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تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين
The Six Pillars of Faith
The pillars of Faith, Iman, enumerated in many verses of the Qur'an and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, are belief in God, in God's Angels, His Books, His Messengers, in the Hereafter and in Qadar (Destiny). These are familiar terms; but the non-Muslim reader would be mistaken if he thought that the Islamic concepts designated by them are the same as those of other religions and philosophies. It is hoped that the following exposition, which is itself made in the light of the Qur'an and the sayings of the Prophet, will make this point clear. It will also make clear the fact that the Islamic concept of faith itself is, in many ways, different from the popular Western one. In the West faith is usually contrasted to reason and knowledge. But according to the Qur'an true faith is that which is based on knowledge and supported by argument. Any belief which is not so based and supported is considered by the Qur'an to be mere caprice and whim which a thinking person must avoid. True faith can therefore be gained through reflection and the acquisition of knowledge, and not by blind and irrational commitment. A person armed with such an enlightened faith can enter with great confidence into rational discussion with people who do not share his beliefs with the hope of showing them their mistakes and weaknesses and winning them over to truth. If this paper helps to take the reader a step in that direction it will have achieved its purpose, and all praise is due to God.
Thou shalt believe
2. His Angels
3. His revealed Books
4. His Messengers
5. The Day of Resurrection
6. Al-Qadr; Whatever Allah has ordained must come to pass (In other words, fate and destiny).
تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين
Belief in Allah
Muhammad, peace be upon him, was sent to invite people to God and to teach them how to perform the task for which they were created, namely to worship Him. Many of the people whom he addressed had a hazy idea of God. Some did believe in Him, though they associated other lesser gods with Him, but a few of them were downright atheists, or materialists, whose creed was, 'we live and we die and nothing causes our death except
Before inviting such atheists to God one must first convince them that there is such being. "What reason do you have for believing that there is a God?" This, logically, is the first question which a theistic view of life should address itself to. The Qur'anic answer to it is given in the following words:
" . . were they created out of nothing? Or were they the creations (of themselves) or did they create the heavens and earth." [Tur, Lll: 36]
The Qur'an is here saying that for everything like man that has a beginning in time, there are only three ways of explaining how it came to be.
a.Either it is created, or made, or caused by nothing at all i.e. it came out of nothing. b.Or it is the creator of itself. c.c. Or it has a creator, cause, or maker, outside itself.
The third possibility is not mentioned in the quoted verse but it is understood because the verse is addressed to people who deny the existence of a creator and it is telling them that if there is no creator then only two possibilities remain. But the Qur'an does not go into the details of showing why the first two positions are untenable. Clarity of expression often convinces people of the truth or untruth of a statement. Mental seeing here, more than physical seeing, is believing (or rejecting). This is borne out in the case of these Qur'anic words by a historical event. Jubayr Ibn Mut`im, until then, a non-Muslim was sent by Quraysh on a mission to the Muslims at Madina. He says that when he arrived he heard the Prophet, who was leading the evening prayer, reading Surat al-Tur and when he reached the foregoing verses "my heart was almost rent asunder.''] Shortly after that Jubayr embraced Islam.
Why did this happen to him? Probably because the verse made things clear to him for the first time. It is inconceivable for something to come out of or be made by nothing at all, he realized, and it is even more inconceivable that it should bring itself into being. Hence the only conclusion is that it must have a creator outside itself.
A thesis is therefore untenable if it means the denial of any maker or cause whatsoever. But admitting that this is indeed so, one might still wonder why should that cause or maker or creator be the God to whom Muhammad was inviting people? Why shouldn't it be one of the many other gods in whom people believe or why shouldn't it even be the "matter" of the materialists? Almost the entire Qur'an deals with this question but we shall do our best to give a brief answer which would provide the reader with the basics of the Qur'anic position. In a nutshell the answer is as follows: to explain the coming into being of temporal things, the creator (or cause or maker) for which we are looking, must (logically must) have the attribute of the God to whom Muhammad invites us. How so?
The creator must be of a different nature from the things created because, if he is of the same nature as they are, he will have to be temporal and therefore need a maker. It follows that "nothing is like Him." [Shura, XLII: 11] If the maker is not temporal then he must be eternal. But if he is eternal, he cannot be caused, and if nothing causes him to come into existence, nothing causes him to continue to exist, which means that he must be self sufficient. And if he does not depend on anything for the continuance of his existence, then that existence can have no end. The creator is therefore eternal and everlasting: "He is the first and the last." [Hadid, LVII: 3] "All that dwells upon the earth is perishing, yet still abides the Face of thy Lord, majestic, splendid." [Rahman, LV: 26-27]
There are two ways in which causes produce their effects. Either they produce them naturally or intentionally. The maker that has the attributes we have enumerated cannot be a natural cause. Because if things of this world flow from Him naturally and spontaneously, they cannot be but of the same nature as He is. And if like all natural causes He causes only under certain conditions, then His power is limited. It follows that He must be a willful agent. But intention implies knowledge and both imply life. So, that maker must be a living all-knowing agent with a will that is absolutely free. Thus God according to the Qur'an does everything with intention and for a purpose.
"Surely We have created everything in (due) measure." [Qamar, LXIV: 49]
"What, did you think that We created you only for sport?" [Mu'minun, XXIII: 115]
He is absolutely free to do whatever he wills [Hud, Xl: 107] and is aware of every movement of His creation.
"He knows what is in land and sea; not a leaf falls, but He knows it. Not a grain in the earth's shadow, not a thing fresh or withered, but it is in a Book Manifest. It is He who recalls you by night, and He knows what you work by day."[An'am, Vl: 59-60]
God is living:
"There is no God but He, the living, the everlasting. Slumber seizes Him not, neither sleep; to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. Who is there that shall intercede with Him save by His leave? He knows what lies before them and what is after them, and they comprehend not anything of His knowledge save such as He wills. His throne comprises the heavens and earth; the preserving of them oppresses Him not; He is the All-high, the All-Glorious.[Baqara, II: 255]
God is not only willing and powerful, He is also Just in that He does not punish a sinner for more than his crime. He is merciful and His mercy, in the words of the Prophet "overcame his punishment." So He does not punish us for whatever we do, but forgives and erases our sins, and magnifies and multiplies our good deeds.
"The likeness of those who expend their wealth in the way of God is as the likeness of a grain of corn that sprouts seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains, so God multiplies unto whom He will; God is All-embracing, All-knowing."[Baqara, Il: 261]
These, and many others which can be arrived at in a similar way, are the attributes which the true creator must possess. Any other being or object which is alleged to be a god or an ultimate cause and which necessarily lacks some of them cannot in actual fact be what it is believed to be. Thus, having shown clearly what the true God should be like, the Qur'an goes on to show why there cannot be any god but He, and reveals the falsity of all alleged gods.
To the worshipers of man-made objects it says:
"Do you worship what you have carved out and God created you and what you make?"[Saffat, XXXVIl: 95]
"... have they taken unto themselves others beside Him who create nothing, who are themselves created, who cannot protect them, nor can they protect themselves."
[A`raf, Vll: 191-192]
To the worshipers of heavenly bodies it relates as a reminder the story of Abraham:
When night outspread over him he saw a star and said, 'This is my Lord.' But when it set he said, 'l love not the setters.' When he saw the moon rising, he said, 'This is my Lord.' But when it set he said, 'If my Lord does not guide me I shall surely be of the people gone astray.' when he saw the sun rising, he said, 'This is my Lord; this is greater!' But when it set he said, 'O my people, surely I am quit of what you associate with God. I have turned my face to Him who originated the heavens and the earth, a man of pure faith; I am not of the idolaters.' [An`am, Vl: 76-79]
And when, later on, the Prophet comes i nto contact with the Jews and Christians, the Qur'an condemns their belief in the divine nature of human-beings.
"The Jews say, 'Ezra is the son of God.' The Christians say, 'The Messiah is the son of God.' That is the utterance of their mouths, conforming with the unbelievers before them. God assail them! How they are perverted." [Tawba, IX: 30]
It tells them that if everything is created by God then it must be His servant and cannot, therefore be his son, [Maryam, XIX: 88-95].
It then goes on to explain to the Christians the real nature of Jesus.
"Truly, the likeness of Jesus in God's sight is as Adam's likeness; He created him of dust, then said He unto him 'Be!' and he was." [Aal `Imran, Ill: 59]
For someone to take something as a god, it is not necessary that he should acknowledge it as such or worship it in a ritualistic way; it is enough for him to follow its dictates obediently, or devote to it acts or have towards it feelings which should be devoted to or felt towards God only. There are many such unacknowledged gods.
