Miraculous Nature of the Qur'an

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Miraculous Nature of the Qur'an

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    Default Miraculous Nature of the Qur'an

    [A moving (living) creature on earth


    [Dr. Zaghloul El-Naggar]

    [TD]“There is not a moving (living) creature on earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings, but are communities like you. We have neglected nothing in the Book, then unto their Lord they (all) shall be gathered.” (Surat Al-An'âm (The Cattle): 38)



    This ayah is found in the first quarter of surat Al-An’am (The Cattle) in the Qur’an. It was revealed in Makkah. There are 165 ayahs in this surah. It was named Al-An’am because of the mentioning of the cattle in this surah as well as referring to one of the most important systems of classification of different forms of living organisms.



    As other ayahs revealed in Makkah, this surah focuses on the Islamic creed (‘Aqeeda), as well as specific rulings. It also refers to other previous nations and how they responded to their messengers who were sent by Allah (SWT) to guide them. It mentions how those nations did not learn from the consequences faced by the previous nations due to disobeying Allah (SWT), emphasizing people’s ignorance and their short-sightedness.



    Signs of the creation mentioned in this surah:

    1. Confirming the issue of creation, and that Allah (SWT) is The Creator of everything with the Truth, The Ever-Trusted Trustee over everything. He (SWT) excelled in creating the heavens and earth, the darkness (es) and the light, the stars and all that is related to them (including planets, moons, comets, shooting stars, meteors, etc). This Surah also re-affirms that Allah (SWT) is the one who has created man of clay and that all mankind descends from one man and He (SWT) is the creator of all living creatures which rest in the night as well as the ones that rest at the daytime.

    2. It also mentions the fact that all living creatures are similar to the creation of man in terms of descending from one origin and each living together in a community of its own.

    3. A reference to the fact that Allah (SWT) is the only one who has the knowledge of the Unseen in the universe. It declares the fact that sleep is a form of death and waking up is a form of the rising after death. It also mentions that the universe is originally created in deep darkness while light is a blessing from Allah (SWT), which He bestows on whomever He chooses. It also refers to the fact that Allah’s (SWT) ability to split the daybreak from the night darkness every day is very similar to Him causing the seed-grain and the date-pits to split and sprout. This also proves Allah’s (SWT) omnipotence in innovating the universe. The ayah also states that the night is designated for rest and the day for tending of this earth and earning a living.

    4. The ayah uses the phenomenon of the alteration of the day and night to explain that the earth revolves about its own axis and rotates around the sun. Moreover, the sun and the moon behave in such a precise manner that man can use them to calculate the time and dates of the events.

    5. Confirming that the close-compounded grains in plants are brought out of the green color of plants known as chlorophyll. The thick clustered of dates (within reach) originate from the spathes of the palm trees. The ayahs also confirm that by sending rain down from the heaven, Allah (SWT) has brought into being gardens trellised and untrellised of grapes, palm trees, olives and pomegranate each similar to each, and each not (Literally: other than being co-similar) similar to each as well as plantation of different crops which bear fruit and ripen. All of these are amazing signs for a people who believe.

    6. There is a reference to the fact that the laborious climbing up in the heaven makes the breast of the climber straitened and restricted (if not equipped with the relevant equipment).



    Some interpretations of The ayah:

    Allah (SWT) says what can be translated as , “There is not a moving (living) creature on earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings, but are communities like you. We have neglected nothing in the Book, then unto their Lord they (all) shall be gathered.” (Surat Al-An'âm (The Cattle): 38).



    . Ibn-Kathir (may Allah have mercy on his soul) wrote what can be summarized as: Mujahid said: Every categorized species is identified by its name. Qutada said: There is a separate community for each: Birds, Man and the Jinn. Sady said: “…except that they are nations like you.” i.e. creatures like you.þ

    . The book ‘In the Shade of the Qur’an,’ (Fi-Dhilal Al-Qur’an), may Allah (SWT) have mercy on its author, stated: “… it is an amazing reality, which put animals, birds and insects into communities that have their own characteristics, systems and structure as well. The more advanced man’s knowledge becomes, this reality becomes increasingly evident. Nevertheless, Man’s knowledge of a specific creature does not add or change anything to that species! This ayah and these evident seen facts show Allah’s (SWT) knowledge of the seen and the unseen as well as His (SWT) planning for everything…

    . The writer of the book, Safwat Al-Bayan (may Allah have mercy on his soul) says that this part of the ayah “…except that they are nations like you,” refers to all the different communities that are similar to man. They all live and die, are in need of Allah (SWT) for their livelihood, organizing their matters, the subjection of the settlement of their affairs to His omnipotence …etc.



    Scientific implications in this ayah:

    Biologists have discovered more than 1.75 million different types of species which exist on this earth and are living on land, at sea and in the air. In addition, paleontologists have discovered more than a quarter of a million extinct species. Taking the average number of yearly discoveries, of new species, in these two fields into consideration, scientists estimate that the expected total number of different species present on this earth may be as high as 4.5 million. Each of these species is probably represented by billions of successive and contemporary individuals.



    It has been found that the life expectancy of each species ranges from 0.5 to 5 million years (an average of 2.75 million years) after which they normally become extinct. The oldest fossil found on earth is 3.7 to 3.8 billion years old. It is, then, evidently a near impossible task to discover every one of those billions of individuals out of those millions of species that ever existed or even exist on this earth no matter what advancements, knowledge, or means of calculations man has. This is why it became important to categorize them as the ayah, we are looking at, has done, “There is not a moving (living) creature on earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings, but are communities like you. We have neglected nothing in the Book, then unto their Lord they (all) shall be gathered.” (Surat Al-An'âm (The Cattle): 38).



