قاموس المصطلحات اليهودية Jewish Glossary

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شبكة الفرقان الإسلامية شبكة سبيل الإسلام شبكة كلمة سواء الدعوية منتديات حراس العقيدة
البشارة الإسلامية منتديات طريق الإيمان منتدى التوحيد مكتبة المهتدون
موقع الشيخ احمد ديدات تليفزيون الحقيقة شبكة برسوميات المرصد الإسلامي لمقاومة التنصير
غرفة الحوار الإسلامي المسيحي مكافح الشبهات شبكة الحقيقة الإسلامية موقع الدعوة الإسلامية
شبكة البهائية فى الميزان شبكة الأحمدية فى الميزان مركز براهين شبكة ضد الإلحاد

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قاموس المصطلحات اليهودية Jewish Glossary

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    04-12-2012
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    افتراضي قاموس المصطلحات اليهودية Jewish Glossary

    Jewish Glossary

    A


    Abelut -

    (Heb., mourning) Seven days of mourning after the burial of a close relative (as in, "to sit shiva"). See shiva. shloshim.

    Abraham -

    (adj. Abrahamic) The patriarch who is acknowledged as a special early figure in the histories and folklore of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Presumed to have lived sometime in the period 2000-1700 BCE; father of Ishmael by Hagar and of Isaac by Sarah. See Bible Genesis 12-25; NT Galatians 3-4;

    Adam (and Eve) -

    (Hebrew for human, man) Name given to the first created male (with Eve as female) in the creation story in the Jewish ******ures (Genesis 1). Has been interpreted over the centuries both literally (as an actual historical person) and symbolically (as generic humankind; see allegory).

    Aggada(h) -

    (adj. aggadic; Aramaic, "telling, narration") Jewish term for non-halakic (nonlegal) matter, especially in Talmud and Midrash; includes folklore, legend, theology/theosophy, ******ural interpretations, biography, etc.; also spelled haggada(h), not to be confused, however, with the Passover Manual called "the Haggada(h)."

    Akiba -

    (or better, Aqiba) ben Joseph Famous Jewish rabbi (c. 50-135 CE) in ancient Israel; a major legal scholar, who established an academy in Bne Brak, and was also a legendary mystic and martyr. He was tortured and killed by the Romans in 135 CE.

    Aliy(y)a(h) -

    A term used in modern Judaism especially for migration (Heb., going up) to the land of Israel (Aliya can also be used for going up to the altar bimah to read from Torah.

    Allegory (Greek term), -

    adj. allegorical, vb. allegorize Usually used in reference to symbolic interpretation of ******ures or other authoritative materials, in Judaism and Islam as well as in Christianity. See midrash,.

    Altar -

    Historically, it usually refers to a raised surface (like a table) or platform on which sacrifices were performed. Thus it came to designate the central location for liturgical functions such as reading Torah (Jewish; see bima) or administering the eucharist (Christian).

    Am haaretz -

    (pl. ammey haaretz; Heb., "people of the land") A term used in Jewish ******ures for citizens, or some particular class of citizens; in rabbinic literature, for persons or groups that dissented from or were uninstructed in rabbinic halaka and rigorous purity and tithing norms. It sometimes signifies the unlearned, sometimes is used condescendingly (boor). It was also used of the broad mass of Jewish people of the 1st century CE, who cannot be categorized into any of the sub-groups of the time. See also Pharisees.

    Amida(h) -

    (Heb., standing; pl. amidot) The main section of rabbinic Jewish prayers, recited in a standing posture; also known as *tefillah or shemoneh esreh (eighteen benedictions).

    Amora -

    (pl. amoraim; Heb.,"speaker") Rabbinic Jewish teachers of the 4th and 5th centuries CE who produced the gemara for the Babylonian and Palestinian Talmuds.

    Amphictyony -

    Greek term for a religio-political federation with its common focus a sanctuary dedicated to God; an association of neighboring states or tribes in ancient Greece that banded together for common interest and protection. This model has sometimes been used to describe the situation in "the period of the judges" (prior to Saul and David) in Ancient Israel.

    Angel -

    (Greek, lit. "messenger") Came to be used specifically for a class of extrahuman ("spiritual") beings, both good (usually) and bad ("demons", "the devil"/Satan) who become involved in human affairs; common to Judaism, Christianity and Islam. A leader or special functionary among the angels is sometimes c alled an "archangel" (e.g. Michael, Gabriel).

    Anthropomorphism -

    Greek term for the attribution of human behavior or characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, natural phenomena, or deity. With regard to deity, anthropomorphism became a point of theological discussion in Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

    antisemitism -

    Literally means opposed to Semites (which would include Arabic and other semitic peoples as well), but usually applied specifically to opposition to Jews (anti-Judaism).

    apocalypse -

    (adj. apocalyptic) From the Greek, meaning "revelation." A genre of literature (attested in Jewish, Christian and Muslim traditions) in which the author claims to have received revelation(s), usually about the end -time, and expresses them in vivid symbolism. The intertestamental Jewish and the early Christian apocalypses are often pseudepigraphical.

    aqedah -

    (Heb., binding [of Isaac]) The Jewish biblical account of God's command to Abraham to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice (Genesis 22).

    Aqiba -

    Famous Jewish rabbi (c. 50-135 CE) in ancient Palestine; a major legal scholar, who established an academy in Bne Brak, and was also a legendary mystic and martyr. He was tortured and killed by the Romans in 135 CE. See Akiba.

    Ashkenazi(m) -

    (adj. Ashkenazic) The term now used for Jews who derive from northern Europe and who generally follow the customs originating in medieval German Judaism, in contradistinction to Sephardic Judaism, which has its distinctive roots in Spain and the Mediterranean ( see Sephardim). Originally the designation Ashkenaz referred to a people and country bordering on Armenia and the upper Euphrates; in medieval times, it came to refer to the Jewish area of settlement in northwest Europe (northern France and western German y). By extension, it now refers to Jews of northern and eastern European background (including Russia) with their distinctive liturgical practices or religious and social customs.

    assimilation -

    The process of becoming similar to something; used in discussion of religious and cultural developments to describe the process in which the characteristic traits of a person or group may be lost or modified during adaptation to differing surroundings or conditions. See syncretism.

    atheism -

    (from Greek, no deity) A general term for the position that there is no God/deity

    authority -

    That to which submission of some sort is due, whether a person (as "the authority of the rabbi/bishop/imam") or an institution ("of the church/community") or some other appropriate focus ("of the law/******ure/tradition").

    Av -

    (or Ab)A month in the Jewish calendar; the 9th of Av is a day of mourning for the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple in 586 BCE and again in 70 CE.
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    B


    Ba'al Shem Tov -

    (BeSHT; lit. Master of the Good Name) Founder of mid 18th century Jewish Hasidism (proper name was Israel).

    bar (bat) mitzvah -

    (Heb., son (daughter)-of-the-command-ment(s)) The phrase originally referred to a person responsible for performing the divine commandments of Judaism; it now refers to the occasion when a boy or girl reaches the age of religious majority and responsibility (thirteen years for a boy; twelve years and a day for a girl). In Christianity, compare confirmation.

    bat -

    (Heb., daughter, daughter of; Arabic bint) Used frequently in matronymics (naming by identity of mother); see also ben, *bar.

    bavli -

    Jewish shorthand term for the Babylonian Talmud.

    belief -

    A term with multiple applications, from general assent or fidelity to a religious idea or position (constituting someone as a to specific reference to well defined religious conceptual objects (beliefs).. For classical Judaism, see the thirteen principles; Christianity has tended to be more preoccupied with defining beliefs than have classical Judaism or Islam.

    ben -

    (Heb., son, son of; Aramaic *bar; Arabic ibn) Used frequently in patronymics (naming by identity of father); Rabbi Akiba ben Joseph means Akiba son of Joseph. See also bat,.

    berak -

    (h)ah (Heb., blessing; Arabic baraka) In Judaism, an offering of thankfulness that praises God for a benefit conferred or a great event experienced (pl. berakot). See also shemonah esreh.

    berit or brit -

    (Heb., covenant) Used in Judaism especially for the special relationship believed to exist between God and the Jewish people.(See circumcision)

    bet/beit midrash -

    (Heb.); see also midrash, synagogue In Judaism, a place (beit = house) of study, discussion, and prayer; in ancient times a school of higher learning (see, for example, house of Hillel). Similarly, bet am (house of people), bet kneset (house of assembly) and bet tefilla (house of prayer) are designations for locations/functions that came to be included in the general term synagogue; bet din (house of judgment) refers to a halakic law court (see also sanhedrin).