"Hast thou seen him who has taken his caprice to be his God? Wilt thou be a guardian over him?" [Furqan,] XXV: 43]
"They have taken their rabbis and their monks as lords apart from God, and the Messiah, Mary's son, and they were commanded to serve but one God."[Tawba, IX: 31]
Thus to be a Muslim - i.e.. to surrender oneself to God— it is necessary to believe in the unity of God in the sense of His being the only creator, preserver and nourisher. But this belief - later on called tawhid ar-rububiyya - is not enough. In fact many of the idolaters did know and believe that it is the supreme God alone who can do all this. But that was not enough to make them Muslims. To tawhid ar-rububiyya one must add tawhid al uluhiyya i.e. one must acknowledge the fact that it is this God alone who deserves to be worshiped, and therefore abstain from directing any of one's acts of worship to someone or someth ing else. In the Qur'an the argument for tawhid al-uluhiyya is based on tawhid ar-rububiyya i.e. if it is God alone who creates and controls everything why then and to what end do you worship others beside Him?
"O you men, serve your Lord who created you, and those that were before you; haply so you will be god-fearing; who assigned to you the earth for a couch, and heaven for an edifice, and sent down out of heaven water, wherewith He brought forth fruits for your provision; so set not up rivals to God wittingly." [al-Baqara, Il: 21-22]
Having known the true God, man is called upon to affirm what he knows i.e. to believe and have faith in God, and not allow any ulterior motives to induce him to deny a fact which he knows to be true.
"... that they who have been given knowledge may know it is the truth from thy Lord and so believe in it, and thus their hearts become humble unto him."[Hajj, XXII: 54]
"But when our signs came to them visibly, they said, "This is a manifest sorcery;' end they denied them, though their souls acknowledged them, wrongfully and out of pride." [Naml, XXVII: 14]
When faith enters a person's heart, it causes therein certain mental states, which result in certain apparent actions, both of which are the proof of true faith.
Foremost among those mental states is the feeling of gratitude towards God, which could be said to be the essence of ibada (worshiping or serving God).
This feeling of gratitude is so important that a nonbeliever is called kafir which means, 'one who denies a truth' and also 'one who is ungrateful.' One can understand why this is so when one reads in the Qur'an that the main motive for denying the existence of God is that of unjustified pride. Such a proud person feels that it does not become him to be created or governed by a being whom he must thus acknowledge to be greater than himself and to whom he must be grateful.
"Those who dispute concerning the signs of God without any authority come to them, in their hearts is only pride that they shall never attain."[Ghafir, XL: 56]
With the feeling of gratitude goes that of love.
"There are some people who take to themselves (for worship) others apart from God loving them as they should love God: But those who believe, love God more ardently than they love anything else."[Baqara, Il: 165]
A believer loves and is grateful to God for His bounties, but being aware of the fact that his good deeds, whether mental or physical, are far from being commensurate with Divine favors, he is always anxious lest because of his sins God should withhold from him some of these favors or punish him in the hereafter. He therefore fears Him, surrenders himself to Him, and serves Him with great humility.
"Your God is one God, so to Him surrender. And give thou good tidings unto the humble who, when God is mentioned, their hearts quake."[Anfal, Vll: 2]
One cannot be in such a mental state, without being almost all the time mindful of God. Remembering God is thus the life-force of faith, without which it fades and might even wither away. So,
"The faithful are those who remember God, standing and sitting, and on their sides."[Aal `Imran, Ill: 191]
The Qur'an therefore prescribes and describes, in great detail ways and means of helping man to remember God and keep his faith alive. All Qur'anic and Prophetic injunctions and prohibitions which extend to all aspects of human life acts of worship and personal matters, social relations, political order, etc., etc. - are designed to put man in a state which is conducive to God's remembrance. The details of this Islamic way of life were expounded in the Madina period, and we shall not therefore be concerned with them now. But the main principles of this new order were already laid down in the Makkan period, and will be summarized at the end of this chapter.
We shall now go on to deal with the other pillars of faith. These are belief in life after death, in God's angels, His books, His messengers and His qadar, the arguments for all of which are almost entirely based on the assumption that the audience believes in God.
تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين
Belief in the Angels
Allah says the following about angels in the Quran:
The Messenger believeth in what hath been revealed to him from his Lord, as do the men of faith. Each one (of them) believeth in Allah, His angels, His books, and His Messengers (al-Bakara, 285).
The Fundamentals of belief are belief in Allah, belief in His Angels, belief in His Books, belief in His Prophets, belief in the hereafter, belief in the destiny respectively. Belief is only one of the realities emerging from these six fundamentals. It cannot be divided or separated. It cannot be divided into parts. It is not possible to believe in some of the fundamentals and not to believe in others. Each fundamental of belief proves the other fundamentals of belief with the evidences that prove themselves.
6. 1. THE EXISTENCE OF ANGELS
Allah is able to do all things. He can create a tree very easily and equip it with branches, knots, leaves, flowers and fruits; He can also create and creates a garden and even all the gardens on the earth as easily. Allah creates a cell easily with his endless power; he can also create and creates all of the cells, all animals from fish to lion and man as easily. We see them with our eyes.
Since Allahs power is endless, He can create and created man out of soil, angels out of light and jinns out of fire. Allah is able to create everything.
Jinns and angels are beings with souls and conscience like human beings. Men were created out of soil, angels out of light and jinn out of fire. Human beings and jinn were created to believe in Allah and to worship Him. However they were left free to carry out the duties of belief in Allah and worshipping Him. If they do it they will receive the reward if not the punishment. Angels were created only to worship Allah and carry out His orders. There is no disobedience by angels.
All of the angels obey the orders of Allah without any objection and worship Him. They have no gender like male or female. Jinn resemble man in one aspect. Some of them obey Allah and others disobey Him. They eat, drink and reproduce. The first evil jinni is Iblis (the devil). He disobeyed Allah because of his pride and went astray; he has been trying to tempt men since then.
The fact that our world, which is a small planet, has been filled with so many living beings with souls and conscience shows that the numerous stars and planets in the sky have been filled with living beings with souls and conscience. Otherwise the creation of the stars in the sky would be meaningless and without any reason or wisdom. However, Allah is Perfectly Wise; He wont do anything meaningless and nonsense.
Those residents of the sky that have various species are called angels and spiritual beings by the Quran. They were created in such a way to adapt to the conditions of the medium they live in. Therefore, an angel that lives in the sun can wander on the surface, in or through the layers of the sun like men wander in the vineyards and gardens.
The purpose of the creation of the beings with conscience is to believe in Allah and to worship Him. Angels, like men and jinn, believe and worship. They watch this palace of world. They contemplate on the beings in the universe and they proclaim it.
The duties of the angels are somewhat similar to those of men. The purpose of the creation of man and being sent to this world is also valid for angels and spiritual beings. Allah says the following in a divine hadith: I was a secret treasure; I created the creatures to make myself known. So, one of the most important reasons and wisdoms of the creation of the universe is the recognition and proclamation of the Lord by looking at the universe by the creatures with intelligence and conscience. Everything in the universe makes Allah, who created the universe, known with his beautiful nouns clearly as a pin makes its maker and a letter makes its writer known. No doubt, a simplest work of art cannot be without a master; similarly this universe and the creatures in it cannot be without a Creator; it is impossible.
Since Allah created the universe to make Himself known by the beings with intelligence and conscience, there wont be any places in the universe without beings with intelligence and conscience. They will know Him, worship Him in the moon and in the sun, in the stars and in the galaxies and in the worlds that we do not know.
The human body was created in accordance with the living conditions in the world. For instance, fish were created in accordance with the living conditions in water. Angels were created in accordance with the living conditions of the world they live in. Angels were created out of light. Therefore fire does not harm them; and their presence in the stars does not harm them either because they were created out of light. Angels wander on the sun and through all its layers watching the miracles of Allahs power, contemplating and worshipping as man wander in the vineyards and gardens contemplating.
The food of the angels is light or things similar to light. For instance, the recital of the Quran, beautiful words and meanings, even the beautiful scents are a kind of food for angels. Bad smells are things that they do not like. Therefore our Prophet (PBUH) wore nice scents and recommended it.
One of the clearest evidences for the existence of angels is the Quran. The Quran informs us that angels exist. Since the Quran is the word of Allah, all of its evidences are the evidences of the existence of angels.
Similarly, Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) informs us about the existence of angels. The prophethood evidences of the Prophet are the evidences of the existence of angels. Works displayed in an exhibition want people that can understand those works. Similarly, the wonderful and adorned works of art and nice embroidery of Allah exhibited in the universe want people who will watch them. The watching by the human beings will not suffice. There should be other conscious beings too. They are angels.
Another piece of evidence from the universe is that various creatures are created out of things like soil around us. The being that creates creatures out of soil and decayed materials can create and created creatures from fire and light.
6. 2. THE TRUE NATURE OF ANGELS
Angels are conscious and intelligent beings like human beings; they were created out of light. Their food is worshipping Allah, glorifying and praising Allah, beautiful words and meanings, and nice scents.
