وَشَهِدَ شَاهِدٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِهَا
Chapter 6: Rimae (3/3)
 In many places the lunar surface is broken and a portion is down dropped, forming trenchlike features known as straight rimae or rilles. Some of these rilles are large enough (tens of kilometers across) to be visible on Earth based photographs; others are so small (a few meters across) that they are barely visible on the highest resolution orbital pictures.
Some of these trenches cut across the surrounding plains, uplands, and craters and may record preferred directions of breakage of the lunar crust caused by internal stresses (the so called lunar grid). Others ring crater floors and may be related to uplift of the floor caused by crustal readjustment after impact. A few contain low rimmed dark halo craters that are interpreted to be volcanic vents. Many trenches are curvilinear; some appear to be transitional between straight rilles and sinuous rilles.-H.M.
إن سطح القمر محطم في كثير من الأماكن وجزء منه منهار مشكلا معلما جغرافيا يشبه خندقا يعرف بالصدوع المستقيمة أو الجداول.
بعض هذه الجداول كبيرة كفاية (عشرات الكيلومترات) لترى من صور أرضية والبعض الآخر صغيرة (بعض الأمتار) حتى أنها ترى بصعوبة حتى من صور مدارية ذات أعلى جودة.
تشق بعض هذه الخنادق طريقها خلال السهول و المرتفعات والفوهات المحيطة ويمكن أن تسجل اتجاه كسور مفضلا في أديم القمر بسبب ضغوط داخلية ( المسماة الشبكة القمرية).
أما حلقات أرضيات الفوهات الأخرى فمن المحتمل ارتباطها بارتفاع الأرضية الناتج عن إعادة تعديل الغلاف الخارجي بعد الصدمة. القليل من هذه الخنادق يحوي هالة فوهات منخفضة القتامة يكن تفسيرها بكونها فتحات بركانية. كثير من الخنادق منحنية و بعضها يظهر و كأنها مرحلة انتقالية بين الجداول المستقيمة و الجداول المتعرجة.
ولقد تم التقاط صورا للقمر من قبلوكالة ناسا عام 1969 من ارتفاع 14 كيلو متر عن سطح القمر، وتبين وجود شق يظهر عليهآثار "التحام" .
ومن موقع وكالة ناسا الفضائية ،قالوا بصيغة الجزم ما يلي:
 FIGURE 217
.-Rima Ariadaeus is a fine example of a straight rille. Ariadaeus Rille is over 300 km in length; a portion of the central section of the rille about 120 km in length is pictured here. A linear section of the crust is dropped down along parallel faults or breaks in the crust to form a graben or fault trough. The ridges crossing the trough and the surrounding plains units have been offset by the trough, proving that they are older than the faults. Some craters are cut off by the faults and are, therefore, older. Other craters lie on the wall of the trough and are younger than the faulting. The faulting must be relatively young because so few craters appear to be younger than the faults, and because the edges of the trough appear to be crisp and little affected by slumping and other mass wasting.
There is a gradation between straight rilles, gently curving rilles, and sinuous rilles modified by volcanic flows. This example shows no trace of associated volcanism; it is, therefore, considered to be the end member of the sequence, where only pure faulting is involved.-H.M
Rima Ariadaeus هو مثال جيد للجدول المستقيم يبلغ طول الـ( Ariadaeus Rille)أكثر من 300كلموعلى هذه الصورة رقم 217: نجد في الصورة قسم من الجزء المركزي للجدول ويبلغ طوله حوالي 120كلم. لقد تداعى قسم طولي من الغلاف الخارجي على مدى الشقوق أو الانكسارات المتوازية في الغلاف الخارجي ليشكل جزءا مخسوفا أو غور شق منخفض. إن سلاسل التلال التي تعبر الأجران و وحدات السهول المحيطة بها ووزيت بالأغوار مثبتة أنها أقدم من الشقوق. لقد بترت بعض الفوهات بالشقوق وهي بالتالي أقدم منها. تقع الفوهات الأخرى على جدار الجرن و هي أصغر سنا من التشقق. يجب أن يكون التشقق أصغر نسبيا لأن قلة من الفوهات تظهر وكأنها أصغر سنا من الشقوق و لأن حدود الجرن تظهر و كأنها نضرة و متأثرة قليلا بالسقوط وخسارة كتل أخرى. هنالك تدرج بين الجداول المستقيمة و الجداول المنحرفة قليلا و الجداول المتعرجة المعدلة بتدفقات بركانية.