    Bible -

    (adj. biblical; from the Greek biblos meaning book) Designation normally used for Jewish ******ures (TaNaK = Protestant Christian Old Testament; plus the Apocrypha in classical Christianity) or Christian ******ures (OT plus the Christian New Testament). See also canon, Quran, Septuagint.

    bimah -

    (from Greek beema, altar) Location in a synagogue from which worship (see liturgy) is led.

    birkat haminim -

    (Heb., (bene)diction concerning heretics) A prayer that invoked divine wrath upon Christian Jews and other heterodox Jewish groups. 12th section of the shemoneh esre.

    brit (or berit) milah -

    (Heb., "covenant of circumcision")
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    C


    calendar -

    In general, Christianity operates on a solar calendar based on the relationship between the sun and the earth (365.25 days per year). The main Christian observances are Easter, Pentacost, and Christmas. The Islamic calendar is lunar, based on the relationship of earth and moon (354 days in a year). Thus every 100 solar years are equal to about 103 lunar years. Judaism follows a lunar calandar adjusted every three years or so to the solar cycle (by adding a second 12th month) -- thus lunisolar. The oldest Jewish annual observances are Passover/pesah, *Shevuot, Yom Kippur and Sukkot; other ancient celebrations include Rosh ha-shana, Simhat Torah, Hannukah and Purim.

    cantor -

    (from Latin, one who sings) in Hebrew Hazzan In Judaism, a reciter and chanter/singer of liturgical materials in the synagogue; also used similarly in Christian con****s (choir leader, etc).

    celibacy -

    The practice of refraining from sexual relationships in the interest of religious purity, known in Judaism among the Essenes and developed extensively in Christianity (see monk, priest).

    chuppah -

    In Judaism, the special canopy under which a marriage ceremony is conducted

    circumcision -

    (from Latin, to cut around) The minor surgical removal of the skin covering the tip of the penis. In Judaism, it is ritually performed when a boy is eight days old in a ceremony called brit milah, which indicates that the ritual establishes a covenant between God and the individual. In Islam, it is performed at any time up to the age of puberty, depending on the cultural tradition (e.g. birth, 7 years, puberty, etc.).

    classical Judaism, Christianity, Islam -

    The forms of the religions that have survived as traditional throughout the centuries. See rabbinic, orthodox. See also conservative.

    cohen -

    See kohen. Priest (Judaism).

    commandments -

    (Heb., mitzvot; sing, mitzvah). According to rabbinic Jewish tradition, there are 613 religious commandments referred to in the Torah (and elaborated upon by the rabbinic sages). Of these, 248 are positive commandments and 365 are negative. The numbers respectively symbolize the fact that divine service must be expressed through all one's bodily parts during all the days of the year. In general, a mitzvah refers to any act of religious duty or obligation; more colloquially, a mitzvah refers to a "good deed."

    conservative -

    A term often used in religious discussions (frequently in express or implied contrast to liberal or modernist) to indicate a relatively traditional (even classical) stance towards the matters considered centrally important.

    Conservative Judaism -

    A modern development in Judaism, reacting to early Jewish Reform movements in an attempt to retain clearer links to classical Jewish law while at the same time adapting it to m odern situations. Its scholarly center in the US is the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York.

    covenant -

    covenant A pact between two parties. The major covenants in Jewish ******ures are God's covenant with Abraham (Genesis 15), and the Sinai/Moses (Exodus 19-24) between God and Israel. In Judaism, the covenant (Hebrew, brit) is a major theological concept referring to the eternal bond between God and the people of Israel grounded in God's gracious and steadfast concern (Hebrew, h.esed) that calls for the nation's obedience to the divine commandments (mitzvot) and instruction (torah). For Christianity (e.g. Paul), God has made a "new covenant" (rendered as "new testament" in older English) with the followers of Jesus/Joshua in the last times, superseding the "old covenant" (thus, "old testament") with Moses at Sinai (see Jeremiah 31.31-34).

    cult -

    (sometimes cultus, from Latin) A general term for formal aspects and interrelationships of religious observance, often as focused on a particular phenomenon (e.g. the temple cult, the cult of saints).
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    D


    David -

    Jewish folkhero around 1000 BCE, to whom many biblical psalms are attributed and who is credited with politically and militarily uniting the ancient Israelite king amphictyony into a centralized kingdom with Jerusalem as its capital. David is said to have planned for the Temple which his son and successor Solomon built.

    Dead Sea Scrolls -

    The site near the northwest corner of the Dead Sea in modern Israel (west bank) where the main bulk of the Jewish "Dead Sea Scrolls" were discovered abound 1946. The "Qumran community" that apparently produced the scrolls seems to have flourished from the 3rd century BCE to the 1st century CE, and is usually identified with the Jewish Essenes, or a group like them. See Qumran.

    decalogue -

    A Greek term referring to the ten commandments (Heb. 'aseret hadibrot) received by Moses on Mount Sinai according to Jewish ******ures (Exodus 2O.1-17; Deuteronomy 5.1-21).

    deify -

    (see deity) To make something or someone God-like.

    diaspora -

    Greek scattering. Often used to refer to the Jewish communities living among the gentiles outside the holy land of Canaan/Israel/Palestine.

    dietary laws -

    , see kosher
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    E


    early Judaism -

    , also sometimes called formative,proto-,middle, and even late Judaism Refers to Judaism in the intertestamental period (and slightly later) as a development from the religion of ancient Israel, but prior to the emergence of its classical, rabbinic form in the early centuries CE.

    Eden -

    The name of paradise in the Jewish biblical account in Genesis 1, where Adam and Eve were created.

    ein sof -

    (Heb., without limit) In Jewish kabbalism, a designation for the divine -- "the unlimited one."

    Elohim, El -

    Hebrew general term for deity. See also YHWH

    emuna -

    (h) (Heb., "faith"; see Arabic iman) See faith.

    eretz Yisrael/Israel -

    (Heb., land of Israel) In Jewish thought, the special term for the Palestinian area believed to have been promised to the Jewish people by God in the ancient covenant.

    Essenes -

    The name of a Jewish sub-group in the 1st century CE according to Josephus, Philo and other sources. See also Qumran.

    ethics -

    (Greek, customs; see Latin mores [morals]) A general designation for value systems governing human activities considered to be "right" or "wrong," usually with reference to some "higher" authority (as in "you have no ethics" or "what are the ethics of this situation?"); also refers to the study of such systems.

    etiology -

    (also aetiology), from the Greek for cause or origin A term used to describe or label stories that claim to explain the reason for something being (or being called) what it is. For example, in the old Jewish creation story (Genesis 2.23), woman (ishshah is given that name because she has been taken out of (the side or rib of) man (ish).

    etrog -

    A citron; the fruit of goodly trees (Leviticus 23.40) carried in procession in the synagogue with the lulab during the festival of Sukkot (Feast of Tabernacles).

    exilarch -

    (Rosh Galut, from Greek, ruler of the exile; corresponds to Aramaic resh galuta, head of the exile) A term used in early rabbinic Judaism for the head of the Jewish community in exile in Babylonia. The exilarch was depicted as an imperial dignitary, a member of the council of state, living in semi-royal fashion, who appointed communal officers and judges and was a descendant of the house of David

    exile -

    The term refers to the various expulsions of Jews from the ancestral homeland. Over time, it came to express the broader notion of Jewish homelessness and state of being aliens. Thus, colloquially, "to be in galut" means to live in the diaspora and also to be in a state of physical and even spiritual alienation in Hebrew galut.

    existentialism -

    A modern philosophical position that has influenced Jewish and Christian thought significantly, with emphasis on the idea that meaningfulness must be created by people, to whom only existence is given

    Exodus -

    (from Greek to exit or go out) Refers to the event of the Israelites leaving Egypt (see also Passover) and to the biblical book (see Pentateuch) that tells of that event.