The following is stated in a hadith:
"I see what you do not see and I hear what you do not hear. Now the sky hummed, it deserved to hum. There is not enough space in the sky for four fingers to occupy; there are angels everywhere prostrating to Allah." (Tirmizi, Zuhd 9, 2313).
Angels can be in many places at the same time with the permission of Allah, they may have different forms too. As people on television seem in a lot of places at the same time, angels can be in many places at the same time. For instance, Hazrat Azrael can appear in more than one place at the same time and take the souls of a lot of people.
Angels are the creatures and slaves of Allah that obtained His blessing and grants. They never disobey the orders of Allah. They do whatever they are ordered to do. They do not have human weaknesses like self-importance, pride and ambition. The number of the angels is too many to be calculated. The farthest corners of the sky and the space are full of angels. Each one of the stars and planets we see in the sky is like a mosque for angels.
6. 3. KINDS OF ANGELS AND THEIR DUTIES
There are many kinds of angels. Their duties are different. Some kinds and their duties are mentioned in the Quran. Angels are in charge of glorifying and worshipping Allah in accordance with their talents. Four of them are archangels. Their names are Jibril, Mikail, Israfel, Azrael.
Hazrat Jibril is in charge of conveying the orders of Allah to prophets by revelation. One of the continuous duties of Hazrat Jibril is to convey and explain the orders of Allah to human beings. This is his worshipping duty.
Hazrat Mikail is in charge of supervising all of the creatures in the world on behalf of Allah by His permission. Allahs mercy manifests itself as the food and drinks of these creatures in the largest sense and in the nicest way. It is necessary to thank Allah for His numerous grants and favors like those food and drinks. It is Hazrat Mikail who represents the thanks of the unconscious beings as a conscious being. He also worships continuously by supervising the grants of Allah.
Hazrat Israfel is in charge of blowing Soor (the trumpet) by the permission of Allah when it is due. In the first blowing all of the beings in the heavens and on the earth will die; in the second blowing all of the dead will be resurrected.
The most awesome and terrifying actions of Allah in the world of the living are reviving, giving life and sending beings to the other world by death. The duty of supervising these happenings was given to Hazrat Israfel and Hazrat Azrael. This duty is their worshipping of Allah. They are not the assistants of Allah.
Hazrat Azrael is in charge of taking the souls of people and keeping them by the permission of Allah.
Kiraman Katibin (Honorable Recorders). Two angels were appointed for each man by the permission of Allah; one to record the good deeds, the other to record the sins.
Angels guarding men. They are appointed to protect men from troubles and misfortunes by the permission of Allah.
Angels praying for men. Some angels were appointed to pray for believers by the permission of Allah.
Munkar-Nakir angels. They are appointed to interrogate people in the grave. Their attitude towards each person is different in accordance with their deeds. They expand the graves of believers, make them spacious, free believers from loneliness and become intimate friends with them in the grave.
6. 4. PLACE OF BELIEF IN
1. When man contemplates on the universe, he feels alone and needy in the endless space. If he knows the existence of angels, he will understand that he is not alone and that like the earth, the universe is full of conscious beings created in accordance with the living conditions of the universe and that glorify and worship Allah, and his soul will be freed from terror and wildness.
2. If man has good deeds he wants his good deeds to be saved and not to be lost. By believing in Kiraman Katibin (Honorable Recorders), he knows that his good deeds are saved and he tries to do more good deeds. Thinking the rewards of his good deeds in the hereafter, he feels kind of the pleasures of the hereafter and Paradise even in the world.
3. Believers who are inclined to do bad deeds refrain themselves from bad deeds, oppression and aggression thanks to belief in angels by saying, There are Allahs angels that record whatever I do.
4. The terrible face of death seems beautiful thanks to belief in Hazrat Azrael. Therefore he sees Azrael as a compassionate friend.
5. The pleasure that a worshipping believer takes from mentioning Allahs name and remembering him, from worship increases one thousand times because he knows that angels and spiritual beings listen to him.
6. 5. SOURCES
- The Quran
- Nursi,, B. Said. Sözler (Words). rnk Neriyat. Istanbul, 2006, p. 548 etc
التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة هشيم ; 02-11-2013 الساعة 10:47 PM
تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
Belief in the Books
A Muslim believes that the Qur'an is the word of God. But it is not the only word. God sent many prophets before Muhammad and He spoke to them as He spoke to him. So a Muslim also believes (in fact he would not be a Muslim if he did not believe) in these earlier books, like the Torah and the Gospel, since the true believers are those who "believe in what has been sent down to thee (Muhammad) and what has been sent down before thee" [al Baqara, IV: 4].
"Say: We believe in God, and that which has been sent down on us, and sent down on Abraham and Ishmael, Isaac and Jacob, and the Tribes, and in that which was given to Moses and Jesus, and the prophets, of their Lord; we make no division between any of them." [al Baqara, II: 136]
God created men so that they may serve Him. His being a serva nt of God constitutes the essence of man. Man ca nnot therefore attain to his true humanity and acquire peace of mind unless he realises this aim for which he was created. But how can he do this! God, being merciful and Just, has helped him in many ways. He granted him as we said before an
originally good nature that is inclined to know and serve its true Lord. He granted him a mind that possesses a moral sense and the ability to reason. He made the whole universe a natural book full of signs that lead a thinking person to God. But to make things more specific, to give him more detailed knowledge of his Lord, and to show him in a more detailed manner how to serve Him, God has been sending down verbal messages through His prophets chosen from among men, ever since the creation of man. Hence the description of these messages in the Qur'an as guidance, light, signs, reminders, etc.
All these books advocated basically the same message,
"And we sent never a Mesenger before thee except that we revealed to him, saying,'there is no God but I so serve Me.'" [Anbiya', XXI: 25]
And the religion which they all expounded is Islam i.e. surrender to God,
"The true religion with God is Islam." [Al-`Imran, III:19]
Thus Noah (X:72) Abraham (III: 67), Jacob and his sons (II: 133), the Apostles (V: 111), etc. were all Muslims.
Islam in this sense is in fact the religion of the universe.
"What! do they desire another religion than God's and to Him has surrendered (aslama = became a Muslim)
whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly, anti to Him they shall be returned." [Al-`Imran, III:83]
If the religion of all prophets is the same in its essence and basic foundation, not so are the ways of life based upon it. [Ma'ida, V: 48]
One last important point about books is that with the exception of the Qur'an they have not been preserved intact, but have either been completely lost or else suffered distortion and corruption. As to the Qur'an God has decreed that it shall never be subjected to such distortion but shall be preserved by Him. [Hijr, XV: 9]
تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
Belief in the Messengers
Messengers are human beings chosen by God who have the honor of conveying God's message to other men and women. Being such a Messenger is not a position that one attains by any consciously designed effort. It is a grace from God, but God grants this grace to those who are deserving of it. Messengers are not then, like the rank and file of us. True, they are men but they are men of an extremely high moral, spiritual and intelleaual standard that qualifies them--in the eyes of God--to be the bearers of His light to the world. When God chooses any of them, He supports the messenger with a clear 'sign' [Hadid, LVII: 25] that proves the truth of his claim, and distinguishes him from false prophets, sorcerers and soothsayers [Taghabun, LXIV:41-42], [Taha, XX: 69].
None of them betrays the message or falls short of being exemplary in practicing what he preaches. (Hud, XI: 88j.
Asked about prophet Muhammad's conduct his wife Ayesha said, "It was the Qur'an," meaning that he embodied all the ideals which the Qur'an presents.
Two related points about messengers which the Qur'an stresses, and which therefore deserve some elaboration are the humanity of prophets and the nature of their task.
Despite the vast spiritual, moral and intellectual difference between them and ordinary men, and despite the special relation with God that they enjoy, prophets are nonetheless humans with all that this term implies. They beget and are begotten; they eat and drink and go about in market plates [Furqan, XXV: 20]; they sleep and they die [Anbiya, XXI: 34]; they forget and they err [Taha, XX: 121), [Kahf, XVIII: 34].
Their knowledge is limited; and can therefore tell only that part of the future which God reveals to them [Jin, LXXII: 26-27]. They cannot intercede with God on behalf of any person except with His permission [Jin, LXXII: 26-27], and it is not left to them to cause people to go in the right path [Qasas, XXVIII: 56]. In short, they have no part to play in the running of the affairs of the universe [Al-'lmran, III:128]. Many early Muslim scholars have observed that to emphasize the humanity of the Prophet the Qur'an called him 'servant of God' on the three occasions on which he was honored.