    The ayah refers to the main type of classification which is the species. It is divided into groups which include numbers of this species living together in specific areas in the world, each forming a community of its own. For example, humans are divided into different races, each representing a population and all these different populations descend from one father, Adam (Peace and blessings be upon him) whom Allah (SWT) describes by saying what can be translated as, “O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife [Hawwâ (Eve)], and from them both He created many men and women; and fear Allâh through Whom you demand (your mutual rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allâh is Ever an All-Watcher over you.” (Surat an-Nisâ' (The Women):1).



    And He (SWT) says what can be translated as, “It is He Who has created you from a single person (Adam), and (then) He has created from him his wife [Hawwâ’ (Eve)], in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her…” (Surat Al-A'râf (The Heights):189).



    And He (SWT) says what can be translated as, “He created you (all) from a single person (Adam); then made from him his wife [Hawwâ’ (Eve)]. …” (Surat Az-Zumar (The Groups):6)



    The Prophet (SAWS) described the origin of human from one man by saying, “You are sons of Adam, and Adam came from dust”. (Good Hadith, Sahih Al-Gamea’ Al-Albany No. 1787).



    The ayah that we are discussing in surat Al-An’am is referring to the fact that just as humans are divided into different races, each representing a population having the same origin, the same is true for every other species on earth, each is divided into populations having the same origin. Despite being in some ways independent, the different species have shared characteristics with other species. This proves the oneness of the creator as all creations, starting from the atom to the solar system to the galaxy, or from a single living cell to the human body, all are clearly synchronized and based on the same paired system which is a witness of Allah’s (SWT) creativity, divinity and power as well as the attributes of being the one and only creator who is above all His creations.



    Types of living organisms (species) in the Noble Qur’an and in the science of classification.

    In an attempt to gather this infinite number of creatures, biologists classified them into two main categories: Animals and Plants. They defined plants as those living organisms that are fixed to the ground through their roots. Allah (SWT) has given the plants the ability to produce their own food. Animals, on the other hand, have been granted the ability to move and obtain food from the surrounding environment from which they eat and digest.



    This classification into these two main categories prevailed until the beginning of the 20th Century, despite discovering a lot of living organisms which were very difficult to place in either of these groups. These living organisms were discovered using the microscope which was invented in the 17th Century. They included a lot of tiny single-celled organisms. Some of them had some resemblance to plants and others had some resemblance to animals, while a third category had some resemblance to both plants and animals.



    These single-celled living things were eventually classified as a third category known as “Protista”. With the discovery of bacteria, it was found that they could not be put in any of the three main classifications- Protista, Plants or Animals as it lacked a nucleus which was a characteristic of all the three groups. Similar to the bacteria there was another simple type of living organism known as “Blue Green Algae”, which was also a single-celled organism with no definite nuclei and the carriers of the genetic codes are spread in the cell’s liquid.



    With the discovery of “Viruses”, it appeared that they can be distinguished from the other organisms as they live on other organisms. It was found that a virus could replicate by inserting its simple genetic material into the cells of an animal, plant or protista. Since the genetic material in these primitive living things are not linked in a definite way, such viruses are sometimes referred to as “Naked genes”.



    Based on these findings, living organisms were classified into 4 kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae and Animalia. Studies then proved that fungi were considered to be a different living organism that should be put into a separate category. Fungi are known to absorb their nutrition through the walls of their cells, which is a characteristic of plants. However, unlike plants, they do not produce their own food. Moreover, they do not swallow up and digest their food as animals do. Therefore, they had to be classified into a new category. By separating fungi into a new category, there became 5 different kingdoms of living things:

    1. Kingdom Monera: this includes: bacteria, blue green algae and spirochetes. They are normally single-celled organisms with no defined nucleus.

    2. Kingdom Protista: this includes protozoa and all algae other than blue green algae. They are also single-celled organisms but with a defined nucleus.

    3. Kingdom Fungi: this includes all kinds of mushrooms, molds, fungi, yeasts, mildews, and smuts. It may be single-celled or multi-cellular. Every cell has its definite nucleus. Fungi differ from plants because they lack chlorophyll and therefore, depend on other living organisms and decomposed material to survive. Hence, there are saprophytic fungi, that live on dead corpses and the remains of decomposed plants and parasitic fungi that rely on other living organisms for its nutrition.

    4. Kingdom Plantae: this includes multi cellular organisms, each cell has its defined nucleus. These cells are organized into tissues and organs which include pigmentation that allows them to produce their own food through photosynthesis. The cell walls of plants are characteristically not living and the plants are normally rooted in soil.

    5. Kingdom Animalia: this includes multi-cellular living organisms with nucleated cells and a living outer cell membrane. They are organisms that are able to move and rely on other organisms (plants and animals) to obtain their food.



    This type of classification is to aid biologists in being familiar with these extensive amounts of living organisms. Viruses do not belong to the above 5 kingdoms of life. They are much smaller and much less complex than cells. They are macromolecular units composed of DNA or RNA surrounded by an outer protein shell. Similarly, prions and other non-cellular entities do not fit into any of the five kingdoms. The five-kingdom system of classification for living organisms, is further complicated by the discovery of archaebacteria., now recognized by most authorities as a 6th kingdom.



    A prominent contemporary scientist describes it as: “Even though the method of classifying living organisms into 5 kingdoms is preferred in this book, it is like any other system created by the human mind. Therefore, it is an attempt to place arbitrary limits to nature which is too varied to be placed into such specific and narrow classifications and is therefore a very difficult, if not an impossible task.” (Biology: Richard A Goldzbi, 1980, page 394)



    Current classification of living organisms (Taxonomy)

    In an attempt to simplify the picture, which in fact made it more complicated, was further classification of each (kingdom) into (Phyla), every Phylum into (Classes), every Class into (Orders), every Order into (families), into (Genera), into (Species), into (Varieties) into (Strains) which consist of individuals.