    Ezra -

    Name of a person in the Hebrew Bible with whom the reestablishment of Judaism in Jerusalem in the 5th century BCE is associated. The events are recorded in a biblical book known by his name, and he is also associated with apocryphal books and traditions.
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    F


    fast, fasting -

    A general term for the religious rite or practice of going without food at certain times or for certain periods. See, Yom Kippur.
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    G


    Gabriel -

    An angel or archangel from Jewish tradition who is closely associated with the virgin birth in Christianity, and with the revelation of the Quran in Islam.

    Gaon -

    (pl. Geonim,; adj. geonic; Heb., eminence, excellence) A title given to the Jewish head of the Babylonian academy and then to distinguished talmudic scholars in the 6th to 12th centuries.

    Geiger, Abraham -

    (1810-1874) Early Jewish reform advocate in Germany, noted for his scholarship, his modern prayer book, and his advocacy for Judaism as a "world religion."

    gemara -

    (Heb., Aramic to Say) Popularly applied to the Jewish Talmud as a whole, to discussions by rabbinic teachers on Mishnah, and to decisions reached in these discussions. In a more restricted sense, the work of the generations of the amoraim in completing Mishnah to produce the Talmuds.

    gematria -

    An interpretative device in rabbinic Judaism which focuses on the numerical value of each word.

    genizah -

    (Heb., hiding) A hiding place or storeroom, usually connected with a Jewish synagogue, for worn-out holy books. The most famous is the Cairo Genizah, which contained books and ********s that provide source material for Jewish communities living under Islamic rule from about the 9th through the 12th centuries. It was discovered at the end of the 19th century.

    Gittin- Get -

    (Heb.; sing get). Jewish practice related to divorce. A get is a Jewish divorce.

    God -

    A general designation for the deity (Hebrew Elohim, Yhwh; Greek Theos; Arabic Allah).
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    H


    hacham -

    (pl. hachamim; Heb., the wise) A Jewish title given to pre-70 CE proto-rabbinic sages/scholars and post-70 CE rabbinic scholars.

    haftara -

    In Jewish liturgy, designates a specific section of the biblical prophets read in synagogue services immediately after the corresponding Torah (Pentateuch) section called the parasha(h).

    haggada -

    (From he word to learn the story of exodus from Egypt) "The Haggada(h)" is a liturgical manual used in the Jewish Passover Seder and repeat.

    halaka -

    (h)/halakha (adj. halakic) Any normative Jewish law, custom, practice, or rite -- or the entire complex. Halaka is law established or custom ratified by authoritative rabbinic jurists and teachers. Colloquially, if something is deemed halakic, it is considered proper and normative behavior.

    halitzah -

    A ceremony related to the Jewish Levirate law of marriage, which frees the widow to marry someone other than her husband's brother. In this ceremony the widow removes a shoe from her brother-in-law's foot, which is symbolic of removing his possessive right over her. See also levirate marriage.

    Hanukka -

    (h) (Heb., dedication) A Jewish festival (of lights) that commemorates the rededication of the Jerusalem temple after it was violated by the Greek,to more *traditional modes of Jewish worship by Judah the Maccabee around 164 BCE. See also calendar.

    hasidim, hasidism -

    (Heb., pious ones) The term may refer to Jews in various periods: (1) a group that resisted the policies of Antiochus Epiphanes in the 2nd century BCE at the start of the Maccabean revolt; (2) pietists in the 13th century; (3) followers of the movement of Hasidism founded in the first half of the 18th century by Israel Ba'al Shem Tov.

    haskalah -

    (Heb.) Jewish rationalistic enlightenment in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe. See maskilim, Mendelson, reform.

    Hasmoneans -

    Descendants of Hashmon, a Jewish family that included the Maccabees, the high priests and kings who ruled Judea from 142 to 63 BCE.

    havdalah -

    (Heb., separation) The Jewish ceremony using wine, spices, and candles at the conclusion of the Sabbath. Smelling the spices signifies the hope for a fragrant week; the light signifies the hope for a week of brightness and joy.

    heaven -

    A term used variously to designate such locations as the abode of deity, or the place where those favored by God will ultimately arrive, or an area of (spiritual) activity above the material earth, or the place where spiritual/ideal realities abide. See also paradise.

    Hebrew -

    (from Heb. to pass over, cross over) An old name given to the people of Israel, and also to their language.

    hell -

    (also hades [Greek]) Place of punishment for the departed dead who do not attain to heaven, See also sheol, Satan.

    hellenism -

    (adj. hellenistic; Greek word for "Greekish") The civilization that spread from Greece through much of the ancient world from 333 (Alexendar the Great) to 63 (dominance of Rome) BCE. As a result, many elements of Greek culture (names, language, philosophy, athletics, architecture, etc.) penetrated the Near East and certain groups of Jews in Israel.

    hermeneutics -

    Principles of interpretation (from the Greek, to interpret, translate). The term is often used with reference to the study of Jewish and Christian ******ures.

    Herzl, Theodor -

    Hungarian Jewish author of Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State) in 1896 and consider to be the founder of the modern secular political Zionism

    Hillel -

    Often called by the title "the Elder." Probably a Babylonian, Hillel was an important sage of the early Jewish period in Palestine around the turn of the era. His teachings convey the Pharisaic ideal, through many epigrams on humility and peace (found in Sayings of the Fathers 1-2); and were fundamental in shaping the Pharisaic traditions and modes of interpretation. In rabbinic lore, Hillel is famous for a negative formulation of the "golden rule" (recited to a non- Jew): "What is hateful to you do not do to your fellow man. That is the whole Torah, the rest is commentary. Go and learn it." His style of legal reasoning is continued by his disciples, known as *Beit Hillel ("House/School of Hillel"), and is typically contrasted with that of Shammai (a contemporary) and his school.

    holocaust -

    (from Greek, entire burnt offering) A term used in recent times to refer to the Nazi German policy to exterminate the Jewish people in the second world war period

    humanism -

    A modern term used (sometimes pejoratively) of the position that focuses on human values and needs without special concern for arbitrary religious traditions or values. Also applied more traditionally to the embracing of classical Greek and Latin values, rediscovered through classical learning (as contrasted to late Medieval scholasticism; see also renaissance).

    huppah or chuppah -

    (Heb.) In Judaism, the special canopy under which a marriage ceremony is conducted.
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    I


    idolatry -

    A Greek term for t he worship of what are perceived to be "idols" or false "gods," forbidden in the biblical traditions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

    Isaac -

    One of the Israelite patriarchs, son of Abraham and father of Jacob, in the accounts in the book of Genesis.

    Israel -

    A name given to the Jewish patriarch Jacob according to the etiology of Genesis 32.38. In Jewish biblical times, this name refers to the northern tribes, but also to the entire nation. Historically, Jews have continued to regard themselves as the true continuation of the ancient Israelite national-religious community. The term thus has a strong cultural sense. In modern times, it also refers to the political state of Israel. Christians came to consider themselves to be the "true" Israel, thus also a continuation of the ancient traditions.
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    J


    Jacob -

    One of the Israelite patriarchs, son of Isaac and grandson of Abraham, in the accounts in the book of Genesis.