"Blessed be He who has sent down the Salvation [Qur'an] upon His servant." [Furqan, XXV: 1]
"Glory be to Him, who carried His servant by night from the Holy Mosque to the Further Mosque the precints of which We have blessed, that We might show him some of Our signs." [Israa, XVII, 1]
"When the servant of God stood calling on Him, they were well-nigh upon him in swarms." [Jinn, LXII:119]
A Prophet whose humanity is specially emphasized is Jesus. He was created in the same manner as Adam was created, from soil [Al-'lmran: III, 59j; he is the son of Mary not of God [Nisa', IV: 157]; he and his mother used to eat food IMa'ida, V: 75]; he is indeed the word of God [Baqara, II: 45j but since he is a human being in the full sense of the word, this should not be interpreted to mean that there is a Divine element in him. He is the word of God only in the sense that God said 'Be' and he was. But in that sense everything is the word of God. Why then is he in particular called the word of God! Because, as many scholars have, rightly explained, he came more directly as a result of this word. Jesus is thus a loyal servant of God who never claimed that he was in any sense divine. [Ma'ida, V:116-117]
Messengers are entrusted, we said, with the task of conveying God's word to other people. But this is not as simple as it looks. It implies many things which are not at first sight clear, and which the Qur'an therefore expounds and elaborates.
The most important point of which all Messengers are reminded, and which is very easy to forget or be heedless of, is that since their duty is only to convey the message they are not responsible for peoples' reaction to it, once they have made it clear to them. God has given man the power to understand the difference between truth and falsehood, especially in matters religious, once this has been explained to him. God has also given him the ability, by reason of his free-will, either to accept or reject this truth. And since it is only God who
knows what goes on in people's minds, it is only He who can judge who is worthy of being guided and who deserves to be left groping in the dark; and it is God who according to this knowledge guides whom He will and withholds His guidance from Whom He will. A prophet has no such power, and cannot, therefore, guide whom he loves. [Qasas, XXVIII: 56].
"Then remind them thou are only one who reminds, thou art not charged to oversee them." [Gashiya, LXXXVIII: 21-22].
He should not, therefore feel sad if people turn away from him, or impute falsehoods to his message [An'am, VI: 33-34]. But this is a most difficult rule to abide by. We love to be accepted by the community in which we live; many of us must have experienced that strange feeling of sadness, loneliness, and being lost when we come to live as aliens in a new community. We undergo a similar but more intense feeling, when as a result of our intellectual convictions we come to hold about life views that are entirely different from those of our own community. One easy and usual escape from the psychological and other hardships of such a life is to live in seclusion from society. Those who, for some reason cannot afford such a withdrawal, more often than not, sacrifice intellectual honesty for conformity with their community. Prophets have of course to live in the midst of the people for whom they are sent and they do not of course go to the extent of betraying their message. To have to cling tenaciously to the word of God, and yet live in the midst of people, is perhaps the greatest difficulty they have to put up with. This is made evident by the fact that most of the few occasions on which the Qur'an expresses God's disapproval of a certain line of behaviour taken by the Prophet Muhammad are related to his being so keen to win adherents as to verge on exceeding the desirable limits.
"Yet perchance if they believe wilt consume thyself, following not in this tiding, thou alter them of grief." [Kahf, XVIII: 6].
"Indeed they were near to seducing thee from that We revealed to thee, that thou mightest, forge against Us another, and then they would surely have taken thee as a friend. hnd had We not confirmed thee, surely thou were near to inclining unto them a very little; then would We have let thee taste the double of life and the double of death; and then thou wouldst have found none to help thee against Us. [Isra', XVII: 73-74].
تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
Belief in Qadar
The original meaning of the word Qadar is specified measure or amount whether of quantities or qualities. It has many other usages which branch out from this core. Thus yuqad-dir means, among other things, to measure or decide the quantity, quality, position, etc. of something before you actually make it. And it is this latter sense which interests us here.
"God is the creator of everything, but whatever He creates, He creates with qadnr. [Qamar, LIV: 49]
He knows before creating it, that He is going to create it and that it shall be of such and such magnitude, quality or nature etc. and specifies the time of its coming into being and passing away, and the place of its occurrence. If so, then one who believes in the true God should believe that there are no accidents in nature. If something disagreeable happens to him, he should say "God qad-dara (ordained), and He did what He willed" and not waste himself over wishing that it had not occurred, or worrying why it should occur. If on the other hand something agreeable happens to him he should not boast of it, but thank God for it.
"No affliction befalls in the earth or in yourselves, but it is in a Book, before We create it; that is easy for God; that you may not grieve for what escapes you, nor rejoice (vaingloriously) in what has been given to you, God loves not any man proud and boastful." [Hadid, LVII: 23].
If God yuqad-dir (predestines, predetermines etc.) everything, that includes our so called free actions. But if so in what way can they be said to be free, and how are we responsible for them? This question occasioned the appearance, at a very early history of Islam,of two extreme theological sects. One of them, called the Qadariya, asserted man's free will and responsibility to the extent of denying God's foreknowledge, and claiming that God knows our free made actions only after we have performed them. The other, called the Jabriyya, did just the opposite and claimed that there was no difference between the motions of inanimate things and our movements in performing so-called free actions, and that when we use intentional language we speak only metaphorically.
But there is no need to go to such extremes, since it is not difficult to reconcile Divine Qadar and human responsibility. God decided to create man as a free agent, but He knows (and how can He not know!) before creating every man how he is going to use his free will; what, for instance, his reaction would be when a Prophet clarifies God's message to him. This foreknowledge and its registering in a 'Book' is called Qadar.'But if we are free to use our will' a Qadari might say,'We may use it in ways that contradict God's will, and in that case we would not be right in claiming that everything is willed or decreed by God.' The Qur'an answers this question by reminding us that it was God who willed that we shall be wilful, and it is He who allows us to use our will.
"Surely, this is a Reminder; so he who will, takes unto his Lord a way, but you will not unless God wills." [lnsan, LXXVI: 29-30].
'If so', says a Qadari, 'He could have prevented us from doing evil.' Yes indeed He could.
"Had God willed, He would have brought them all together to the guidance; if thy Lord had willed whoever is in the earth would have believed, all of them, all together." [Yunus, X: 99].
"Had God willed, they were not idolaters; and we have not appointed thee a watcher over them neither art thou their guardian." [An'am, VI: 107]
But He had willed that men shall be free especially in regard to matters of belief and disbelief.
Say: "The truth is from your Lord; so let whosoever will believe, and let whosoever will disbelieve." [Kahf, XVIII: 29].
But men would not be so free if whenever any of them wills to do evil God prevents him from doing it and compels him to do good.
"II our actions are willed by Cod," someone might say, "then they are in fact His actions." This objection is based on a confusion God wills what we will in the sense of granting us the will to choose and enabling us to execute that will i.e. He creates all that makes it possible for us to do it. He does not will it in the sense of doing it, otherwise it would be quite in order to say, when we drink or eat or sleep for instance that God performed these actions. God creates them, He does not do or perform them. Another objection, based on another confusion, is that if God allows us to do evil, then He approves of it and likes it. But to will something in the sense of allowing a person to do it is one thing; and to approve of his action and commend it, is quite another Not everything that God wills He likes. He has, as we have just read in the Qur'an, granted man the choice betwen belief and disbelief, but He does not, of course, like men to disbelieve (to be thankless).
"If you art unthankful, God is independent of you. Yet He anpproves not unthankfulness in His servants; but if you are thankful, He will approve it in you." [Zumar, XXXIX: 7].
التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة هشيم ; 02-11-2013 الساعة 10:57 PM
تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
The Day of Resurrection
The Qur'anic arguments for the reality of another life after death are intended to prove that it is possible and also desirable that there should be such a life, and that without believing in it our belief in the true God cannot be complete.
i. Many of the people whom the Prophet addressed in Makka did believe - as we said before - in a supreme God, but many of them thought that it was impossible for their dead and disintegrated bodies to be resurrected. They therefore mocked and laughed at the Prophet when he told them about it. The Qur'anic reply was that there was no reason for such astonishment and mockery because resurrection is not only logically but physically possible for the following reasons:
a. If it is God who created man in the first place, why should it be impossible for him to recreate him when he dies? Resurrection should be easier than original creation.
"He it is He who originates creation, then brings it back again and this (the latter) is easier for Him." [Rum, XXX: 27]
b. If you think about it carefully, you will come to see that the bringing of life to the dead is a common natural phenomenon. To believe in the possibility of the resurrection of human beings, a thinking person does not need to see a person coming to life again. It is enough to see other dead bodies coming to life.
"And of His signs is that thou seest the earth humble; then, when we send down water upon it, it quivers and swells. Surely He who quickens it is He who quickens the dead;
surely He is powerful over everything." [Fussilat, XLI: 39]
"Was he not a sperm-drop ? Then he was a blood clot, and He created and formed and He made of him two kinds, male and female. What! is He not able to quicken the dead?" [Qiyama, LXXV: 37-40]
ii. Why is resurrection desirable? Simply because without it, God would not be the Just and Wise and merciful God He is. God created men and made them responsible for their actions; some behaved well but others did not. If there is no future life in which the virtuous are rewarded and the vicious are punished, there would be no justice and the creation of men in that way and the sending of Prophets to them would be to no purpose at all. But this kind of behaviour is not expected of a man known to be rational and just, let alone the Perfect Creator.