    Things got more complicated with the addition of sub-categories to multiply each classification up to three times of what it originally was. There came to be sub- and super- before each of the above mentioned categories. For example, there is now a super-kingdom, a kingdom and a sub-kingdom.



    This reflects the desperate attempts of evolutionists in a trial to deny the absolute truth about creation and to deny the Creator (SWT) Himself. They are attempting to prove that everything comes from nature. However, new successive scientific advances, especially in the field of genetics and inheritance, are increasing the proof that the true system of classification of living organisms is the species, which Allah (SWT) has distinguished into billions of individuals distributed throughout the world and has brought together as populations living in specific places and environments. Each species has originated from one origin which Allah (SWT) has created and knows of.



    The classification of living things according to species is therefore the only accurate method of classification established by modern science. As for the remaining higher categories of classification allocated by different biologists, they are not accurate because they depend on a lot of assumptions, which rely on personal points of view. A biologist classifying these categories would be prone to information bias through choosing which characteristics to consider and which to ignore in order to simplify the process of classifying this extensive number of creatures.



    Therefore, every species of living organisms on earth comprises groups or populations which are brought together by shared characteristics. These characteristics include external, phenotypic, genetic and internal anatomic similarities. They would also have similar physiologic and biochemical behavior, basic genetic characteristics, proximate environmental conditions even if separated by terrestrial distances, as well as the ability to interbreed to produce fertile offspring. These characteristics bring together all the individuals of any one population as well as bringing together individuals of different populations of the same species. This is the case even if populations of the same species exhibit differences as a result of variations in the surrounding environmental conditions, or due to genetic isolation, because they all have a common genetic code.



    Therefore, individuals from two different species can never interbreed and produce a fertile offspring. Each species cannot possibly breed with another different species. There are only minor differences within a population of any one species based on the genes inherited by the individuals which was originally placed by Allah (SWT) in the origin of this species. These individual differences may become more evident among individuals of two separate populations as a result of genetic isolation as well as differences in environmental and climatic conditions.



    This remark alone is enough to disprove the idea of the hierarchical classification of the living organisms which is based on assumptions of similarities within the individuals of any specific kingdom, whether it starts from the species or the strains up to the kingdom and between all the other kingdoms according to the evolutionary theory. That theory has also been disproved by modern advancements in science including the Genome Project which has unraveled the genetic code of humans as well as some other living organisms despite the attempts made by scientists such as Charles Darwin.



    Carlous Linnaeous was a Swedish botanist, who published a book called ‘Systema Naturae’ in 1735, a 100 years before Charles Darwin’s publication of the book ‘On the origin of Species’. Linnaeus sought a natural method of arrangement, he stopped short of accepting the evolution of one species into another. Linnaeus’ book called for the necessity of a classification system of all living things based on Binomial Nomenclature. This naming system is based on the assumption that all living organisms originate and descend from a common origin. However, The ayah that we are looking at in Surat Al-An’am rejects this as Allah (SWT) says what can be translated as, “There is not a moving (living) creature on earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings, but are communities like you.” (Surat Al-An'âm (The Cattle):38). This Ayah specifically says what can be translated as that every species of the living organisms, with its populations and individuals, is a special entity separated and isolated from other individuals, populations and species. Any similarities are within the individuals of the same species and do not in any way go beyond to any other species.



    This is a reality which modern advancements in genetics, molecular biology and biochemistry have begun to clearly show. This fact was mentioned 1400 years ago in the Holy Qur’an which only re-affirms the fact that the Qur’an could only be the word of Allah (SWT) which He revealed upon His Prophet and Messenger (SAWS). No man could have ever produced it. It also proves that Allah (SWT) has protected every letter and word of it as He promised. He (SWT) kept it just as it was revealed in its original Arabic language for more than 14 centuries and will continue to do so until this earth and all that is on it returns back to Him (SWT). We thank Allah (SWT) for blessing us with the Qur’an and Islam.



    "All the praises and thanks be to Allâh, Who has guided us to this, and never could we have found guidance, were it not that Allâh had guided us!" (Surat Al-A'râf (The Heights):43)



    Peace and blessings be upon the seal of the Prophets and the Messenger of Allah, who received the Holy Qur’an from his Lord (SWT), and passed it onto us with complete honesty, through his perfect character and morals, and it is all truth. Peace and blessings be on his beloved companions, family, pure wives and on all those who followed his guidance and acted upon it until the Day of Judgment.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    [he Quran on Seas and Rivers



    [www.islam-guide.com]

    TD]Modern Science has discovered that in the places where two different seas meet, there is a barrier between them. This barrier divides the two seas so that each sea has its own temperature, salinity, and density.[1] For example, Mediterranean sea water is warm, saline, and less dense, compared to Atlantic ocean water. When Mediterranean sea water enters the Atlantic over the Gibraltar sill, it moves several hundred kilometers into the Atlantic at a depth of about 1000 meters with its own warm, saline, and less dense characteristics. The Mediterranean water stabilizes at this depth[2] (see figure 1).


    Figure 1: The Mediterranean sea water as it enters the Atlantic over the Gibraltar sill with its own warm, saline, and less dense characteristics, because of the barrier that distinguishes between them. Temperatures are in degrees Celsius (C°). (Marine Geology, Kuenen, p. 43, with a slight enhancement.)


    Although there are large waves, strong currents, and tides in these seas, they do not mix or transgress this barrier.


    The Holy Quran mentioned that there is a barrier between two seas that meet and that they do not transgress. God has said:


    “He has set free the two seas meeting together. There is a barrier between them. They do not transgress.” (Quran 55:19-20)


    But when the Quran speaks about the divider between fresh and salt water, it mentions the existence of “a forbidding partition” with the barrier. God has said in the Quran:

    “He is the one who has set free the two kinds of water, one sweet and palatable, and the other salty and bitter. And He has made between them a barrier and a forbidding partition.” (Quran 25:53)


    One may ask, why did the Quran mention the partition when speaking about the divider between fresh and salt water, but did not mention it when speaking about the divider between the two seas?