    Jehovah -

    Mechanical attempt to represent the special Jewish name for deity, YHWH.

    Jerusalem -

    From the religious viewpoints of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, the main city in ancient Palestine (= modern Israel), where the Temple of David/Solomon had been located, Jesus/Joshua had been crucified/resurrected, Muhammad had journeyed to heaven (his miraj), among other significant things. Thus for all three religions, in some senses Jerusalem is a or the "holy city."

    Jesus/Joshua -

    (Jesus is the Greek attempt to transliterate the Semitic name Joshua) The somewhat mysterious Palestinian popular figure from the 1st century CE whose death and alleged resurrection as God's Messiah/Christ became foundational for an early Jewish sub-group known as Nazarenes, from which Christianity ultimately developed as a separate religion.

    Jew -

    From the Hebrew name of the patriarch Judah, whose name also came to designate the tribe and tribal district in which Jerusalem was located. Thus the inhabitants of Judah and members of the tribe of Judah come to be called Judahites or, in short form, Jews. The religious outlook associated with these people after about the 6th century BCE comes to be called 'Judaism,' and has varying characteristics at different times and places: see especially early Judaism, rabbinic Judaism. See also Hebrew(s)rael'>Israel.' style='display:none' />

    Josephus or Flavius Josephus -

    Jewish general and author in the latter part of the 1st century CE who wrote a massive history (Antiquities) of the Jews and a detailed treatment of the Jewish revolt against Rome in 66-73 CE (and his involvement in it), among other things.

    Judah the Prince -

    (Heb., haNasi) Head of the rabbinic Jewish community in Palestine around 200 CE. Credited with publication of the Mishnah

    Judaism, Jew -

    From the Hebrew name of the patriarch Judah, whose name also came to designate the tribe and tribal district in which Jerusalem was located. Thus the inhabitants of Judah and members of the tribe of Judah come to be called Judahites or, in short form, Jews. The religious outlook associated with these people after about the 6th century BCE comes to be called "Judaism," and has varying characteristics at different times and places: see especially early Judaism, rabbinic Judaism. See also Hebrew(s)rael">Israel.
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    K


    Kabala(h) or Kabbala(h) (Kabalism) -

    (Heb. qabbala, receiving, tradition) A system of Jewish theosophy and mysticism. See also kavanah, Zohar.

    kaddish -

    A classical Jewish prayer (mostly in Aramaic) with eschatological focus extolling God's majesty and kingdom recited at the conclusion of each major section of each liturgical service; a long version (called rabbinic kaddish) follows an act of study; also a prayer by mourners during the first year of bereavement (see shiva,*****oshim) and on the anniversary of the death of next-of-kin. Compare the Christian "Lord's Prayer," Islam's Fatiha.

    kahal (qahal) -

    (Heb., congregation, gathering) Used to refer to the corporate Jewish community of medieval Europe. See also synagogue,.

    Karaism, Karaites -

    Derived from Heb. qara, ******ure. A Middle Eastern heterodox Jewish group that arose in opposition to Rabbinism in the 8th century CE, and emphasized the written ******ures while criticizing the rabbinic use of oral law.

    kasher, kashrut -

    See kosher.

    kavanah -

    (Heb., intention) A mystical instrument of the Jewish kabalists; a meditation which accompanies a ritual act.

    kehilla(h) -

    (Heb., community) Jewish sense of community, in a particular sense, within the larger kneset Israel

    keneset Israel (Heb.) -

    Assembly of Israel, or the Jewish people as a whole. See kehilla; compare Christian church.

    ketuva(h) or ketuba(h) -

    (Heb.) traditional Jewish marriage contract. The ketuba is usually read during the marriage ceremony, under the bridal canopy the purpose of the Ketuba is to secure the rights of the woman See also *get.

    Ketuvim or Ketubim (Heb., -

    The third and last division of the classical Jewish Bible (TaNaK), including large poetic and epigrammatic works such as Psalms and Proverbs and Job as well as a miscellany of other writings (Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Qohelet, Esther, Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, Chronicles).

    kiddush -

    (Heb., sanctification; derived from kadosh (qadosh), holy) A ritual of Jewish sabbath and other holy days, usually accompanied by a cup of wine, which proclaims the holiness of the day.

    kiddushin (Heb., -

    Denotes Jewish betrothal for marriage, signifying the sanctity of the relationship.

    kiphah -

    A Jewish headcovering worn for worship, religious study, meals, or at any other time; also called yarmulke.

    kohen or cohen (pl. kohanim; Heb.) -

    An Israelite priest, generally descended from the tribe of Levi. A functionary usually associated, in antiquity (including early Judaism), with temples and their rites (including sacrifice)

    kosher (Heb., kasher) -

    Proper or ritually correct; kashrut refers to ritually correct Jewish dietary practices. Traditional Jewish dietary laws are based on biblical legislation. Only land animals that chew the cud and have split hooves (sheep, beef; not pigs, camels) are permitted and must be slaughtered in a special way. Further, meat products may not be eaten with milk products or immediately thereafter. Of sea creatures, only those (fish) having fins and scales are permitted. Fowl is considered a meat food and also has to be slaughtered in a special manner
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    L


    law -

    See torah, commandments, oral and written law, halaka, Shulhan Aruch.

    leaven -

    A fermenting substance used to make bread dough rise, making it lighter with air bubbles. In Jewish ritual, leaven is not premitted at passover time, when "unleavened" bread (matzah) is a major symbol. Classical Christianity has also been influenced by this prohibition in its Easter and eucharist practices (see host).

    levirite marriage -

    From the Latin levir for the Hebrew yabam, brother-in-law; a biblical system of marriage in which the levir marries his brother's widow (Deuteronomy 25.5-10).

    liberal -

    (from Latin, free [thinker]) A general term used in religion discussions to indicate a person or view that breaks significantly from the conservative traditional position(s). See also modernist

    literalist -

    A general term used in religion discussions to indicate a person or view that attempts to interpret the ******ures and other recognized classical religious authorities in a straightforward, literal manner. See also fundamentalism, verbal inspiration, allegory.

    liturgy (adj. liturgical) -

    Rites of public worship, usually institutionalized in relation to temple, synagogue, church, kaba, or mosque locations and traditions, but also in other formalized observances see also:, prayer, shema, , siddur.

    lulab -

    The palm branch used with other plants in the Jewish Sukkot (Tabernacles) celebration.
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    M


    maariv -

    (from Heb., "evening") Jewish synagogue evening prayer or service. See also liturgy.

    Maccabee(s) -

    See Hasmoneans, hasidim, Hannuka

    Machzor -

    the special prayer book used on holidays

    magen David -

    (Heb., "shield of David") The distinctive six-pointed Jewish star, used especially since the 17th century.

    maggid -

    (Heb., a speaker) A kabalistic notion of how the holy spirit is mediated to the mystic; later meant a preacher among the eighteenth-century Hasidim.

    Maimonides -

    or Moses ben Maimon A major medieval rabbi, physician, scientist, and philosopher (1135-1204), known by the acronym RaMBaM (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon). Born in Spain, Maimonides fled from persecution to Morocco and finally settled in Egypt. His Major works include a legal commentary on the Mishnah, a law code called Mishnah Torah, and the preeminent work of medieval Jewish rational philosophy, The Guide of the Perplexed.

    mainstream -

    Refers to what now appears to be, or to have been, the influential majority (or dominant authority) in a continuum; see classical, orthodox, traditional.

    Marranos -

    An old Spanish term meaning "swine," used to execrate medieval Spanish Jews who converted to Christianity but secretly kept their Judaism.

    maskilim -

    (Heb., the enlightened ones) Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Jews who engaged in secular rationalistic studies and facilitated the acculturation of Jews to Western society; members of the haskalah.