"What! does man reckon he shall be left to roam at will! What! did you think that we created you only for sport and that you would not be returned to Us? [Mu'minun, XXIII: 115]
"Surely for the God, fearing shall be gardens of bliss with their Lord. What! shall we make those who have surrendered like to the sinners? What ails you then, how you judge? [Qaf: LXVIII: 34-36]
We have not created the heavens and earth, and what is between them, for vanity; such is the thought of the unbelievers." [Sad, XXXVIII: 27]
iii. Is the real and only motive for denying the reality of a life after death that which is expressed by the arguments which the deniers put forward, and to which the Qur'an replies! By no means, says the Qur'an. The real motive is often a psychological one. Those who do evil do not wish to be punished and it is this wishful thinking that leads them to deny the reality of a time when such punishment shall take place.
"Does man reckon We shall not gather his bones! Nay, but man desires to continue on as a libertine, asking, 'When shall be the Day of Resurrection!" [Qiyama, LXXV: 3-6]
"And none cries lies to it (the day of judgement) but every guilty aggressor." [Mutaffifin, LXXXIII: 12]
A question that is often raised in connection with reward and punishment in the hereafter and which causes some people to doubt the desirability if not the truth of such a life is, 'Do we do what is good because it is good or for fear of punishment and expectation of reward! If we do it for the former, then what is the use of believing in the hereafter, and if we do it for the latter we will not be acting morally. 'The answer to this question depends on whether God enjoins us to do an act because it is good, or whether it is this Divine injunction which makes the action good. And it seems to me to be very clear that the goodness of an act is logically prior to its being an object of a Divine injunction. Otherwise it would be a tautology to say 'God enjoins what is good' because it would only mean God enjoins what He enjoins. But the Qur'an abounds in statements like the former, and it is very clear that they are not intended to be tautological.
The answer to our original question then is that we do what is good because it is good. But since to give good for good is itself good, there is no contradiction in saying that one does good because the God whom he loves and in Whom he puts his trust tells him to do it, and because he expects to be rewarded by Him for doing it.
According to the Qur'an God created man of an original nature--called fitra--which possesses what we might call a moral sense, which enables man to recognize without any external aid certain acts like telling the truth and being grateful as good, and by reason of which he is inclined to do good once he comes to know it. True religion is built on the basis of this original human nature. Religion strengthens nature and brings to fruition the seeds of virtue that reside in it. That is why Islam is said in the Qur'an to be fitrat-Allah and why the Prophet says that he was sent only to perfect good conduct. The Qur'an praises those in whom this moral sense is sharp and condemns those in whom it has become so blunt that the ugliness of vice becomes in their eyes the model of beauty:
"But God has endeared to you belief, decking it fair in your hearts, and He has made detestable to you unbelief and ungodliness and disobedience. Those they are the right minded, by God's favour and blessing, God is All-knowing, All-wise." [Hujurat, XLIX: 7-8]
"Say: 'Shall we tell you who will be the greatest losers in their works.' Those whose striving goes astray in the present life while they think that they are working good deeds." [Kahf, XVIII: 103-104]
"And when he turns his back, he hastens about the earth, to do corruption there, and to destroy the tillage and the stock; and God loves not corruption." [Baqara, 11: 205]
So a Muslim does good because he is endeared to it, and eschews vice because it is detestable to him. But since a Muslim surrenders himself to God and loves and fears Him, and since God loves virtue and enjoins it and hates vice and forbids it, he does the former and avoids the latter in obedience to his Lord. And since those who do good shall--in the hereafter--live a life of bliss, the highest type of which would be the state of being near to God and enjoying His sight, while those who lead an evil life shall suffer all kinds of chastisement the most terrible of which shall be the state of being deprived from that sight, a Muslim would be wise to always have that future and eternal life in mind and endeavour to do here all kinds of work that would help to elevate his position there.
"Say: Is there any of Your associates who guides to the truth? Say: God--He guides to the truth; and which is worthier to be followed--he who guides to the truth, or he who guides not unless he is guided? what then ails you, how you judge ? [Yunus, X: 35]
"Say. If you love God, follow me and God will love you, and forgive you, your sins;" [Al-`Imran, III:31]
"Surely the pious shall be in bliss, upon couches gazing (at their Lord); thou knowest in their faces the radiancy of bliss as they are given to drink of a wine sealed, whose seal is musk. So after that let the strivers strive." [Mutaffifun, LXXXIII: 22-26]
Why should one who did good live in such bliss, one might ask? and the Prompt Qur'anic answer is:
"Shall the recompense of goodness be other than goodness." [Rahman, LV: 60]
التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة هشيم ; 02-11-2013 الساعة 10:43 PM
تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
Some of the basic pillars of faith in Islam are:
1. Believe in Allah
There is one true eternal God.
He alone is worthy of our worship.
He does not beget,
neither has He been begotten.
He is the Creator of the universe.
His power has no limits.
He is sovereign over all. He knows all things.
No person or thing is beyond
His presence or influence.
He is perfect in all His attributes.
2. Believe in the angels
They are among His most honored creatures. Allah has assigned them
to fulfill specific tasks:
Some protect the believers
and keep a record of their actions.
Some are assigned to paradise,
and some are dedicated
to the worship of Allah.
3. Believe in all the Holy Books
Among these, the most important are:
The Tawrat, revealed to Moses
The Zabur, revealed to David
The Injil, revealed to Jesus
The Noble Qur’an,
revealed to Muhammad
4. Believe in all the prophets
Allah sent them with clear proofs,
so that no one will have an excuse
on the Day of Judgment.
Some of the prophets are:
Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac,
Jacob, Moses, Solomon, David,
Jesus the son of Mary,
5. Believe in the Last Day
There will be a final day of judgment.
Everyone will be resurrected
and each person will have to
give an account before God.
The pious will go to Paradise.
The evildoers will go to
the punishment of eternal fire.
6. Eternal Destiny
Allah is sovereign. He is in control.
He has complete
and perfect knowledge.
Whatever Allah wills,
will come to pass.
Whatever Allah does not will,
will never come to pass.
تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
WHERE IS ALLAH?
Allaah, the Exalted, has described Himself in His Book, and by the tongue of His Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam as Sublime, Supreme, and Lofty. The Qur'aan is full of proofs relevant to the Loftiness of Allaah.
Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah believe in and confirm all of the attributes of Allaah without distorting their meaning, and that Allaah is above His seven heavens, above His 'Arsh, and separated from His creatures, and His creatures are separated from Him.
This discourse will provide the Scriptural proofs of the Loftiness of Allaah is an indivisible part of the inherent faculty of knowing Allaah with which Allaah has created mankind. Although the aqeedah of Loftiness of Allaah is part of man's innate knowledge and cannot be subjected to hypothetical of philosophical argumentation, there are some deviated sects who follow their whims and deny this intuitive and self-evident fact. For this reason, they have twisted Scriptural proofs and distorted them, and manipulated the texts to conform with their deviant argument.
All of the divine attributes are intrinsically related to the attribute of divine Loftiness. Therefore, accepting or rejecting them must be based on accepting or rejecting the Loftiness of Allaah. Whoever believes that Allaah is above His 'Arsh [The Throne of Allaah] and separated from His creatures, also believes in the rest of the attributes of Allaah, and believes as well that the heavens and the earth submit to His will, and that He is the Great Rubb of the worlds. Allaah does whatever He wills and rules according to His Own wishes. Glory be to Him.
Denial of the divine Loftiness is one of the basic doctrinal heresy promoted by the Jahmites [Jahmites are the followers of Jahm bin Safan (d. 128-745), a radical heretic. Among other things, they deny that Allaah, the Exalted, is above His Arsh, and they allege that He is everywhere] and their off-shoots of today in order to confuse the Muslims' minds. Denying this divine attribute also leads by necessity to the denial of the attribute of the istiwaa of Allaah above His Arsh. There is no doubt that the denial of the attributes of Allaah clashes with the clear Qur'aanic verses in which the unique essential attributes and beautiful names of Allaah confirmed. These attributes must be affirmed as identical with Allaah.
The essential divine attributes of Allaah constitute an integral part of His essence and are not superadded to it. They are accepted literally by Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'h without questioning the 'how' of these attributes. To deny them is clear unbelief and heresy. It is for this reason this discourse has been prepared to deal with the creed of Loftiness of Allaah, or the question, 'Where is Allaah?' with the Scriptural evidences from the Qur'aan and the authentic prophetic traditions, as well as the traditions of those early Muslims, the pious predecessors.
THE QURANIC PROOFS
Allaah, the Exalted, commands the believers to refer their disputes and differences to His Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam saying: "And when you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allaah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allaah and the Last Day." 
Therefore, the words of Allaah, the Exalted, as well as the words of His Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam must be held as the ultimate and decisive judgment. No judgment or decision should take precedence over theirs whether in issues related to the divine attributes, or any other religious issue.