    Modern science has discovered that in estuaries, where fresh (sweet) and salt water meet, the situation is somewhat different from what is found in places where two seas meet. It has been discovered that what distinguishes fresh water from salt water in estuaries is a “pycnocline zone with a marked density discontinuity separating the two layers.”[3] This partition (zone of separation) has a different salinity from the fresh water and from the salt water[4] (see figure 2).


    Figure 2: Longitudinal section showing salinity (parts per thousand ‰) in an estuary. We can see here the partition (zone of separation) between the fresh and the salt water. (Introductory Oceanography, Thurman, p. 301, with a slight enhancement.)


    This information has been discovered only recently, using advanced equipment to measure temperature, salinity, density, oxygen dissolubility, etc. The human eye cannot see the difference between the two seas that meet, rather the two seas appear to us as one homogeneous sea. Likewise, the human eye cannot see the division of water in estuaries into the three kinds: fresh water, salt water, and the partition (zone of separation).


    Footnotes:
    [1] Principles of Oceanography, Davis, pp. 92-93.
    [2] Principles of Oceanography, Davis, p. 93.
    [3] Oceanography, Gross, p. 242. Also see Introductory Oceanography, Thurman, pp. 300-301.
    [4] Oceanography, Gross, p. 244, and Introductory Oceanography, Thurman, pp. 300-301.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    The Scientific Facts Presented in the Holy Qur'an

    Dr. Syed Hasan Akhtar





    About the creation of the heavens and the earth





    "Do not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together, then we clove them asunder and We got every living thing out of the water? Will they not then believe?" (21:30)





    The above verse might be a reference to the origin of the universe with an explosion. The modern Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe also postulates an explosion.





    "Moreover (God) turned to the heaven when it was smoke and said to it and to the earth: Come willing or unwilling; they said: We come in willing obedience." (41:11)





    The word "smoke" here refers to the gaseous material with particles suspended in it. This corresponds to the concept of the "Primary Nebula" put forward by modern science, which consisted of hydrogen and helium.





    "Your Lord is God who created the Heavens and the Earth in six days (periods)...In a day whereof the measure is as a thousand years of your reckoning." (32:5)





    The creation of the Heavens and the Earth should not be taken in a literal sense. As explained in the Quran, what we call a day by our earthly yardstick is not the same as a day by the heavenly yardstick. This is consistent with modern scientific knowledge, which estimates the age of the Earth and sun in millions of years.





    "Did you see how God created seven Heavens one above another and made the moon a light therein and made the sun a lamp". (71:15-16)





    It is well known to modern science that in the universe there is a plurality of galaxies, with many galaxies and many suns larger than ours.





    Astronomy in the Quran





    "God is the one who created the night, the day, the sun, and the moon. Each one is traveling in an orbit with its own motion." (21:33)





    Modern scientific knowledge has shown that our galaxy revolves on its own axis. The sun is located eccentrically and thus revolves in an orbit around the center of the galaxy. This was not known to man 1400 years ago. The concept of motion of the heavenly bodies with an orbit of their own belongs to modern science. Earlier scientists regarded the sun as a stationary object.





    "Has thou not seen how God merges the night into the day and merges the day into the night?" (21:29)





    "He coils the day upon the night and coils the night upon the day." (39:5)


    Astronauts have described the appearance of the Earth from space. The sun lights up half of the earth facing it and the other half is dark. As the earth rotates on its axis, the darker areas come to light, and the light areas merge into darkness. This is easy to understand at the present time. However, 1400 years ago this knowledge did not exist. In those days the earth was mistakenly thought to be flat and at the center of the universe. Modern scientific data are in full agreement with the Qur’anic description.





    "God subjected the sun and the moon, each one runs its course to an appointed term." (33:2)





    Modern science has estimated the age of the sun and has also estimated when it will run out of hydrogen and will cool off. Modern astronomy has discovered that the solar system is moving towards a point in the constellation of Hercules, named the Solar Apex.





    About the expansion of the universe





    "The heaven, we have built it with power. Verily, we are expanding it." (51:47)


    The gradual expansion of the universe is one of the most important discoveries of modern times.





    About the conquest of space





    "O Assembly of Jinn (spirits) and men, if you can penetrate regions of the heavens and the earth, then penetrate them! You will not penetrate them save with a power." (55:33)





    This refers to man's entry into space and the exploration of the depths of the Earth.





    About the water cycle





    "We sent down water from the sky in measure, and lodged it in the ground. And we certainly are able to withdraw it. Therewith for you, we gave rise to gardens of palm trees and vineyards." (23:18-19)


    "Has thou not seen that God sent water down from the sky and let it through sources into the ground? Then He caused sown fields of different colors to grow." (39:21)





    The water cycle as we know it today was described 500 years ago. Before that, many people believed that water from the ocean was thrust into soil which formed springs and underground reservoirs. It was also thought that moisture in soil condensed to form water. The Quran gave the correct view in an authoritative way 1400 years go.





    About the mountains





    "We have placed in the ground (mountains) standing firm, so that it does not shake with them." (21:31)





    "Have We not made the earth an expanse and the mountains stakes?"


    (78:6-7)





    According to modern theories, mountains played a key role in the formation and stability of landmass. They also contribute to the stability of the earth’s crust, which is relatively very thin. Beneath the crust are molten rocks at very high temperatures. Qur’anic description and modern scientific discoveries are in agreement.





    About the effects of high altitude





    "Those who God wills to guide, He opens their breasts to Islam. Those who He wills lose their way, He makes their breasts narrow and constricted, as if they were climbing the sky." (6:125)





    This refers to breathlessness or "air hunger" due to the decreased quantity of oxygen available at high altitude. This is an accurate yet surprising statement, because high mountain climbing, air travel, etc. were not available at that time.