    Masoretes, Masoretic **** -

    Derived from masorah, meaning "tradition"; the Masoretes were the rabbis in ninth-century Palestine who sought to preserve the traditional **** of the Bible (hence called the Masoretic ****), which is still used in contemporary synagogues. The Masoretes were scholars who encouraged Bible study and attempted to achieve unlformity by establishing rules for correcting the **** in matters of spelling, grammar, and pronunciation.

    matzah -

    Jewish unleavened bread used at Passover.

    megillah -

    (Heb., scroll) Usually refers to the biblical scroll of Esther read on the festival of Purim. Or, if indefinite, one of the five megilloth.

    megilloth -

    (Heb., plural of megillah, scrolls) One of five biblical scrolls in the Ketuvim: Ruth, Esther, Qoheleth, Song of Songs, and Lamentations. One of the scrolls is read on major feast and fast days; for example, Esther is read on the festival of Purim and the Song of Songs is read during Passover.

    melakah -

    (Heb.) Work.

    Mendelssohn, Moses -

    (1729-86) Important German Jewish thinker whose ideas helped lay the base for Reform Judaism (see haskala).

    menorah -

    Jewish Symbol, candelabrum with special religious significance; a nine-branched menorah is used at Hannukah, while the seven-branched was used in the ancient Temple.
    ).
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

  2. #2
    الصورة الرمزية نسيبة بنت كعب
    نسيبة بنت كعب غير متواجد حالياً عضو شرفي
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Mar 2005
    المشاركات
    3,277
    الدين
    الإسلام
    آخر نشاط
    04-12-2012
    على الساعة
    11:58 PM

    افتراضي

    merkabah -

    (Heb., chariot) The chariot vision was an integral element of mysticism signifying a mystical vision of divinity.

    messiah -

    Lit "anointed one"; Greek christos Ancient priests and kings (and sometimes prophets) of Israel were anointed with oil. In early Judaism, the term came to mean a royal descendant of the dynasty of David who would restore the united kingdom of Israel and Judah and usher in an age of peace, justice and plenty; the redeemer figure. The concept developed in many directions over the centuries. The messianic age was believed by some Jews to be a time of perfection of human institutions; others believed it to be a time of radical new beginnings, a new heaven and earth, after divine judgment and destruction.

    mezuzah -

    (pl. mezuzot; Heb., doorpost) A parchment scroll with selected Torah verses (Deuteronomy 6.4-9; 11.13-21) placed in a container and affixed to the exterior doorposts (at the right side of the entrance) of observant Jewish homes (see Deuteronomy 6.1-4), and sometimes also to interior doorposts of rooms. The word shaddai (almighty) usually is inscribed on the back of the container.

    mezuzah -

    (pl. mezuzot; Heb., "doorpost") A parchment scroll with selected Torah verses (Deuteronomy 6.4-9; 11.13-21) placed in a container and affixed to the exterior doorposts (at the right side of the entrance) of observant Jewish homes (see Deuteronomy 6.1-4), and sometimes also to interior doorposts of rooms. The word shaddai (almighty) usually is inscribed on the back of the container.

    midrash -

    (pl. midrashim) From Heb. darash, to inquire, whence it comes to mean exposition (of ******ure). Refers to the "commentary" literature developed in classical Judaism that attempts to interpret Jewish ******ures in a thorough manner. Literary Midrash may focus either on halaka, directing the Jew to specific patterns of religious practice, or on (h)aggada, dealing with theological ideas, ethical teachings, popular philosophy, imaginative exposition, legend, allegory, animal fables, etc. -- that is, whatever is not halaka.

    mikveh or mikvah -

    See miqvah

    milhemet mitzvah -

    From Heb, war of the covenant;

    mincha(h) -

    (from Heb. for afternoon sacrifice) Afternoon prayers in Jewish synagogue.

    minyan -

    A quorum of ten Jews (for Orthodox Jews, ten males) above age thirteen necessary for public services and certain other religious ceremonies to be considered valid.

    miqvah or mikveh -

    (Heb.) A Jewish communal, ritual bath (like baptism) for washing away ritual impurity by immersion.

    Miracle in Heb “Nes” -

    Miracle in Heb “Nes” A general term for special events that seem inexplicable by normal (rational) means.

    Mishnah -

    (Heb., teaching) The digest of the recommended Jewish oral halaka as it existed at the end of the 2nd century and was collated, edited, and revised by Rabbi Judah the Prince. The code is divided into six major units and sixty-three minor ones. The work is the authoritative legal tradition of the early *sages and is the basis of the legal discussions of t he Talmud. See also pilpul.

    mitnaged -

    (pl. mitnagaim; Heb., opposer(s)) Traditionalist and rationalistic Jewish opponents of eighteenth-century Jewish Hasidism.

    mitzvah -

    (pl. mitzvot; Heb., commandment, obligation) A ritual or ethical duty or act of obedience to God's will. See also commandments.

    monolithic -

    (Greek, composed of a single stone) Usually used with reference to rigid, fixed, unchanging systems -- often in negative statements, such as Judaism was by no means monolithic.

    monotheism -

    (Greek, one deity) The belief that there is only one real and ultimate deity.

    morals -

    (Latin, customs) See ethics

    Moses -

    The great biblical personality (c. thirteenth century BCE) who is credited with leading the people of Israel out of Egyptian bondage and teaching them the divine laws at Sinai. He is also described as first of the Jewish prophets. Throughout Jewish history he is the exalted man of faith and leadership without peer.

    mystic, mysticism -

    (adj. mystical; from Greek for initiant into religious mysteries) A vaguely used term to indicate certain types of behavior or perspective that goes beyond the rational in the quest of what is considered to be the ultimate in religious experience (often described as union or direct communion with deity). See also kabalah,
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    N


    nabi or navi -

    (Heb., pl. nebiim; also Arabic) A prophet in ancient Israel; became a designation for a section of the Jewish ******ures; see TaNaK.

    nasi -

    (Heb., prince, leader) See Judah the Prince.
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    O


    observance, observant -

    Refers primarily to religious rules and practices, and to those who are rigorous about keeping them; see calendar, cult, liturgy, commandments, halaka, law, torah, tradition (etc.).

    Old Testament -

    (= OT) The name traditionally given by Christians to the Jewish biblical writings that together with the New Testament constitute the Christian Bible. For most Protestant Christians, OT is identical to the classical Jewish Bible, while for classical (Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, etc.) Christianity, OT also includes "the Apocrypha."

    omer -

    (Heb., sheaf) In Judaism, the sheaf of grain offering brought to the temple during Passover, on Nisan 16; thus also the name of the seven-week period between Passover/Pesah and Shabuot also known as the Sephirah. See also calendar.

    oral law -

    In traditional Jewish pharisaic/rabbinic thought, God reveals instructions for living through both the written ******ures and through a parallel process of orally transmitted traditions. Critics of this approach within Judaism include Sadducees and Karaites.

    orthodox -

    From the Greek for "correct opinion/outlook," as opposed to heterodox or heretical. The judgment that a position is "orthodox" depends on what are accepted as the operative "rules" or authorities at the time. Over the course of history, the term "orthodox" has come to denote the dominant surviving forms that have proved themselves to be "traditional" or "classical" or "mainstream" (e.g. rabbinic Judaism; the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Christian churches; sunni Islam), although new, relative "orthodoxies" constantly emerge (and often disappear). See also neo-orthodoxy, orthopraxy.

    orthopraxy -

    (Greek, correct action/activity) In contrast to orthodoxy (right belief), the emphasis in this term concerns conduct, both ethical and liturgical. Historically, Judaism and Islam have tended to emphasize orthopraxy relatively more than orthodoxy, while classical Christianity tended to shift the balance in the other direction.