By their emphasis on reason in establishing religious truth, the rationalists, the modernists, and the Jahmites assert the preeminence of reason over the divine revelations. Whereas the Loftiness of Allaah which is clearly enunciated in the Qur'aan and the Sunnah, is beyond the reach of reason.
The true believers, contrary to the rationalists, believe that the 'Arsh of Allaah is above the seven heavens. They also believe that having created the seven heavens and the earth and what is in them, Allaah, the Exalted, has His great 'Arsh. Allaah says: "Declare your Rubb, the Supreme, to be far removed from every imperfection or impurity." 
The "Supreme", linguistically, is in the superlative signifying that Allaah is higher than everything and is above all things in essence, power, and invincibility. Commenting on this verse, Ibn al-Qayyim, may Allaah grant him His mercy, said: All Muslims in the past and in the present, when supplicating Allaah or imploring His help, they always raise their hands with palms towards the heaven. They do not lower their hands with palms towards the earth, nor do they turn them right or left, nor towards any other direction. They raise their hands up, knowing that Allaah is above them. The Muslims also say in prayer while prostrating, "I declare my Rubb, the Supreme, to be far removed from every imperfection or impurity."
If Allaah is everywhere, as the deviated sects allege, why then the above verse does not read, 'Declare your Rubb, (around you), (below you), or (everywhere)?' Allaah says: "They fear their Rubb above them." 
This verse refers to the angels who are above us, and above them is our Rubb, the Blessed, the Exalted. Lest anyone be confused, Allaah confirms in this verse that He is above the angels who are the residents of the heavens: "The Compassionate has rose over the 'Arsh." 
And: "And verily, your Rubb is Allaah who created the heaven and earth in six days, and then rose over the 'Arsh." 
Allaah also says: "Are you sure that He Who is Above the heaven will not cleave the earth beneath you? Or are you sure that He Who is above the heaven will not send against you a stone-charged hurricane." 
The renowned exegetes and commentators are agreed that the One Who is above the heaven is none but Allaah Who has rose over His Arsh and is above it in the manner which suits His Majesty.
Those who believe that Allaah is everywhere base their argument on verses such as:"And He is Ilaah in the Heavens and He is Ilaah on the Earth!"
The term, 'Ilaah' is classical Arabic means, 'the worshipped'; thus the meaning of the above verse is, "It is He Who is worshipped in the heaven and worshipped on the earth". It would have been redundant were the verse to speak about the existence of Allaah in the heaven and on the earth, for the term Illah' is an adjective of Allaah, while the pronouns, 'He' in the verse is used in lieu of the name 'Allaah', therefor, when the name 'Allaah' replaces the pronoun 'He', we get the proper meaning of the verse: 'And it is Allaah Who is worshipped in the heaven and on the earth'. But according to the deviated sect who consider the term, 'Ilaah' as 'Allaah', we get the redundant meaning, 'And Allaah is Allaah in the heaven and Allaah is on the earth,' a sentence which is grammatically, linguistically and logically incorrect. Qatadah, a renowned exegete, interpreted this verse as: 'He is worshipped in the heaven and on the earth'.
Imaam al-Aajurri said: 'al-Ilaah, is the worshipped. He is worshipped in the heaven as He is worshipped on the earth.'
The Omnipresence of the Divine Knowledge
And He is Allaah above the heaven and on the earth He knows your private and public affairs. And He knows what you achieve. 
Those who deny that Allaah is above His 'Arsh, dubiously argue that this verse supports their argument. Their argument is refuted by realizing that this verse refers to the knowledge of Allaah, according to the renowned exegetes, not His essence. They further assert that this verse signifies that the knowledge of Allaah encompasses all things in the heavens and on the earth. The reference to the divine knowledge is made clearly by repeating the clause, 'He knows' twice in this verse, that is to say: "Allaah, the Exalted, knows the hidden and the open, and He knows what you achieve".
Had the verse ended with the word, 'earth', one might take their dubious argument into consideration, but Allaah, the Exalted, makes it abundantly clear that it is His knowledge, not His essence that encompasses all things. Another dubious argument is presented by those who deny the fact that Allaah, the Exalted, is above His 'Arsh, by alleging that the following verse supports their argument.
"Do you not see that Allaah knows all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth? There is no secret counsel of three, but He is their fourth, nor of five, but He is their sixth, nor of fewer than that, nor of more, but He is with them wherever they may be. Then on the Day of Resurrection He will inform them of what they did. Surely, Allaah knows all things full well." 
The above verse, they contend, signifies that Allaah is essentially everywhere. This argument is refuted by the prominent exegete, Ibn Katheer who says: "This means that Allaah is well acquainted with their utterances, and private talks and thoughts."
Al-Qurtubi commented on this verse saying: "He knows and hears their private counsel. This is evidenced by the fact that the opening and concluding clauses of this verse confirm the knowledge of Allaah."
Al-Qasimi says: "The scholars among the Prophet's companions, who transmitted the meaning of the Qur'aan to their successors, held this verse to mean that Allaah is above His 'Arsh, but His knowledge is everywhere."
The linguistic analysis of this verse proves the following points:
1. The opening words of the above verse speak of Allaah's knowledge, not His location.
2. Private counsel, or secret talk, is the theme of this verse. Allaah says, 'There is no secret counsel of three, but He is their fourth.' He does not say, 'There are not three, but He is their fourth'. Thus the meaning becomes quite clear that it is the knowledge of Allaah what encompasses all His creatures.
3. Allaah confirms that He will inform them of their secret talk on the Day of Resurrection.
4.The verse ends, therefore, confirming Allaah's knowledge.
5. Allaah begins the surah of al-Mujadilah (Chapter 58), of which the verse in question is part, with the following verse: "Allaah has indeed heard the speech of the woman who pleads with you concerning her husband and complains to Allaah. And Allaah has heard your dialogue. Verily, Allaah is All-Hearing and All-Seeing."  Allaah, the Exalted, states that He has heard the woman who was complaining to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, and has certainly heard her arguing with her husband, but He did not state in the verse that He was their third.
6. In the subsequent verse, Allaah emphasizes that He is well acquainted with the deeds of His slaves. If one were to believe that Allaah is essentially everywhere, it would follow then that He also dwells in filthy places. Only an insane person would dare to impute to Allaah such an attribute. Far removed is Allaah of what they ascribe to Him. It would also follow that Allaah is mingling with His creatures in the heavens and on the earth. Such belief has paved the way for panatheism , and promoted the myth of god incarnate. Allaah is far removed from what they ascribe to Him. It should be clear in the minds of the true believers that there is nothing to surround Allaah, the Exalted, nor is there a place to contain Him. Things and places are creatures, and Allaah is above all His creatures. All creatures need Him, while He is separated from His creatures, and stands in need of none of them. The Heaven is the Qiblah of the Du'a Muslims supplicate Allaah with their palms upheld because they believe Allaah is above the heaven. When confronted with this fact, those who deny the Loftiness of Allaah allege that Muslims supplicate in this manner only because heaven is the qiblah of du'aa or supplication.
7. The above allegation, to begin with, has no proof in the Qur'aan or the Sunnah, and it cannot be related to any of the Companions of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam nor to any of the Tabi'een, who succeeded them. There is no mention of this statement in the Book of Allaah or the Sunnah of the Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam. The issue of the qiblah is central to the religion of Islam, so every Muslim must be aware of it and especially the scholars of the Muslim ummah should have known it.
8. It is an established fact, that the Ka'bah is the qiblah of formal prayer as well as the du'aa or supplication. To declare the heaven or anywhere else to be the qiblah of du'aa is a gross bid'ah (innovation) and a clear breach of the Qur'aan, the Sunnah, and the consensus of the ummah, because the Muslims have one single qiblah, the Ka'bah.
9.The qiblah is the direction to which Muslims turn or face in prayer, and to face something is to look toward it. If the heavens were the qiblah, the Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam would have commanded his companions, with whom Allaah is pleased, to face the heavens in their prayer. On the contrary, the Muslims are forbidden to uphold their eyes while praying, but are to concentrate on the spot upon which their faces rest during prostration. The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam warned: "Let those who uphold their eyes while praying stop doing so, lest they become blind."  The Qur'aanic verses allow no room for such opinions. Allaah, the Exalted, specifically commanded His Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam and his ummah to face the direction of the Ka'bah in their prayers, saying: "And from wherever you come forth, turn your face toward the Sacred Mosque."  Then Allaah addresses the Muslims: "And wherever you may be, turn your faces toward it."  The Loftiness of Allaah is also proven by the following verse: "To Him ascend the good words, and He exalts the righteous deeds." 