    About the origin of life on earth





    "God created every animal from water." (24:45)





    "And We got every living thing out of water. Will they then not believe?"


    (21:30)





    Modern scientific data indicate that life is of aquatic origin and water is the major component of the living cell. Mankind did not know this in Muhammad's time.





    About the Vegetable kingdom.





    About the balance in the vegetable kingdom:





    "The earth...We caused all kinds of things to grow therein in due balance." (15:19)





    Reproduction in the vegetable kingdom...


    "God is the One who sent water down from the sky and thereby, We brought forth pairs of plants each separate from the other." (20:53)





    "Glory be to Him who created components of couples of every kind: of what the ground caused to grow, of themselves (human beings) and of what you do not know". (26:36)





    The last two verses above clearly indicate the two sexes, not only in the vegetable kingdom but in other creatures not known to man at the time of Muhammad, but discovered later on.





    About the Animal kingdom





    "God fashioned the two of a pair, the male and a female, from a small quantity of liquid, when it is poured out." (53:45-46)





    In the above verses the reproduction of the animal kingdom is stated in a general but precise way. The word used in Arabic signifies sperm.





    Animal Communities





    "There is no animal on earth, no bird, which flies on wings that (does not belong to) communities like you. We have not neglected anything in the Book (of decrees.) Then to their Lord they shall be gathered." (6:38)





    The existence of true communities amongst animals, insects, etc., has been established only in the last few decades.





    About formation of milk





    "Verily in your cattle, there is a lesson for you! We give you a pure milk to drink, excellent for its drinkers; (it comes) from what, inside their bodies, is between digested food and blood." (16:66)





    The above verse describes in general but accurate terms the formation of milk from the product of digested food, which mixes with blood and is carried to the mammary glands that secrete it. Man did not know this at the time of prophet Muhammad. In fact, the discovery of the circulation of blood was made some ten centuries after the verse was revealed.





    About human reproduction





    Quran has made many references to various facts about human reproduction in precise and accurate terms. Professor Keith Moore, who has written a well-known book on embryology (study of human reproduction), has verified the accuracy of the Qur’anic statements. Scientific knowledge about human reproduction was incomplete until recent times. Use of the microscope was indispensable for the study of development of a fetus in the mother's womb. The sperm and the ovum (egg) are so small; they are invisible to the naked eye. The microscope was invented in the 17th century AD.





    "He makes you in the womb of your mother in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness." (39:8)


    The three veils of darkness or layers have been identified by biologists as (1) Abdominal wall, (2) Uterine wall, and (3) Amniochorionic membrane (a sac filled with fluid in which the fetus floats).





    "Man We did create from a quintessence of clay, and then We placed as a drop of sperm, in a place of rest, firmly fixed. Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a leech-like lump. Then we made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then We developed out of it another creature. So blessed be God, the best to create." (40:13-14)





    "Then out of a morsel (chewed up) of flesh, partly formed and partly unformed." (22:5)





    According to Professor Keith Moore, the above is a surprisingly accurate description of human development in the uterus. The word "chewed up flesh" and "leech-like clot," precisely describe the appearance and characteristics of the developing embryo and of conception.


    "And He made his progeny from a quintessence of the nature of a fluid despised." (32:8)





    "Verily We created man from a drop of mingled sperm in order to try him, So, We give him (the gifts of) hearing and sight." (76:2)





    The word 'despised' refers to the fact that semen comes out through the same route as does the urine. “Mingled fluid” refers to the various secretions that semen is made up of. Also, semen mixes with fluids in the female genital tract.





    "That He did create in pairs, male and female, from a seed when lodged in its place." (53:45)





    The above verse refers to the fact that sex is determined at the time of fertilization. This discovery was made only sixty years ago, when sex chromosomes were discovered.


    Thus it is clear that the information in the Quran about human reproduction is of divine origin, and was beyond the knowledge of a human being at the time it was revealed.





    (The translation of Qur’anic verses given above is by Doctor Maurice Bucaille.)
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Geoidal Form Of The World
    www.quranmiracles.com




    The Arabic word “dahw” means rotundity like that of the ostrich’s egg. The above verse was also interpreted to refer to the shaping of the earth in the form of an ostrich egg. Prof. Dr. Suleyman Atefl, former head of Religious Affairs in Turkey, gives the following definition of the word, based on the famous Arabic dictionary Lisan u’l Arab: “The word ‘dahw’ means to spread out, giving (something) a round shape.” The word “dahw” had also been defined as a game played with walnuts. Derived from the same stem, the word “medahi” referred to round stones. Despite the meaning of rotundity concealed in words derived from the word “dahw” there have been translators for whom a spherical earth was difficult to conceive, who had to translate it as “to spread out.” The actual shape of the earth does have the shape of an ostrich egg. Thus the shape of the earth is spheroid with depressions at the poles. The exact figure of the earth which had posed a problem throughout history was established by the Quran.





    He made the earth egg-shaped. (79:30





    Even the books written a few centuries after the descent of the Quran likened the shape of the earth to a tray. Beliefs according to which the earth rested on the horns of an ox or was supported by a fish reigned over mentalities in the Arabic peninsula and many believed that earthquakes occurred when the fish down below waved its tail. The Prophet had no ocean-going ship to cross the earth from one extremity to the other, that would have supplied him with evidence proving the spheroid shape of the earth, nor had he a spacecraft from which he could have had an overall view of our world that would have provided him a photographic image of it, as he was not equipped with a camera. Our knowledge of the sphericity of the earth, which seems to us as an established fact, was then beyond the comprehension and imagination of the majority. Therefore, the Quran’s statement to this effect failed to be grasped. Men believed that the verse referred to the plenitude of the earth, ignoring the sense of rotundity.