    OT -

    = Old Testament
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    P


    Palestine -

    (Greek form representing Philistines, for the seacoast population encountered by early geographers) An ancient designation for the area between Syria (to the north) and Egypt (to the south), between the Mediterranean Sea and the River Jordan; roughly, modern Israel.

    paradise -

    (Greek, park, garden; possibly derived from Heb. pardes) Term used to describe the location of the creation of humankind (see garden of Eden) as well as the destination where those favored by God will ultimately arrive (especially in Islam). Also used in apocalyptic ****s for one of the heavens or levels above the inhabited earth, near God.

    parasha -

    (h) (Heb., section) Prescribed weekly section of biblical Torah (Pentateuch) read in Jewish synagogue liturgy (ordinarily on an annual cycle). See haftarah.

    pareve, or parve -

    (Yiddish) A Yiddish word identifying food that is neither milk nor meat. According to Jewish halakhah, foods that are pareve may be eaten with either dairy or meat. It now has the added connotation of bland or neutral.

    Passover -

    (Hebrew pesah) The major Jewish spring holiday (with agricultural aspects) also known as hag hamatzot (festival of unleavened bread, commemorating the Exodus or deliverance of the Hebrew people from Egypt (see Exodus 12-13). The festival lasts eight days, during which Jews refrain from eating all leavened foods and products. A special ritual meal (called the Seder) is prepared, and a traditional narrative (called the Haggadah), supplemented by hymns and songs, marks the event. See calendar, liturgy;

    Pentateuch -

    (from Greek for five scrolls) The five books attributed to Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy; known in Jewish tradition as Torat Mosheh (the teaching of Moses), or simply the Torah.

    Pentecost -

    (Greek for "50th [day]") See Shabuot/Shavuot, calendar.

    Perushim -

    See Pharisees.

    Pesach -

    See Passover, calendar.

    Pharisees -

    (Hebrew perushim, lit. separatists (?); adj. pharisaic) The name given to a group or movement in early Judaism, the origin and nature of which is unclear. Many scholars identify them with the later sages and rabbis who taught the oral and written law; Sigal and some others see them as a complex of pietistic and zealous separatists, distinct from the proto-rabbis. According to Josephus (see also NT), the Pharisees believed in the immortality of souls and resurrection of the dead, in a balance between predestination and free will, in angels as active divine agents, and in authoritative oral law. In the early Christian materials, Pharisees are often depicted as leading opponents of Jesus/Joshua and his followers, and are often linked with scribes but distinguished from the Sadducees.

    Philo Judeus -

    (= the Jew) of Alexandria Greek speaking (and writing) prolific Jewish author in the 1st century CE. Provides extensive evidence for Jewish thought in the Greco-Roman (hellenistic) world outside of Palestine.

    pilpul -

    Dialectical rational method of studying Jewish oral law as codified in the Talmud(s).

    Pittsburg Platform -

    Early statement of American Reform Jewish principles.

    piyyutim -

    Medieval Jewish synagogue hymns and poems added to standard prayers of the talmudic liturgy.

    pogrom -

    From the Russian word for devastation; an unprovoked attack or series of attacks upon a Jewish community.

    prayer -

    A general term used for addressing petitions (or praise) to the deity. See amida, , kaddish, , maariv, mincha, shemoneh esreh. See also hymn, liturgy, siddur.

    predestination -

    The idea that one's eternal destiny is determined beforehand, from the beginning of time, by the will and plan of the deity.

    priest -

    (see also kohen) prophet (from Greek, to speak for or speak forth) Name given to accepted spokespersons of God (or their opposites, false prophets). Became a designation for a section of the Jewish ******ures; see nabi, TaNaK.

    proto-rabbis -

    Pre-70 CE sages who set the foundations of post-70 CE rabbinic Judaism before the ordination of rabbis became formalized in its classical sense.

    pseudepigrapha -

    (adj. pseudepigraphical), from Greek pseudos, deceit, untruth, and epigraphe, writing, in******ion A name given to a number of intertestamental apocryphal writings that are implausibly attributed to an ancient worthy such as Adam/Eve, Enoch, Abraham, Moses, Isaiah, Ezra, etc.

    Purim -

    A Jewish festival commemorating the deliverance of Jews in Persia as described in the biblical book of Esther. Held in late winter (between Hannukah and Passover), on the 14th of Adar. See calendar. megillah
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    Q


    qabbala -

    (Heb.) See kabala.

    Qumran or Khirbet Qumran -

    The site near the northwest corner of the Dead Sea in modern Israel (west bank) where the main bulk of the Jewish Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered abound 1946. The Qumran community that apparently produced the scrolls seems to have flourished from the 3rd century BCE to the 1st century CE, and is usually identified with the Jewish Essenes, or a group like them.
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    R


    rabbi -

    (adj. rabbinic) Hebrew, my master, an authorized teacher of the classical Jewish tradition (see oral law) after the fall of the second Temple in 70 CE. The role of the rabbi has changed considerably throughout the centuries. Traditionally, rabbis serve as the legal and spiritual guides of their congregations and communities. The title is conferred after considerable study of traditional Jewish sources. This conferral and its responsibilities is central to the chain of tradition in Judaism.

    RaSHI -

    Acronym for Rabbi Solomon (= Sholomo) ben Isaac (1040-1105), a great medieval sage of Troyes, France. He is the author of fundamental commentaries on the Talmud, and one of the most beloved and influential commentaries on the Bible. Characterized by great lucidity and pedagogy, his comments emphasized the plain, straightforward sense of a ****.

    rebbe -

    The title of the spiritual leader of the Hasidim; see zaddik.

    Rechabites -

    A dissenting movement in ancient Israel generally devoted to certain ascetic practices and a simple lifestyle (see Jeremiah 35.1-19).

    Reconstructionist Judaism -

    Founded by Mordecai M. Kaplan (1881-1982), this represents a recent development in American Judaism, and attempts to focus on Judaism as a civilization and culture constantly adapting to insure survival in a natural social process. The central academic institution is the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College in the Philadelphia suburbs. See also Reform and Conservative Judaism.

    redactor -

    An editor, especially with reference to ancient books such as the Jewish and Christian ******ures

    Reform Judaism -

    Modern movement originating in 18th century Europe that attempts to see Judaism as a rational religion adaptable to modern needs and sensitivities. The ancient traditions and laws are historical relics that need have no binding power over modern Jews. See Pittsburg Platform, Geiger. The central academic institution of American Reform Judaism is the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, and it is represented also by the Central Conference of American Rabbis. Compare Conservative and Reconstructionist Judaism.

    relativism -

    The modern position that affirms that everything (except this statement!) is relative to the particularities of the given situation.

    religion -

    A general term for a system of beliefs and/or practices thought to enhance human contact with realities otherwise inaccessible or unperceived.

    responsa -

    Also called teshubot, from sheelot uteshubot (questions and answers); answers to questions on halaka and observances, given by Jewish scholars on topics addressed to them. They originated during the geonic period, and are still used as a means of modern updating and revision of halaka..

    Rosh Hashanah -

    (Heb., beginning of the year) Jewish New Year celebration in the fall of the year, the month of Tishri. See also calendar.

    Rosh Hodesh -

    (Heb., beginning of a lunar month) The New Moon Festival. See also calendar.
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    S


    Sabbath -

    The seventh day of the week (Heb., shabbat), recalling the completion of the creation and the Exodus from Egypt. It is a day symbolic of new beginnings and one dedicated to God, a most holy day of rest. The commandment of rest is found in the Bible and has been elaborated by the rabbis. It is a special duty to study Torah on the Sabbath and to be joyful. Sabbaths near major festivals (see calendar) are known by special names.