إن هذا المثال لا يبين أي أثر متعلق بالبراكين وبالتالي يمكن اعتباره آخر عضو في سلسلة الحوادث حيث أن الانشقاق الصرف فقط هو المسئول عنها.
المرجع للصورة وكالة الفضاء الأمريكية ناسا:
وتحت عنوان:A Lunar Rille شرخ قمري
Explanation: What could cause a long indentation on the Moon? First discovered over 200 years ago with a small telescope, rilles (rhymes with pills) appear all over the Moon. Three types of rilles are now recognized: sinuous rilles, which have many meandering curves, arcuate rilles which form sweeping arcs, and straight rilles, like Ariadaeus Rille pictured above. Long rilles such as Ariadaeus Rille extend for hundreds of kilometers. Sinuous rilles are now thought to be remnants of ancient lava flows, but the origins of arcuate and linear rilles are still a topic of research. The above linear rille was photographed by the Apollo 10 crew in 1969 during their historic approach to only 14-kilometers above the lunar surface. Two months later, Apollo 11, incorporating much knowledge gained from Apollo 10, landed on the Moon.
جدول (شرخ) قمري
ما السبب الكامن وراء وجود شرخ طويل على سطح القمر؟ فقد تم اكتشاف جداول (شروخ)عديدة في جميع أرجاء القمر لأول مرة بمسبار صغير منذ200 سنة خلت.
أما الآن فقد أمكننا التعرف على ثلاث أنواع منها: جداول (شروخ) متعرجة وتحوي انحناءات ملتوية وجداول (شروخ) مقوسة تشكل أقواسا كاسحة وجداول(شروخ) مستقيمة كشرخ ( أريادايس ) المبين في الصورة العلوية.
ويلاحظ أن جدول كجدول(أريادايس) طويل يمتد على مسافة مئات الكيلومترات.
أما الجداول المتعرجة فيعتقد أنها نتجت عن تراكم حمم بركانية قديمة.
لكن أصل تكون الجداول المستقيمة والمقوسة فلا يزال محل بحث.
الجدول(الشرخ) المستقيم المبين في الصورة أعلاه صور من قبل طاقم أبولو10 سنة 1969 خلال تحليقهم التاريخي على مسافة 14 كلم من سطح القمر.بعدها بشهرين حط أبولو11 على سطح القمر مستفيدا من المعلومات التي جناها سلفه أبولو10.
وهذا منظر تخيلي لانشقاق القمر
و أما عن الدليل التاريخي فإليك الدراسة المثيرة التالية وهي وثيقة لحضارتي المايا والازتيك بالقارة الأمريكية حيث سجلتا حادثة انشقاق القمر.
The Split Moon of the Madrid Codex and Persian Manuscripts
In the Ríos Code, there are four pictures of the different ages of the Sun. All show stones falling from the sky. The last version shows a mountain with flowers and fruit falling down on it. Without a doubt, we can call this mountain "Flower/Fruit." There is a Persian manuscript illumination which shows a similar white mountain (in the background) and a mountain covered with flowers and fruit (as veggies), and a weird gash in the earth behind a man who is looking at a split faced moon similar to those found in the Madrid Codex on the top register of pages 91-92 and 93. 1
It appears that the Persians are making their own visual statement about the Flower/Fruit Mountain where a meteorite (stone egg) fell to the earth and separated it from the White Mountain with a sheer thrust.
Those who traveled in ancient times, knew of these differences and used both physical entertainment (i.e.: acrobatics, dance, mime, puppetry) and the paint brush as their vehicles for transmitting the event portrayed in both manuscripts. For their personal safety, they used "magic" which was no more than a primitive form of the very technology we use today.