    Thus, at a time when most of the people believed in the shape of earth’s figure as a tray supported by an ox or fish, the Quran had beautifully described its actual shape. The fact that ostriches abounded in the Arabian Peninsula at the time must have permitted those who inquired into this mystery to hold an ostrich egg in their hands and examine it. The geoidal form is a gentle indication of this. The subtlety of the Quran’s expressions provides men with evidence.





    O people! Verily there has come to you an infallible proof from your Lord. We have sent unto you a manifest light. (4:174)
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur’an
    Ahmad Von Denffer




    The Glorious Qur'an contains the revelations of Almighty Allah, the Creator and Sustainer of the Universe, to mankind. It is the message from Allah to man and therefore of utmost importance to us. To properly grasp a message, one needs first of all to understand its contents exactly, and for this purpose one must study the Qur'an deeply and in detail. In fact, some people do spend their whole lives studying the Qur'an, reading and reflecting upon it and, as they grow and develop, both physically and spiritually, they discover for themselves new meanings and implications.





    Secondly, some special knowledge of the circumstances that surround the message is also necessary for fuller understanding of its meaning and implications. Although some part of this special knowledge can be derived from the Qur'an itself, there remain other areas of knowledge that can only be discovered by wider study and research.





    Muslims have from earliest times, applied themselves not only to the message from Allah the Qur'an but also to its setting and framework, and the preoccupation with these ultimately developed into the 'sciences' of or 'knowledge' about the Qur'an, known as "`ulum al-qur'an'.


    The proper approach to the Qur'an, in my humble view, can be described in three stages. You must:


    • first, receive the message of the Qur'an, by hearing or reading it;


    • second, understand the message of the Qur'an by reflecting upon it and studying its meanings;


    • third, apply the message of the Qur'an by ordering your personal life as well as the life of society according to its message.





    The branch of knowledge, called 'ulum al-Qur'an may be used as a means for the accomplishment of the second stage, understanding the message of the Qur'an, by understanding its setting and circumstances.








    According to a general definition, 'ulum al-qur'an (Sabuni, Muhammad 'Ali: At-tibyan fi `ulum al-qur-an) denotes studies concerned with the book of revelations sent down upon the last Prophet Muhammad namely:


    • Its revelation.


    • Its collection.


    • Its order and arrangement.


    • Its writing down.


    • Information about the reasons and occasions of revelation.


    • About what was revealed in Makka and what in Madina.


    • About the abrogating and abrogated verses.


    • About the 'clear' and the 'unclear' verses.


    The term also covers Qur'an-related studies, such as:


    • The explanation of verses and passages by the Prophet himself, his Companions, their followers and the later exegetes of the Qur'an.


    • The methods of explanation.


    • The scholars of exegesis and their books.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur’an
    Ahmad Von Denffer




    The Glorious Qur'an contains the revelations of Almighty Allah, the Creator and Sustainer of the Universe, to mankind. It is the message from Allah to man and therefore of utmost importance to us. To properly grasp a message, one needs first of all to understand its contents exactly, and for this purpose one must study the Qur'an deeply and in detail. In fact, some people do spend their whole lives studying the Qur'an, reading and reflecting upon it and, as they grow and develop, both physically and spiritually, they discover for themselves new meanings and implications.





    Secondly, some special knowledge of the circumstances that surround the message is also necessary for fuller understanding of its meaning and implications. Although some part of this special knowledge can be derived from the Qur'an itself, there remain other areas of knowledge that can only be discovered by wider study and research.





    Muslims have from earliest times, applied themselves not only to the message from Allah the Qur'an but also to its setting and framework, and the preoccupation with these ultimately developed into the 'sciences' of or 'knowledge' about the Qur'an, known as "`ulum al-qur'an'.


    The proper approach to the Qur'an, in my humble view, can be described in three stages. You must:


    • first, receive the message of the Qur'an, by hearing or reading it;


    • second, understand the message of the Qur'an by reflecting upon it and studying its meanings;


    • third, apply the message of the Qur'an by ordering your personal life as well as the life of society according to its message.





    The branch of knowledge, called 'ulum al-Qur'an may be used as a means for the accomplishment of the second stage, understanding the message of the Qur'an, by understanding its setting and circumstances.








    According to a general definition, 'ulum al-qur'an (Sabuni, Muhammad 'Ali: At-tibyan fi `ulum al-qur-an) denotes studies concerned with the book of revelations sent down upon the last Prophet Muhammad namely:


    • Its revelation.


    • Its collection.


    • Its order and arrangement.


    • Its writing down.


    • Information about the reasons and occasions of revelation.


    • About what was revealed in Makka and what in Madina.


    • About the abrogating and abrogated verses.


    • About the 'clear' and the 'unclear' verses.


    The term also covers Qur'an-related studies, such as:


    • The explanation of verses and passages by the Prophet himself, his Companions, their followers and the later exegetes of the Qur'an.


    • The methods of explanation.


    • The scholars of exegesis and their books.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    The Cosmos in the Quran
    Zaghlool El-Naggar




    The cosmos is mentioned in 310 Qur’anic verses.





    The cosmos is collectively referred to in the Glorious Qur'an under the term "heavens and earth", or simply "heavens" and sometimes in the singular form "heaven, firmament or sky". Such reference is made in 310 Qur'anic verses (190 in the plural and 120 in the singular form) to describe certain characteristics of the universe, successive stages in its creation, its final destruction and annihilation, as well as its recreation.





    These cosmic verses intervene the main message of this divine revelation, as a vivid testimony to the unlimited might, knowledge and wisdom of the Creator ,peace be upon him. They are not meant to be pieces of scientific information per se, as science is left for man to gain over a long span of time through careful observation and/or experimentation, followed by rational conclusion. Nevertheless, the Qur'an being the word of the Creator ,peace be upon him, and the cosmos being His creation, such cosmic Qur'anic verses must convey the absolute truth about areas that cannot possibly be placed under the direct observation of man, such as the creation, annihilation and recreation of the universe.





