothes. The accusation is completely groundless and no study has ever been made to try and prove this ridiculous allegation. The fact is that the western world would like to prove that their way of life, customs, traditions, and fashions are more suitable than all other customs and traditions, and this in itself is against the law of nature since every nation has its own distinctive character. The Muslim woman has the right to be proud of her distinctive character, which is reflected in her attire and her conduct in the same way that Indians and Europeans have that right.
    4. Currently, there are many Muslim women dressed in the Islamic attire who have significant role in their countries and execute their work in the best possible manner. Mrs.Tawakkol Karmaan one of the key figures of the Yemenian revolution who is a Noble peace prize laureate, also Dalia Mogahed ,Obama's advisor in the white House and Bakinam Esharkaawi , the Egyptian president's advisor.
    Bibliography :
    Websites :
    *http://www.islam4theworld.net/eBooks...Fact/index.htm
    Books :
    *WOMEN IN ISLAM VERSUS WOMEN IN THE JUDAEO-CHRISTIAN TRADITION: THE MYTH & THE REALITY
    BY Dr. Sherif Abdel Azeem
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Politics and women in Islam
    Any fair investigation of the teachings of Islam into the history of the Islamic civilization will surely find a clear evidence of woman's equality with man in what we call today "political rights". This includes the right of election as well as the nomination to political offices. It also includes woman's right to participate in public affairs. In the early Islamic history women not only participated in various aspects of their society's public sphere, they also had the right to be elected to political offices. For example, Omar the second Khalif appointed a woman to oversee the affairs of the marketplace. The women also participated in wars and fought in the battles.
    In addition, Muslim women have the right to argue and debate. Both in the Qur'an and in Islamic history we find examples of women who participated in serious discussions and argued even with the Prophet (Peace be upon him) himself, (see Qur'an 58: 14 and 60: 10-12).During the Caliphate of Omar Ibn al-Khattab, women participated in law making. A woman, just like a man, can give someone the right of seeking refuge and security among the Muslims. Allah, the Exalted, says: (And if one of the polytheists seeks refuge, give him until he hears the words of Allah, then take him to his place of security.)
    The Messenger of Allah (Peace be Upon Him) said:
    And the protection of Muslims is one, and the least among them can give protection; and whoever usurps the right of a Muslim then the curse of Allah and His angels and all the people is upon him, and no repentance or ransom will be accepted from him.This is also proven by the famous story of Um Hani' (Mother of Hani') when she gave protection to a polytheist who sought refuge with her on the day of the conquest of Makkah after her relative threatened to kill that person (for some past enmity) so the Messenger of Allah (Peace be Upon Him) said,We protect and give asylum to whomever you give asylum O Um Hani'. According to the Quran, in Surah 60:12, we read about Muslim women making "bayy'ah" to the Prophet. Bayy'ah as an Islamic term is somewhat analogous, to a degree, to what we would call an election, or oath of allegiance. And that was given in his capacity not only as a Prophet, but as a head of state, as he was already the head of state in Medina.
    In the most authentic collection of Hadith, Hadith Bukhari, a section is devoted to the participation of women, not only in public affairs, but in the battlefield, too, and not only as logistical support. Women carried arms, and when there was great danger to the Muslims, they volunteered to participate even in the battlefield where they also took share in giving advice. On the day of Al-Hudaibiya Treaty, people disobeyed the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and therefore the Muslims were about to be ruined . Allah protected them with the wisdom of Umm Salama (Radhia Allahu Anha) and her good advice. Imam Al-Bukhari has reported: “when the Prophet Muhammad( Peace be upon him) concluded the Al-Hudaibiya Peace Treaty with the Quraish Tribe, he said to his Companions: ‘Get up and butcher your sacrifices, then have your heads shaved’. By God, no one did so although he repeated his order three times. When none of them got up, he went to Umm Salama (his wife) and told her about what the people had done. She said: ‘O Prophet of Allah, do you want them to follow your order?
    Go out, do not speak to any of them until you butcher your she-camel (sacrifice) and call your barber to shave your head’. He got out and did not speak to anyone until he did that, i.e. butchered his sacrifice and called his barber to shave his head. When Muslims saw that, they got up, butchered their sacrifices and shaved the heads of each other”. It is the fraternity of Islam appearing in how Umm Salama (May Allah be pleased with her ) rescued Muslims from the disobedience of their Prophet (Peace be upon him ). Furthermore, he (peace be upon him) never devalued her advice, as some men do nowadays with their wives. Instead, he followed her advice. I wonder if men today try to draw a lesson from that.