    Sabbatianism -

    A messianic movement begun in the 17th century by Sabbatai Zvi/Zebi (1626-1676), who ultimately converted to Islam.

    sacrifice -

    (Latin, perform a sacred act) A general term for the giving up of things of value for religious purposes, such as (1) liturgical sacrifices of animal life or of other valuables (grain, wine, etc.), and (2) personal sacrifices of time or money or talents or potential

    Sadducees -

    An early Jewish sub-group whose origins and ideas are uncertain. It probably arose early in the 2nd century BCE and ceased to exist when the Temple was destroyed in 70 CE. Sadducees supported priestly authority and rejected traditions not directly grounded in the Pentateuch, such as the concept of personal, individual life after death. They are often depicted as in conflict with the Pharisees.

    sage -

    For Judaism, see hakam.

    Samaritans -

    Another of the numerous sub-groups in early Judaism (see also Sadducees, Pharisees, Essenes) and residents of the district of Samaria north of Jerusalem and Judah in what is now Israel. They are said to have recognized only the Pentateuch as ******ure and Mt. Gerizim as the sacred center rather than Jerusalem. There was ongoing hostility between Samaritans and Judahites. Samaritan communities exist to the present.

    Sanhedrin -

    (from Greek for assembly [of persons seated together]; see also synagogue, church) A legislative and judicial body from the period of early Judaism and into rabbinic times. Traditionally composed of 71 members.

    Satan -

    (Hebrew, "accuser/adversary") The opponent of God (or of God's supporters) in Hebrew tradition (and thence into Christianity and Islam) who is often depicted as a fallen angel (also called "the Devil"; in Arabic Iblis) amd is considered to be in charge of evil and its influences (with "demons" as his aides), and to rule over Hell until the final judgment (see yawm al-din).

    scholasticism -

    A general term for highly organized and highly rationalistic scholarly developments and discussions according to well developed conventions. In Christianity, the rise of universities in 12th-13th century Europe was a high-point for scholasticism (e.g. Thomas Aquinas). Judaism and Islam experienced similar scholastic flourishing in that general period in the west (and earlier in the east, especially for Islam).

    scholasticism -

    A general term for highly organized and highly rationalistic scholarly developments and discussions according to well developed conventions. In Christianity, the rise of universities in 12th-13th century Europe was a high-point for scholasticism (e.g. Thomas Aquinas). Judaism and Islam experienced similar scholastic flourishing in that general period in the west (and earlier in the east, especially for Islam).

    ******ures -

    General designation for canonical or biblical writings.

    sect -

    A general designation for a definable sub-group, often with negative overtones. See also cult.

    secular -

    (Latin, of this world) A general term for non-religious, or the opposite of religious.

    seder -

    (Heb., for order; pl. sedarim) The traditional Jewish evening service and opening of the celebration of Passover, which includes special food symbols and narratives. The order of the service is highly regulated, and the traditional narrative is known as the Passover Haggadah. Also one of the six divisions of the Mishna; or one of the 154 sections into which Torah/Pentateuch is divided for a three year cycle of liturgical readings in synagogue. See also siddur.

    semikah -

    (Heb.) Rabbinic ordination., the process of investing a person with ministerial or rabbinic priestly office and authority.

    Sephardim -

    (adj. Sephardic; Heb., Sephardi) The designation Sepharad in biblical times refers to a colony of exiles from Jerusalem (Obadiah 20), possibly in or near Sardis{??}; in the medieval period, Sephardi(c) Jews are those descended from those who lived in Spain and Portugal (the Iberian peninsula) before the expulsion of 1492. As a cultural designation, the term refers to the complex associated with Jews of this region and its related diaspora in the Balkans and Middle East (especially in Islamic countries). The term is used in contradistinction to Ashkenazi, but it does not refer, thereby, to all Jews of non-Ashkenazi origin.

    sephira -

    (h) or sefira (Heb., "counting, number"; pl. sefirot) See also omer. In Jewish kabala, the sefirot are the primary emanations or manifistations of deity that together make up the fulness (pleroma) of the godhead.

    Septuagint -

    Strictly speaking, refers to the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Pentateuch, probably made during the reign of Ptolemy II, Greek ruler of Egypt around 250 BCE. Subsequently, Greek translations of other portions of the Jewish ******ures came to be added to the corpus, and the term Septuagint was applied to the entire collection. Such collections served as the "******ures" for Greek speaking Jews and Christians.

    shabbat -


    Shabbatai Zvi -

    See Sabbatianism.

    Shammai -

    See Hillel.

    Shavuot/Shabuot -

    (Pentecost; Heb., weeks) Observed 50 days from the day the first sheaf of grain was offered to the priest; also known as Festival of First Fruits. See calendar.

    Shekinah -

    Jewish term for the divine presence; the Holy Spirit. In Kabalism it sometimes took on the aspect of the feminine element in deity.

    Shema -

    (Heb., hear) Title of the fundamental, monotheistic statement of Judaism, found in Deut. 6:4 ("Hear, O Israel, the LORD is our God, the LORD is One"; shema Yisrael YHWH elohenu YHWH ehad). This statement avers the unity of God, and is recited daily in the liturgy (along with Deut. 6:5-9, 11.13-21; Num. 15.37-41 and other passages), and customarily before sleep at night. This proclamation also climaxes special liturgies (like Yom Kippur), and is central to the confession before death and the ritual of martyrdom. The Shema is inscribed on the mezuzah and the tefillin. In public services, it is recited in unison.

    Shemini Atzeret -

    (the Eighth Day of Assembly) An eight-day festival that immediately follows the seven-day festival of Sukkot (Tabernacles). See also calendar.

    shemoneh esreh -

    (Heb., "eighteen") The main section of Jewish prayers recited in a standing position (see amida) and containing 19 (yes!) "benedictions": praise to (1) God of the fathers/patriarchs, (2) God's power and (3) holiness; prayers for (4) knowledge, (5) repentance, (6) forgiveness, (7) redemption, (8) healing sick persons, (9) agricultural prosperity, (10) ingathering the diaspora, (11) righteous judgment, (12) punishment of wicked and heretics (birkat haminim, (13) reward of pious, (14) rebuilding Jerusalem, (15) restoration of royal house of David, (16) acceptance of prayers, (17) thanks to God, (18) restoration of Temple worship, and (19) peace.

    sheol -

    (Heb.) Place of departed dead in (some) ancient Israel thought, without reference to punishments and rewards. See also hell, heaven.

    shiva -

    (Heb., seven) Seven days of mourning after the burial of a close relative (as in, "to sit shiva"). See also abelut, shloshim.

    shloshim -

    (Heb., thirty) An intermediate stage of 30 days of less severe mourning, including shiva.

    shofar -

    In Jewish worship, Ram's horn sounded at Rosh Hashanah morning worship and at the conclusion of Yom Kippur, as well as other times in that period during the fall.

    Shulhan Aruch -

    (Heb., prepared table) A code of Jewish law attributed to Joseph Karo in 1565 CE, which became authoritative for classical Judaism.

    siddur -

    (from Heb., to order) Jewish prayer book used for all days except special holidays (see seder). See also liturgy.

    Simhat Torah -

    (Heb., rejoicing with the Torah) A festival which celebrates the conclusion of the annual reading cycle of the Torah. See calendar.

    sopher or sofer -

    (pl. sopherim; Heb., scribe) Used as a general designation for scholars and copyists in both talmudic and later literature; a "scholastic," a learned researcher whose vocation was the study and teaching of the tradition. In early times the sopher was the scholar. By the 1st century he was no longer a real scholar but a functionary and teacher of children.