    Mixtures of Truth and Fallacy





    Consequently, early speculations about the origin of the universe in pre-Islamic civilizations, had glimpses of some facts borrowed from the successive divine revelations, but highly mixed with mythological assumptions and illusionary visions. An example for this mixture of truth and fallacies in polytheistic civilizations is the ancient Egyptians' concept about the creation of the earth.





    This concept is symbolized in their legacy by drawing "Chou" (the mythological God of air), son of A'amoun Ra'a (the fictitious God of the Sun) in a position where he is separating his sister "Nutt" (symbolic for the heaven) from his brother "Kepp" (who stands for the earth). The concept of separating the earth from the rest of the universe is apparently a divinely revealed fact that was completely distorted in the ancient Egyptian mythology under the influence of deviation from monotheism to polytheism.





    Similarly, in the ancient Indian civilization, a cosmic nucleus (or Golden Egg) that symbolizes the origin of the universe was believed to have emerged from water.





    However, the Noble Qur'an forcefully invites man to observe the universe rationally with discernment, and analyze the data collected from such observation critically with meticulous assessment. It is only through such scientific questioning of the universe that man can discover the laws of creation, and apply them correctly for the proper fulfillment of his vicegerency on earth. This can be achieved by the successful development of man, his faculties and knowledge, and of life in general, as well as by rational reflection on the supremacy of The Creator, and hence the willful submission to His glory, peacefully and lovingly in worshipping and obedience.





    An Ever-Expanding Universe





    The discovery of the perfect concordance between the Qur’anic descriptions of the universe and its established facts can be a very convincing proof for the divine nature of the Qur'an and the authentic prophethood of Mohammad ,peace be upon him. Not only this, but the Qur'an can be a guiding light in the area of cosmogenic interpretations, because this is an area that can never fall directly under human observation, despite the abundant traces for the successive stages of creation which are still preserved in outer space.





    Out of the 310 Qur'anic verses where the cosmos is mentioned, at least 166 carry evident cosmological and cosmogenic implications. One such verse describes the expanding nature of the universe.





    The Qur'an reads:





    "And the firmament We have verily built with might, and verily we are expanding it*" (51:47)





    Early commentators on the Holy Qur'an saw the significance of this verse in the context of the amazing vastness of the universe, and in the fact that whoever could make it that vast, is definitely capable of making it even much more enormous, extending its limits outwardly much further, and this is very true.





    However, after centuries of keen observations, and numerous hypotheses, theorems and interpretations, the American astronomer Vesto M. Slipher noticed in 1912 that, except for a few nearby systems such as the Andromeda galaxy, the spectral lines from the rest of the galaxies were shifted toward longer (red) wavelengths. This shift in wavelength, caused by the Doppler effect, showed that most galaxies were receding from ours (the Milky Way) at several hundred kilometers per second.





    In 1929, another American astronomer, Edwin Powell Hubble, noticed that the more remote the galaxy, the higher was its recession velocity. This important relationship has become known as the law of the red shifts, or Hubble's law. It states that the recession velocity of a galaxy is proportional to its distance. The ratio of the recession velocity of a galaxy to its distance (generally known as the Hubble constant) is now estimated to be between 50 and 100 km/sec per megaparsec (1 megaparsec = 1 million parsec, and 1 parsec = 3.258 light years). After discovering this cosmic phenomenon of red shift, there was no other plausible explanation for it except the implication that our universe is indeed steadily expanding.





    Because galaxies in all directions seem to recede from our own galaxy, it might be wrongly concluded that the Milky Way is at the center of the universe. This is not true, as one can imagine a balloon with evenly spaced dots painted on its outer surface. As the balloon is blown up, an observer on each spot would see all the other spots expanding away from it, just as observers from earth see all the galaxies receding from the Milky Way. This analogy provides a simple explanation for Hubble's law: the universe is expanding like a balloon.





    This simple cosmological fact, which was deduced from the red shift phenomenon less than 70 years ago, had already been explicitly mentioned in the Holy Qur'an 14 centuries earlier. This long precedence of the Qur'an to thousands of scientists who spent many centuries of astronomical observations and research using sophisticated equipment and elaborate physical properties and mathematical calculations, is a living testimony to the divine purity of this last revelation and to the authenticity of the propethood of Mohammad (peace be upon him) who received and passed it in its divine purity.





    The established fact that our universe is steadily expanding is so vital for both its physical existence and survival, that it becomes well deserving to be mentioned in the Illustrious Qur'an as one of the great signs of The Creator ,peace be upon him. Not only this, but for our universe to be steadily expanding at such fantastic rates without losing its coherence is one of the most striking and most fascinating aspects of our existence.








    Dr. Zaghlool El-Naggar is a Fellow of the Islamic Academy of Sciences. Member of the Geological Society of London, the Geological Society of Egypt and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Fellow of the Institute of Petroleum, London. Prof. Naggar is the author/co-author of many books and more than 40 research papers in the field of Islamic Thought, Geology, General Science and Education. He was awarded by the Ministry of Education in Egypt the top “Secondary Education Award” as well as the seventh Arab Petroleum Congress Best Papers Award in 1970. Elected a member of the IAS Council (1994 and 1999), Prof. Naggar is currently working at the Arab Development Institute.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Chewed Lump Of Flesh
    www.quranmiracles.com



    Allah al-Mighty says in the glorious Qur'an: "Then We developed the drop into a hanging, then developed the hanging into a chewed lump of flesh.''( Verse 23: surah 14(.