This verse contains the clear words of Allaah, in which the verb "ascend" is used to indicate that Allaah is above and separated from His creatures. The ascendance of deeds is also proven by the words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam describing the excellence of the period of time that falls after zawal of zenith. He said, "This is a time when the gates of the heavens are opened, and I hope that a good deed of mine would ascend to Allaah." The verb "ascend" in the text signifies that the good deeds are raised up to reach Allaah, the Exalted. And Allaah says:"The angels and ar-Rooh  ascend to Allaah in a day which is fifth thousand years long."  The Loftiness of the Creator is made clear by the great distance that separates the angels who inhabit the heavens from their Rubb above them. And Allaah says:"He manages all affairs from the heaven unto the earth." 
It should be borne in mind that this verse is preceded by the words of Allaah: "He rose over the Throne." And Allaah also says:"O, Issa (Jesus)! I will take you, and raise you to Myself."  Since Allaah addressed Issa saying: "I will take you, and raise you to Myself", what would those who believe that Allaah is every where answer when they are asked: "Where is Issa now?" They would say either Issa is everywhere, or he is in heaven. If they claim that Issa is everywhere, they would apostatize as a result of their equating Issa with Allaah in accordance with their claim that Allaah is everywhere. A claim which resembles the Christians' myth of god incarnate. But if they say, "Issa is in the heaven," they would admit that Allaah did raise Issa up to the heaven, and that Allaah is above the heavens. Allaah says:"Surely, your Rubb is the One who created the heavens and the earth in six days; then He istawa on the Throne." 
This is one of the seven Qur'aanic verses in which Allaah, the Exalted, refers to His istiwa' on His 'Arsh. Ahlus-Sunnah are certain that the great 'Arsh of Allaah is above the seven heavens. They also believe that Allaah, having created the earth and apportioned its provisions, ascended above His great 'Arsh. Only those who believe otherwise hold these verses to be allegorical. Allaah, they say, "is everywhere", denying that He is above the 'Arsh. Exalted is Allaah, and far is He removed from their ascription. Quoting all or even most of the verses signifying Allaah's attribute of Loftiness would only enlarge the volume of this issue. There are about 215 verses in the Qur'aan containing the verb sent down with reference to either the Qur'aan, the previous Scriptures, or the angels.
PROOFS FROM AUTHENTIC PROPHETIC TRADITIONS
Authentic Prophetic traditions, as well as traditions of the Prophet's companions, with whom Allaah is pleased, and works of the Four Imaama and of the rest of the pious predecessors contain many textual as well as inferential proofs of Allaah's Loftiness. Allaah, the Exalted, praises His Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam and confirms his veracity and truthfulness by saying: "Nor does he speak of his own desire. It is only revelation revealed (to him.)"  And Allaah says:
"And whatsoever the Messenger commands you, adhere to it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain from it."
1. And the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "I have been given the Qur'aan and similar to it therewith." 
2. The purified Sunnah is what the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam meant by saying: "and similar to it therewith". The Sunnah is the second source of the Shari'ah of Islamic laws. Many traditions deal with the attribute of Allaah's Loftiness. The following are selected authentic traditions to whose authenticity all scholars of the hadith at all times have testified.
3. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam reported his eventful journey from Makkah to Jerusalem (al-Mi'raj)  and from there up to the heavens as follows: Jibreel took me up to the lowest heaven and requested its guards to open its gate. He was asked, 'Who is this?' He answered, 'Jibreel.' 'Who is with you?' They inquired. 'Muhammed sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam' He answered. They inquired. 'Has he been invited?' 'Yes'. Jibreel replied. Then someone greeted saying, 'He is most welcome'. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam continued, when the gate was opened, I entered and met Adam there. Jibreel said to me, 'This is your father, greet him'. Adam greeted me back, saying: 'Welcome, pious son and pious Prophet'. Then Jibreel ascended to the second heaven and requested its guards to open its gate. The questioning that took place in the lowest heaven was repeated before the gate was opened. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam described what he saw in every heaven, until finally he was taken up to the seventh heaven where obligatory prayers were prescribed to him. This authentic mutawatir  hadith speaks clearly in plain words and straightforward manner which is not liable to misconstruction or farfetched interpretations. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam was taken up to his Rubb from one heaven above the other. The Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah believe that the Mi'raj was neither an illusion nor a vision, rather real and essential. Had Allaah been everywhere, why would the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam be taken all the way up to the seventh heaven? Allaah would have prescribed to him the Salaah on earth rather than in the seventh heaven.
4. Adullah bin Amr reported that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "Be merciful to those on earth, so that the One above the heavens will be merciful to you."  Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "The angels of death usually attend the dying person. If he is pious, they would address his soul saying, 'O good soul! Come out of the good body, and rejoice in the annunciation of mercy and provision from the Rubb Who is well pleased with you'. The angels would keep coaxing it with these words until the soul emerges from the body. Then it would be taken up to the heaven where permission to open the gates of the heaven would be sought. The guards would inquire, 'Who is this?' 'So and so', the angels would answer. The guards would say: 'O good soul! You are welcome'. The soul would be flattered by such words and finally be taken up to heaven above which is Allaah."  It is quite evident that Allaah, the Exalted, is above the seven heavens. Otherwise, why would the souls and the believers deeds be taken up to the heavens to reach Allah?
5. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "The angel of death used to appear to people whose souls he would collect. When he came to the Prophet of Allaah, Musa alayhis-salaam to collect his soul, Musa punched out his eye. The angel of death ascended to his Rubb, the Glorious, and said to Him, My Rubb! You have sent me down to Musa who punched out my eye. Had he not been honored by You, I would have given him hard time..." The angel of death descended to Musa from the heaven to collect his soul. He did not come to him from east, west, north, or south, nor did he emerge from the earth, and then he ascended to His Rubb Who is above the heavens.
6. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "There are hundred levels in Jannah which Allaah has prepared for the Mujahideen who fight in His cause. Between on level and another is a distance which is equal to that between the earth and the heaven. When you ask Allaah, azza wajull, ask Him for Firdaws, because it is situated in the midst and Highest point of Jannah from where the rivers of Jannah spring, and above it is the 'Arsh of the Most Merciful." 
7. Mu'awiyah as-Sahmi reported: "I had some sheep which I kept between Uhud and Juwaniyyah with a slave-girl to look after them. One day, I went out to check on my sheep and discovered that a wolf had devoured one of them. Since I am just a human, (I became angry) and struck the girl. Later on, I came to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam and reported to him the incident. He terrified me with the gravity of my action. I said, 'Messenger of Allaah'! Shall I free her (as an expiation of my sin.) He said 'Call her over'. When I did, he asked her, 'Where is Allaah?' She said, 'Above the heavens'. Then he asked her, 'Who am I?' She said, 'The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam'. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam ordered me, 'Free her. She is a believer'."  The above hadith, according to Shaikh Kahlil al-Harras, is a luminous proof of the Loftiness of Allaah, the Exalted. Here is a man who wronged his female slave by striking her, and wanted to expiate his sin by giving her freedom in return. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam chose one particular question, 'Where is Allaah?' Then the slave girl gave him the correct answer, 'Above the heaven'. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam declared her to be a believer. Does not the above the hadith stand as a solid proof that Allaah is above the heaven? Doubtlessly, that slave girl, the shepherdess, knew her Rubb more than those ignorantly claim that Allaah is everywhere!
8. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "Our Rubb, the Blessed, the Exalted, descends to the lowest heaven every night, during the last third of the night, and says: 'Anyone calls Me, I will respond to him? Is there anyone asking for anything? I will give it to him? Is there anyone seeking My forgiveness, I will forgive him?' "  The words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam: 'Our Rubb, the Blessed, the Exalted, descends to the lowest heaven', clearly indicate the essential Highness or Loftiness of Allaah, the Exalted. Were Allaah to exist everywhere, there would be no need for the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam who knew Allaah best, to say, 'Allaah descends', nor would there be a reason to distinguish one portion of the night from another. There is only one answer to this: Allaah, the Blessed, the Exalted, is above the seven heavens, and above the great 'Arsh.
9. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "Allaah will descend to His slaves on the Day of Resurrection."  It is the Day when Allaah will come down to pass His judgment.
10. In another tradition, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "Allaah will gather the first and the last of His slaves for an appointed certain Day, when they will remain for forty years with their eyes uplifted towards heaven waiting for the decisive judgment. Allaah will then descend in coverings of clouds from His 'Arsh to the Kursi."
THE STANDPOINT OF THE COMPANIONS Radiallaahu 'anhum
1. Zainab, the wife of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, used to claim excellence over the rest of his wives by telling them, 'It is only your parents who gave you in marriage to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, while it is Allaah Who gave me in marriage to him from above the seven heavens.' 
2. In another narration, she said to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, 'It is the Rahmaan, the Merciful, Who married me to you from above His 'Arsh.'