    Although not mentioned in the Qur'an, one Hadeeth of the Prophet is interpreted to make woman ineligible for the position of head of state. The Hadeeth referred to is roughly translated: "A people will not prosper if they let a woman be their leader." This limitation, however, has nothing to do with the dignity of woman or with her rights. It is rather, related to the natural differences in the biological and psychological make-up of men and women. According to Islam, the head of the state is no mere figurehead. He leads people in the prayers, especially on Fridays and festivities; he is continuously engaged in the process of decision-making pertaining to the security and well-being of his people. This demanding position, or any similar one, such as the Commander of the Army, is generally inconsistent with the physiological and psychological make-up of woman in general. It is a medical fact that during their monthly periods and during their pregnancies, women undergo various physiological and psychological changes. Such changes may occur during an emergency situation, thus affecting her decision, without considering the excessive strain which is produced. Moreover, some decisions require a maximum of rationality and a minimum of emotionality - a requirement which does not coincide with the instinctive nature of women.
    Bibliography :
    Websites :
    *http://womeninislam.ws/en/women-righ...en.aspx#social
    *http://www.islamswomen.com/articles/...ave_rights.php
    *http://www.ilovezakirnaik.com/womenr...hts_of_a_Woman
    *http://defending-islam.com/page134.html
    Books :
    THE STATUS OF WOMAN IN ISLAM
    By Jamal A. Badawi
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Can a woman has a property of her own in Islam?
    In Europe until the 19th century, women did not have the right to own their own property. When they were married, either it would transfer to the husband or she would not be able to dispense of it without permission of her husband. In Britain, perhaps the first country to give women some property rights, laws were passed in the 1860's known as "Married Women Property Act." More than 1300 years earlier, that right was clearly established in Islamic law. Islam decreed a right of which woman was deprived both before Islam and after it (even as late as this century) , the right of independent ownership. According to Islamic Law, woman's right to her money, real estate, or other properties is fully acknowledged. This right undergoes no change whether she is single or married. She retains her full rights to buy, sell, mortgage or lease any or all her properties. It is nowhere suggested in the Law that a woman is a minor simply because she is a female. It is also noteworthy that such right applies to her properties before marriage as well as to whatever she acquires thereafter.
    When it comes to financial security, Islamic law is more tilted in many respects towards women. These are seven examples:
    During the period of engagement, a woman is to be on the receiving side of gifts. At the time of marriage, it is the duty of the husband, not the bride's family. He is supposed to pay for a marital gift. The Quran called it a gift, and it is exclusively the right of the woman. She doesn't have to spend it on the household, she doesn't have to give it to her father or anyone else. If the woman happened to own any property prior to marriage, she retains that property after marriage. It remains under her control. Also, in most Muslim countries, the woman keeps her own last name, and her own identity. If the woman has any earnings during her marital life, by way of investments of her property or as a result of work, she doesn't have to spend one penny of that income on the household, it is entirely hers.
    The full maintenance and support of a married woman is the entire responsibility of her husband, even though she might be richer than he is. She doesn't have to spend a penny. At the time of divorce, there are certain guarantees during the waiting period and even beyond for a woman's support. If the widow or divorcee has children, she's entitled to child support. In addition,Islam restored to woman the right of inheritance, after she herself was an object of inheritance in some cultures. Her share is completely hers and no one can make any claim on it, including her father and her husband."Unto men (of the family) belongs a share of that which Parents and near kindred leave, and unto women a share of that which parents and near kindred leave, whether it be a little or much - a determinate share." ((Qur'an:4:7).
    Her share in most cases is one-half the man's share, with no implication that she is worth half a man! This variation in inheritance rights is only consistent with the variations in financial responsibilities of man and woman according to the Islamic Law. Man in Islam is fully responsible for the maintenance of his wife, his children, and in some cases of his needy relatives, especially the females. This responsibility is neither waived nor reduced because of his wife's wealth or because of her access to any personal income gained from work, rent, profit, or any other legal means. Woman, on the other hand, is far more secure financially and is far less burdened with any claims on her possessions. Her possessions before marriage do not transfer to her husband and she even keeps her maiden name. She has no obligation to spend on her family out of such properties or out of her income after marriage. She is entitled to the "Mahr" which she takes from her husband at the time of marriage. If she is divorced, she may get an alimony from her ex-husband An examination of the inheritance law within the overall framework of the Islamic Law reveals not only justice but also an abundance of compassion for woman.
    Women are equally qualified and allowed to engage in financial dealings and property ownership. According to Islamic law women can own, buy, sell and undertake any financial transaction without the need for guardianship, and without any restrictions or limitations - a situation unheard of in many societies until modern times.