The event was seen! But, by whom? Was it the Aztecs who saw it and recorded it for their university lessons in astronomy as "The Birth of the Fifth Sun"? The Maya actually recorded the split moon in the tiny glyphs in the Madrid Codex as the tiny glyph shown above.
At the very first instance of it on page 91 of the Madrid it has, what I believe to be, a black "viewing-the-stars bowl rim" of obsidian to the left of it and on top is a separate knotted bow-tie. It is coupled with a dragon eye or the eye of the serpent, whichever way you want to read the strange upside down glyph immediately below it.
This is reminiscent of the serpent with God L in its mouth, stretching out to fondle the very buxom "moon" goddess caught in the coils of the serpent. Not yet part of the tail of the serpent is the burning "cigar-in-the-forehead" god K'awiil far to the bottom right. (See the two Kerr vases K4485 and K7838, same art but different sizes) It can be seen in these vases, so, although present, K'awiil is not yet attached to the tail of the serpent.
The conclusion that can be reached about this serpent connection is that, if it is archaeo-astronomy, the moon goddess, making her rounds every 360 days, was "entrapped" in the coils of Draco, the constellation, until, in the Aztec story, during the "Birth of the Fifth Sun"2 a human, who did not appreciate that the false sun stayed so close to the horizon, threw a rabbit at it to make it move. It is their version of why the rabbit is on the moon.
One Maya clue is the face of the rabbit on Justin Kerr's vase K-1208.">
In another Kerr vase, one will see, that not only was the rabbit a new addition to the home of the moon goddess, but also the cosmic tree (probably the Milky Way) was new. Being held up to the mirror, the rabbit is shown where it was then (now) located, not how it was born. In agreement with that statement is vase K2772. It shows the same three women as in the so-called birth scene, but instead of a pregnant woman with two midwives, it shows that the palace of the moon is being shaken by a quake, indicated by the same "question mark" curls found in the ears of the split-faced moon rabbit and identified by Eric Thompson as a symbol of the Moon Goddess glyphs. This "quake" or catastrophe is well recorded world-wide, even in Peru as the Rebellion of the Artifacts.The rabbit arrives later to view, in the mirror, the new star arrangement of the skies.
Kerr's vase K4999, I almost ignored. It appears to be the oldest vase and in the worst condition, but it may be the place where the rabbit came from: the Blue Star or Sky house. It was from here that K'awiil became a "cigar-in-the-forehead" fire entity and the rabbit became the new timekeeper. What was the change? It probably was was the difference betwee 360 days and 365.4 days..3 The old calendar was no more.
In the last Maya Meeting (2005) Jania Indrikis solved the Dresden-Venus table puzzle for me. That is not to say that everyone believes as i do, but I feel that it is exactly what I just implied above: that there was a five day (incorrect) correction that allowed the Maya and other groups in Mesoamerica to have a five day vacation. It appears in the third column of page 24 of the Villacorta version and of Knorozov's work.
At the top of page 139 in the 1997 Maya Hieroglyphic Forum, the dot and bar numbers have been inserted as corrections for the tops of the other columns (missing in V and K's works). On the basis of the number sequences, the date of the first (and, what I am surmising, was the original change) is 22.214.171.124.0 or the Gregorian date of 9 February 623 (the Julian date calculated the 6th of February, that same year).
It is interesting to note that the Auguries from the books of the Chilam Balaam gives the day (in the Mani version) K'in lob as a "bad" omen, while the Katun (in the Chumayel) was considered as "evil." Nevertheless, man was able to record in the seventh century AD, a broad sweeping change of the calendar in Copan, China and Babylon.4 which agrees with Janis's calculations. Kudos for Janis! (No, he had no idea that I was on a similar subject of the year change. But then, at that point, neither did I!)
But, if one reads the
The rabbit replaced the monkey (possibly the old north star?) as the recorder of time and became a very important figure with the same split face of the moon, with a the same question mark curl in each ear. 3 and later, (K1491) where the rabbit waits for the monkey to finish his final work.
He then becomes the official recorder of time (and probably of events) and tgnkey is placed in a secondary role in the skies. (See K1398 and K5166) But not before the Rabbit assists in stripping God L of his position in the head of the dragon/serpent constellation called Draco and his association with the Moon Goddess there.