3. Ibn Abbas, may Allaah be pleased with him, said to Aa'ishah, the wife of the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam when she was on her death bed: "Of all his wives you were the most beloved to the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, and he used to live only the pure. Allaah, the Exalted sent down your exoneration from above the seven heavens which was brought down by Jibreel. There is not a single masjid of the masajid of Allaah but the verses of your exoneration  are recited in it day and night." Aa'ishah, the wife of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam in this world and in the world to come, Mother of the Believers, whom the pervasive-minded sect tried to dishonor, but Allaah, the Exalted, exonerated her honor and condemned those who spread the lies against her.
4. In his speech subsequent to the death of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, Abu Bakr as-Saddiq said: "He who was worshipping Muhammed sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, (let him know that) Muhammed is dead, and he who was worshipping Allaah, (let him know that) Allaah is above the heaven Ever-Living, never dies'." 
5. Ibn Umar passed by a shepherd and asked him, 'Do you have a sheep fit for slaughter? 'Its owner is around', the shepherd answered. 'Tell him that the wolf devoured it'. Ibn Umar said to him. Thereupon, the shepherd uplifted his head towards the heaven and said, 'Then where is Allaah?' Ibn Umar responded, 'By Allaah. It is I who should have said, 'Where is Allaah.' He later on bought off the sheep and the shepherd and freed the latter and gave him the sheep. 
6. Abdurrahman al-Mahdi  said: "There is no one more evil among the people of whims than the followers of Jahm. All their deviant beliefs revolve around one theme; 'There is no one above the heaven.' I believe, by Allaah, that they should not be married from, nor to inherit Muslims nor to be inherited by Muslims." This opinion of Ibn Mahdi is shared by many among the pious predecessors.
7. Wahab b. Jareer said: "Beware of the opinions of Jahm's followers, for they try to convince people that there is nothing above the heavens. Their statements are only from Iblees's revelation, and it is only infidelity".
THE STANDPOINT OF THE FOUR RENOWNED IMAAMS
Imaam Abu Hanifah 
Abu Muti' Al-Balkhi reported:"I asked Imaam Abu Hanifah about a person who says, 'I do not know whether my Rubb is, above the heavens or on earth?' Abu Hanifah, may Allaah grant him His mercy, said: 'A person who makes such a statement becomes an apostate because Allaah, the Exalted says, 'The Merciful has ascended above the 'Arsh, and the 'Arsh of Allaah is above His heavens'. I further asked Abu Hanifah, 'What if such a person admits, Allaah is above His 'Arsh, but exclaims, I do not know whether His 'Arsh is above the heavens or on earth'. Abu Hanifah responded: 'If he denies that the 'Arsh is above the heavens, he is an apostate."  If the person apostatizes by saying that he did not know where is the 'Arsh of Allaah, then by right a person who denies the Loftiness of Allaah altogether is definitely worse than an apostate.
Imaam Maalik 
Abdullah bin Nafi' reported: Maalik bin Anas said:'Allaah is above the heavens, but His knowledge encompasses everything. Nothing escapes His knowledge.' 
Imaam Ash-Shafi'ee 
Imaam ash-Shafi'ee said:"The creed which I hold is the same creed the Muslims before me were holding, namely, the Testimony of Faith: "There is no god worthy of being worshipped except Allaah, that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allaah, and that Allaah is above His 'Arsh, above the heavens. He descends to the lowest heaven whenever He wishes."  Imaam ibn Khuzaimah, a Shafi'ite himself, said: "Whoever disacknowledges that Allaah is above His 'Arsh, above His seven heavens, and that He is separated from His creatures, is a Kafir, (unbeliever). Such person must be ordered to repent and disavow his belief, or else he must be beheaded and thrown on a garbage dump so that neither Ahlul-Qiblah  nor Ahludth-dthimmah  be annoyed by the foul odor of his carcass."  Abu Bakr Muhammad at-Tamimi, a Shafi'ite Imaam of Naisaboor, said:"I do not pray behind a person who denies the attributes of Allaah and does not recognize that Allaah is above His 'Arsh." 
Imaam Ahmad 
He was asked: "Is Allaah above His 'Arsh, above the seventh heaven, separate from His creatures, and is His knowledge and power encompassing everything everywhere? He replied: 'Certainly, He is above His 'Arsh and nothing escapes His knowledge."  All of the above show that the entire Muslim ummah, in the past and present, is in unison regarding the belief in the Loftiness and Supremacy of Allaah, the Exalted.
Adherents of certain deviant sects promote a false belief that Allaah is omnipresent Who inheres in His creation. Rational arguments are deadly available to refute the blasphemy of the Jahmites and those who try to revive their belief today. To prove that Allaah is above His 'Arsh, and above the seventh heaven in a manner that suits His Majesty, the Imaam of Ahlus-Sunnah, Ahmad bin Hanbal, may Allaah be pleased with him, refuted their belief more than one thousand years ago, when he wrote: "Where Allaah is and Where He is not - An exposition of the denial of the Jahmites that Allaah is above the 'Arsh."
We asked them "Why do you deny that Allaah is above the 'Arsh when He has said: 'The Merciful has the 'Arsh?  And again,' 'Who in six days created the Heavens and the earth then the 'Arsh,'  They replied: "He is under the seven earths as He is on the 'Arsh; He is in heaven, on earth and in every place; there is no place where He is not, nor is He is one place to the exclusion of any other." And they quoted the verse: "And He is Ilaah in the heavens and He is Ilaah on the Earth!" If you wish to prove the falsehood of the Jahmites who claim that Allaah exists everywhere, not in one particular place, ask them, 'Is it not true that Allaah was existent when there was nothing in existence?' The Jahmites' answer would be: "Certainly, there was nothing before Allaah." Then ask them, "Did Allaah create the creation within Himself or outside of Himself?" The Jahmites would be compelled to choose on of the following three answers:
1. If the Jahmites assert that Allaah created the creation within Himself, they would then become apostate instantly by claiming that the Jinn, humans and Satans are all dwelling within Allaah.
2. If the Jahmites assert that Allaah created the creation outside Himself but dwelled in them afterwards, they would also become apostate instantly by claiming that Allaah dwells in His creatures.
3. But if the Jahmites say that Allaah created the creation outside Himself and has never dwelled in them, they would by giving this answer, join the folds of Ahl-As Sunnah, for by giving this answer they denounce their own deviant beliefs.
Allaah, the Exalted, described Himself in the Torah too that He is above His creatures. Ka'bul-Ahbaar said: "Allaah, azza wajall,  said in the Torah, 'I, Allaah Am above My slaves, and My 'Arsh is above My creatures, and I am upon My 'Arsh running the affairs of My slaves. Nothing is hidden from Me neither in heaven nor on the earth." 
Finally, it may be worthwhile to say that even the enemy of Allaah, Fir'awn (Pharoah), who flagrantly claimed to be a god of his people, knew where Allaah is more than the followers of Jahm today. Allaah says: And Fir'awn said, 'O, Haman, build for me a tower that I may reach the ways; the ways to heavens so that I may have a look at the Ilaah of Musa.'  Now consider the words of Fir'awn who wanted Haman to build a tower for him that he might climb all the way to the heavens to see the Rubb of Musa, for Musa already told him that Allaah to Whom he is inviting him is above the heavens, and compare this with the groundless argument of the Jahmite off-shoots of today. A Muslim wonders how could those who believe that Allaah is Omnipresent rationalize such assertion knowing that Allaah, the Omnipotent, will collect the earth in His hand and fold the heavens in His right hand, as evidenced by the following divine stern warning. And they have not venerated Allaah with the veneration that is due Him, for on the Day of Resurrection, the earth will be collected in His hand and the heavens will be folded up in His right hand.  Were the above verse to be the only proof of Allaah's Loftiness, it would have been more than sufficient. It is certainly sufficient to those who fear Allaah and give Him the true veneration that is due to Him.
The first three Muslim generations whose righteousness the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam testified for, and whose merits surpassed the merits of all succeeding generation. They are the Companions of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam and the two generations that followed them. They all believed in the apparent meaning of the Qur'aanic ayaat that deal with the divine attributes without giving them farfetched interpretations based on Greek philosophies.
The Believer must believe that there is none like unto Allaah, the Exalted, in His essence, attributes, nor His actions. He must also believe that Allaah stands in need of none of His creatures. Neither a thing nor a place encompasses Him. He is above His 'Arsh, above the seventh heaven, and above all His creature essentially and realistically not allegorically.
There is none of His creatures that touches Him. Based on this it is not permissible to say that Allaah is everywhere, or He inheres in any of His creatures, for Allaah was when there was nothing. He who asserts that Allaah is not outside the universe, not only denies the existence of Allaah, but he worships a non-existent god. We ask Allaah to keep us on the straight path of His Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam and his Companions and to make us join their company on the Day when neither wealth nor offspring would avail. Walhamdu lillahi Rabbil-aalameen.
This discourse has been based mainly on two books: Ithbat Uluwil-Lah, by Usamah bin Yusuf al-Qassas, may Allaah grant him His mercy, and Ar-Rahman alal Arsh Istawa, by Dr. Awad Mansoor
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