    Women's work
    With regard to the woman's right to seek employment, , there is no restriction in Islamic law that says a woman cannot work or have a profession, that her only place is in the home. In fact, by definition, in a truly Islamic society, there must be women physicians, women nurses,and women teachers. Islam does not prevent any woman from working and having a career. She has the right to work provided that she needs to work and that she chooses the type of work which suits her experience, ability, and qualifications. There are no religious laws which prevent a woman from being educated or from working. During the lifetime of the Prophet many women were engaged in various activities such as assisting the troops during the battles and treating the wounded, in addition to carrying water and food to the men who were fighting. it should be stated first that Islam regards her role in society as a mother and a wife as the most sacred and essential one. Neither maids nor baby-sitters can possibly take the mother's place as the educator of an upright, complex free, and carefully-reared children. Such a noble and vital role, which largely shapes the future of nations, cannot be regarded as "idleness".However, there is no decree in Islam which forbids woman from seeking employment whenever there is a necessity for it, especially in positions which fit her nature and in which society needs her most. Examples of these professions are nursing, teaching (especially for children), and medicine. Moreover, there is no restriction on benefiting from woman's exceptional talent in any field. Even for the position of a judge, where there may be a tendency to doubt the woman's fitness for the post due to her more emotional nature, we find early Muslim scholars such as Abu-Hanifa and Al-Tabary holding there is nothing wrong with it.

    Bibliography :
    Websites :
    *http://www.islamswomen.com/articles/...ave_rights.php
    *http://womeninislam.ws/en/women-righ...men-women.aspx
    *http://www.islam4theworld.net/eBooks...Fact/index.htm
    Books :
    *THE STATUS OF WOMAN IN ISLAM
    By Jamal A. Badawi
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Epilogue
    Do Muslim women in the Muslim world today receive this noble treatment described here? The answer, unfortunately, is: No. Since this question is inevitable in any discussion concerning the status of women in Islam, we have to elaborate on the answer in order to provide the reader with the complete picture. It has to be made clear first that the vast differences among Muslim societies make most generalizations too simplistic. There is a wide spectrum of attitudes towards women in the Muslim world today. These attitudes differ from one society to another and within each individual society. Nevertheless, certain general trends are discernible. Almost all Muslim societies have, to one degree or another, deviated from the ideals of Islam with respect to the status of women. These deviations have, for the most part, been in one of two opposite directions. The first direction is more conservative, restrictive, and traditions-oriented, while the second is more liberal and Western-oriented.The societies that have digressed in the first direction treat women according to the customs and traditions inherited from their forebears. These traditions usually deprive women of many rights granted to them by Islam. Besides, women are treated according to standards far different from those applied to men. This discrimination pervades the life of any female: she is received with less joy at birth than a boy; she is less likely to go to school; she might be deprived any share of her family's inheritance; she is under continuous surveillance in order not to behave immodestly while her brother's immodest acts are tolerated; she might even be killed for committing what her male family members usually boast of doing; she has very little say in family affairs or community interests; she might not have full control over her property and her marriage gifts; and finally as a mother she herself would prefer to produce boys so that she can attain a higher status in her community.On the other hand, there are Muslim societies (or certain classes within some societies) that have been swept over by the Western culture and way of life. These societies often imitate unthinkingly whatever they receive from the West and usually end up adopting the worst fruits of Western civilization. In these societies, a typical "modern" woman's top priority in life is to enhance her physical beauty. Therefore, she is often obsessed with her body's shape, size, and weight. She tends to care more about her body than her mind and more about her charms than her intellect. Her ability to charm, attract, and excite is more valued in the society than her educational achievements, intellectual pursuits, and social work. One is not expected to find a copy of the Quran in her purse since it is full of cosmetics that accompany her wherever she goes. Her spirituality has no room in a society preoccupied with her attractiveness. Therefore, she would spend her life striving more to realize her femininity than to fulfil her humanity.Why did Muslim societies deviate from the ideals of Islam? There is no easy answer. A penetrating explanation of the reasons why Muslims have not adhered to the Quranic guidance with respect to women would be beyond the scope of this study. It has to be made clear, however, that Muslim societies have deviated from the Islamic precepts concerning so many aspects of their lives for so long. There is a wide gap between what Muslims are supposed to believe in and what they actually practice. This gap is not a recent phenomenon. It has been there for centuries and has been widening day after day.This ever widening gap has had disastrous consequences on the Muslim world manifested in almost all aspects of life: political tyranny and fragmentation, economic backwardness, social injustice, scientific bankruptcy, intellectual stagnation, etc. The non-Islamic status of women in the Muslim world today is merely a symptom of a deeper malady. Any reform in the current status of Muslim women is not expected to be fruitful if not accompanied with more comprehensive reforms of the Muslim societies' whole way of life. The Muslim world is in need for a renaissance that will bring it closer to the ideals of Islam and not further from them. To sum up, the notion that the poor status of Muslim women today is because of Islam is an utter misconception. The problems of Muslims in general are not due to too much attachment to Islam, they are the culmination of a long and deep detachment from it.Bibliography :Books :*WOMEN IN ISLAM VERSUS WOMEN IN THE JUDAEO-CHRISTIAN TRADITION: THE MYTH & THE REALITYBY Dr. Sherif Abdel Azeem
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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WOMAN, BEFORE & AFTER THE ADVENT OF ISLAM