God L then returns to the Rabbit to plead for the return of his job description. Both the Maya (and apparently the Sun god) relent and return him to his 360 day station, but allows the four and a quarter remaining days to become a festive, but fearful holiday as preparation for the new year. (Watch for the upcoming "Rabbit and His New Time Schedule") So what does the whole mean?
Did the Persians, who have the exact same moon design as the Madrid Codex, devise the picture all by themselves? And where was the Sun Wu Kong (the Monkey King) of China at the time? His original name means "dog-of-the-old-moon." So does that mean that the Chinese also recognized that there was a reorganization of the phases of the moon, because the year became longer by five (5) days? That time difference appears to be the correction in the second column of the first page of the Dresden Venus cycle segment. The Xolotl dog was the Aztec version of Quetzalcoatl who fell from the heavens and saved the true sun from death.
Olivia Vlahos in her book, Far-Eastern Beginnings claimed that documents of the T'ang Dynasty (618 - 907) described blue-eyed, blond Wu-sun, the Ting-ling and the Yueh-chih tribes which probably included people with Western faces. (Please note the word "probably" which may be an indication that these people HAD to be "blue-eyed and blond.") The Ting-Ling and the Wu-sun inhabited lands around Lake Baikal and the Altai Mountains. She stated that the Yueh-Chih (Moon people) lived farther to the west. (p. 86)
She also stated that the T¹ang (apparently, who were NOT blue-eyed or with green eyes) described the Kirghiz as tall, red of face and of hair, green of eye. (p. 128) The presence of the tall hats and Caucasian features in the Jaina area of Mexico that makes it even more interesting. At the edge of the western Gobi desert, in the tombs of Xinjiang strange mummies were found. While in the Yucatan area, near the city of Belize, there is a point of land called the Moho Cay. Can a connection be made with an event recorded in the Moho manuscript, (a short Chinese version of the Monkey King's journey westward). Is this another global connection with the Jaina tall hats?
As it is, there is a lot of evidence for transoceanic travel, both east and west, but we seem to be searching for things that cannot exist, such as, wooden boats, clothing, food, fine slipware pottery, and statues, however small. Except for the last two items, all will be eaten, deteriorate, be broken in a short span of time. The sea breezes create hunger and food in small boats which are not capable of sustaining more than very few people over a long sea journey. The salt spray will destroy in a very short time, even clothing packed carefully away in closed boxes.
Men who traveled by these small boats would marry a native in whatever area he stepped ashore. She would know nothing of the the sailor's past history. She would only chose to remember the present.
The most viable element that was carried north, south, east and west from and throughout the Americas was knowledge and a facile hand which could create illustrations of a concept before a language was learned. Original art work would have been drawn on the sea shore in the sands, on the mountains in the soil or on some form of cloth, paper or bark.
All these original items would be lost over the centuries in a very short span of time. Copyists in the area would insert their own version of those pictures. They would almost be the same, but not quite: a scroll here, a tassel there, a slanted eye or a strange hat. The script would change over the years from that of the original artist, to that of the copyists.
When similar art forms are discovered, it is not easy to think of diffusion. After all, we would never take a small boat across the oceans, but, even today, there are people who do. Single navigators with a dream, or even families with a sturdy, albiet small boat. Modern boats are better equipped than the open boats used centuries ago. A journey can be made, but because of language differences, such voyages are very quickly forgotten.
1 Note: "Muhammed splits the moon," an illustration in a Falnameh, a Persian book of prophesies.
2 Read, Kaye Almere (1998) Time and Sacrifice in the Aztec Cosmos has the best version of the Birth of the Fifth Sun that I have read.
3 Wolf, Eric Sons of the Shaking Earthp. 100, Copan held a meeting of this Copan Academy of Science. People from Chiapas, etc. At this time the calendar reform came about at the end of the VII century A.D. Velikovsky, Imanuel (1950) Worlds in Collision p. 355, Varaha Mihira, astronomer of India. His work indicates calendric changes in the seventh century. China also was affected at that time. (My Note: Velikovsky may not have gotten the correct conclusions, but much of information was well researched.)