    Sukkot -

    (Tabernacles) (Heb., booths, tabernacles) Seven-day Jewish fall festival beginning on Tishri 15 commemorating the sukkot where Israel lived in the wilderness after the Exodus; also known as hag haasiph, the Festival of Ingathering (of the harvest). See also calendar.

    synagogue -

    (Greek for gathering) The central insitution of Jewish communal worship and study since antiquity (see also bet midrash), and by extension, a term used for the place of gathering. The structure of such buildings has changed, though in all cases the ark containing the Torah scrolls faces the ancient Temple site in Jerusalem.

    syncretism -

    (Greek for "draw together, combine") Synthesis of variegated religious beliefs derived from more than one religion or cultural/religious tradition. See also eclectic, assimilation.
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    T


    tallit -

    A large, four-cornered shawl with fringes and special knots at the extremities, worn during Jewish morning prayers. The fringes, according to the Bible (Numbers 15.38-39), remind the worshiper of God's commandments. It is traditional for the male to be buried in his tallit, but without its fringes.

    Talmud -

    (Heb., study or learning) Rabbinic Judaism produced two Talmuds: the one known as "Babylonian" is the most famous in the western world, and was completed around the fifth centuty CE; the other, known as the "Palestinian" or "Jerusalem" Talmud, was edited perhaps in the early fourth century CE. Both have as their common core the Mishnah collection of the tannaim, to which are added commentary and discussion (gemara) by the amoraim (teachers) of the respective locales. Gemara thus has also become a colloquial, generic term for the Talmud and its study.

    TaNaK -

    (Tanakh) A relatively modern acronym for the Jewish Bible, made up of the names of the three parts Torah (Pentateuch or Law), Nevi'im (Prophets), and Ketuvim (Writings) -- thus TNK pronounced TaNaK.

    tanna -

    (Heb., repeater, reciter; adj. tannaitic, pl. tannaim) A Jewish sage from the period of Hillel (around the turn of the era) to the compilation of the Mishnah (200 CE), distinguished from later amoraim. Tannaim were primarily scholars and teachers. The Mishnah, Tosefta, and halakic Midrashim were among their literary achievements.

    Targum -

    (Heb., translation, interpretation) Generally used to designate Aramaic translations of the Jewish ******ures. See also Septuagint (in a sense, Greek Targums).

    tefillin -

    Usually translated as phylacteries. Box-like appurtenances that accompany prayer, worn by Jewish adult males at the weekday morning services. The boxes have leather thongs attached and contain ******ural excerpts. One box (with four sections) is placed on the head, the other (with one section) is placed (customarily) on the left arm, near the heart. The biblical passages emphasize the unity of God and the duty to love God and be mindful of him with "all one's heart and mind" (e.g. Exod. 13.1-10, 11-16; Deut. 6.4-9; 11.13-21). See also Shema.

    temple -

    In the ancient world, temples were the centers of outward religious life, places at which public religious observances were normally conducted by the priestly professionals. In traditional Judaism, the only legitimate Temple was the one in Jerusalem, built first by king Solomon around 950 BCE, destroyed by Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar around 587/6 BCE, and rebuilt about 70 years later. It was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE. The site of the ancient Jewish Temple is now occupied, in part, by the golden domed "Dome of the Rock" Mosque. In recent times, "temple" has come to be used synonymously with synagogue in some Jewish usage.

    testament -

    Term for an agreement between two (or more) parties, such as a "last will and testament." In Jewish tradition, the covenant concept played an important role, and was translated as "testament," especially in Christian references to the ******ures of the "old covenant" (OT) and the "new" (NT).

    theology -

    From Greek, study of deity; a general term for discussions and investigations of things pertaining to God(s), and by extension, to religious matters. One who engages formally in theological studies is called a "theologian."

    thirteen principles -

    Statement of classical Jewish outlook (see belief) by Maimonides.

    tithe -

    Literally, a tenth part, usually with reference to prescribed or voluntary contributions to one's religious community. "Tithing" is often used to refer in general to systematic giving, without specific reference to the exact percentage..

    Torah, torah -

    (Heb., teaching, instruction) In general, torah refers to study of the whole gamut of Jewish tradition or to some aspect thereof. In its special sense, "the Torah" refers to the "five books of Moses" in the Hebrew ******ures (see Pentateuch). In the Quran, "Torah" is the main term by which Jewish ******ure is identified.

    Tosefta -

    (pl. Tosafot) (Heb., supplement) Tannaitic supplements to the Mishnah in the Talmud.

    tradition(al) -

    Something perceived to have been handed down (or passed along) from the past, often considered authoritative. See also mainstream, classical, orthodox.

    truth -

    That which conforms to reality. For classical Judaism, Christianity and Islam, ultimate truth is defined and determined in relation to the ultimate reality, God. "The Truth" is attested as a way of referring to the deity in Islam (the execution of Hallaj is a memorable example), and to Jesus in Christianity (Gospel of John).

    tzaddik -

    A general term for a righteous person in Jewish tradition. More specifically, the spiritual leader of the modern Hasidim, popularly known as rebbe. See also saint.
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    U


    usury -

    Old term for the principle of monetary interest, which is prohibited or limited under certain conditions in the ******ures of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
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    V


    veneration -

    A general term for religious devotion to a particular object or person. See zaddik,.
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    Y


    yarmulke -

    See kiphah.

    yeshivah -

    (pl. yeshivot) A Jewish rabbinic academy of higher learning. See also beit midrash.

    yetzer -

    A technical Heb. term for human "inclination" to do good (yetzer ha-tov) or to do evil (yetzer ha-ra).

    YHWH -

    (Yahweh) The sacred name of God in Jewish ******ures and tradition; also known as the tetragrammaton. Since Hebrew was written without vowels in ancient times, the four consonants YHWH contain no clue to their original pronunciation. They are generally rendered "Yahweh" in contemporary scholarship. In traditional Judaism, the name is not pronounced, but Adonai ("Lord") or something similar is substituted. In most English versions of the Bible the tetragrammaton is represented by "LORD" (or less frequently, "Jehovah").

    Yiddish -

    (from German Juedisch or Jewish) The vernacular of Ashkenazic Jews; it is a combination of several languages, especially Hebrew and German, written in Hebrew ******.

    yigdol/yigdal -

    (from Heb., to be great; thence Great is he) A hymn/chant/poem from 11th century or earlier, frequently found at the beginning or end of the Jewish prayer book (siddur). Also found as an adopted Christian hymn.

    Yom Kippur -

    (Heb., Day of Atonement) Annual day of fasting and atonement, occurring in the fall on Tishri 10 (just after Rosh Hashanah); the most solemn and important occasion of the Jewish religious year. See also calendar.
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    Z


    zaddik -

    (Heb., "righteous one") A general term for a righteous person in Jewish tradition. More specifically, the spiritual leader of the modern Hasidim, popularly known as rebbe.

    Zdaka -

    Charity (voluntary alms), going beyond the obligatory tax; righteous acts.

    zealot -

    (from Greek, to be enthusiastic) A general term for one who exhibits great enthusiasm and dedication to a cause. Specifically, a member of an early Jewish group or perspective that advocated Jewish independance (see theocracy) from Rome. See also assassins.

    zedakah -

    (Heb., "righteousness"; see tzedakah) Term in Judaism usually applied to deeds of charity and philanthropy

    Zion, Zionism -

    (Mount) Zion is an ancient Hebrew designation for Jerusalem, but already in biblical times it began to symbolize the national homeland (see e.g. Psalm 137.1-6). In this latter sense it served as a focus for Jewish national-religious hopes of renewal over the centuries. Ancient hopes and attachments to Zion gave rise to Zionist longings and movements since antiquity, culminating in the modern national liberation movement of that name. The Zionist cause helped the Jews return to Palestine in this century and found the state of Israel in 1948. The goal of Zionism is the political and spititual renewal of the Jewish people in its ancestral homeland. See also Herzl.

    zizit -

    (Heb., fringes) See tallit.

    Zohar -

    Book of Splendor; the chief literary work of the kabalists. The author of the main part of the Zohar was Moses de Leon (12th century) in Spain, but it is pseudepigraphically ascribed to the Palestinian tanna Simeon bar Yohai (2nd century CE), sometimes called RaShBaY (Rabbi Shimeon bar Yohai
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

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