    The Quran continues displaying its miracles in its description of “alaq” succeeded by the “mudga” (chewed lump of flesh) stage. As a matter of fact, the embryo in the uterus has the appearance of a chewed lump of flesh, a tiny piece of flesh. ( verse 22: 5), speaks “of chewed lump of flesh, partly formed and partly unformed,”


    which is a good description of the aspect of the fetus. The aspect presented to our sight is of an indented figure whose head, feet and internal organs have begun to develop (partly formed, partly unformed).


    Prof. Keith L. Moore says that he had a model made in plastic in the shape of an embryo and bit on it, leaving the marks of his teeth; this seemed to be an exact reproduction of an embryo, and explained the indentation referred to in the Quran.


    Adventure Of The Chewed Lump Of Flesh


    A single cell undergoes many stages in forming the various organs and tissues of the body. A chewed lump of flesh at one stage, it is transformed into organs, muscles, skeleton, brain, eyes and ears, until in time man finally emerges. To review all the stages of this development renders our awe still greater at the presence of God’s artistry. There is a time when the lump turns into a heart, a heart that beats 100,000 times a day without our being aware of it and without any conscious contribution on our part. Blood that comes to the heart and leaves it does not get mixed together. Blood is distributed in the body in perfect proportions. The ventricles and atriums of the heart are wonders of creation. The organized movement of blood within the arteries and veins presents matchless complexity and would take pages to describe. The day comes when this “chewed lump of flesh” is transformed into a liver, the organ that assumes more than 400 functions. This tiny lump becomes muscles to help us in our numerous movements like eating, running, walking, sitting and laughing. The muscles function within the framework of an extremely complex net of coordination.


    Merely smiling requires the coordinated functioning of 17 muscles. Our brains, hands, feet, intestines, kidneys, respiratory systems and the blood circulating in our veins and arteries owe their origins to this tiny lump of flesh, once a drop of liquid. The story of our creation would take up a whole encyclopedia. The Quran invites us to study these phenomena and meditate upon them. The prayer and ritual enjoined to man in the Quran have been a topic of long discussion. The verses that refer to ratiocination and meditation, which, although superior in number to those of the rituals, have received less attention.


    Allah al-Mighty says: ''O human beings! What has seduced you from your Lord, Most Beneficent''?(82:6).
    He also says: ''The One who created you, designed you in due proportion, and disposed you aright''.(82:7)
    Finally He says: ''In whatever design He chose, He constructed you''.(82:8)
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Scientific Facts Revealed In The Qur'an
    Z.R.M El-Naggar





    The Glorious Qur'an is basically a book of guidance, revealed by the Creator to address areas that cannot be answered by the human intellect such as the essence of faith, the acts of worship, the moral code and the rules and regulations that govern the various transactions between human beings.

    11 categories

    Besides this guidance, the glorious Qur'an refers to the cosmos, the earth and the heavens, as well as to many of their components, inhabitants and phenomena, in numerous verses that exceed 1000 in number. Such references come in the context of testifying to the unlimited might, knowledge and wisdom of the Creator who has brought this universe into being, and is capable of its annihilation and of its recreation.


    Consequently, the Qur'anic cosmic verses are not meant to be pieces of scientific information, but as scientific knowledge that has been left for man to gain over a long span of time. This is simply due to the limitations of the human senses and the cumulative nature of the scientific knowledge.
    The illustrious Qur'an, being the word of the Creator is, hence, the absolute truth, therefore Qur'anic verses with cosmic reflections must convey a number of absolute facts about the universe. Of these verses, a large number speak of the "earth", which is mentioned 461 times throughout the Holy Qur'an to describe the whole planet, its outer rocky cover, or the soil section on top of that cover. Verses of geological interest amongst these amount to more than 110, and can be grouped into 11 categories as follows:

    One verse that instructs man to travel through the earth, make his own observations and use such surveillances to reflect on how creation was originated (29:20).


    A group of verses that refer to the shape of the earth (13:3; 15:19; 26:28; 39:5; 50:7; 55:17; 65:12; 67; 70:40, 41); its motions (21:33; 36:40; 27:88; 12:3; 91: 1-4; 92:1,; 10:67; 77:10, 11; 27:71-73; 2:27; 29:61; 31:29; 35:13; 57:6; 36:37; 2:164; 3:190; 10:6; 23:80; 55:5; 14:33;) and its origin (21:30) where both the earth and the heavens are clearly described to have constituted (in their distant past) one entity (the initial singularity) before they split apart (Big Bang). This group also includes verses that emphasize the vastly distant positions of stars (56: 75, 76), the expanding nature of the universe (51:47), the smoky nature of the early sky (universe) (41:11, 12), the existence of the interstellar matter (20:6; 21:16; 25:59; 30:8; 32:4; 37:5; 38:10, 27, 66) and the concentric nature of both the heavens and the earth (the universe) (67:3); (71:15) and (65:12).( )


    One verse stating that iron was sent down to us, thus emphasizing the celestial (extraterrestrial) origin of iron in our planet (57:25).
    One verse that describes the deeply faulted nature of the earth (86:12).

    Oceanographic phenomena


    A group of verses that describe some of the most recently discovered oceanographic phenomena such as:
    The superheated nature of the bottoms of certain seas and oceans - implying intensive submarine volcanic activity associated with sea-floor spreading.


    The complete separation of different bodies of water (fresh and saline, as well as saline water of different compositions) that do not mix completely or immediately due to the constant presence of impassable barriers in between (25:53; 55:19, 20).


    The multitude of darkness produced in the greatest depths of oceans by deep currents, topped by surface currents, topped by clouds (24:40).
    One verse that describes mountains as pegs or pickets (78:7), emphasizing their relatively small, above-ground elevations, compared to their much more deeply buried parts (roots), and their role in the fixation of continental masses as well as of the whole planet. This role is emphasized in ten other verses that also ascribe more functions to mountains such as their part in the process of precipitation of rain and in the formation of natural heads for running streams (27: 61; 31: 10; 50:7; 77: 27; 79: 32). In this group, the Qur'an asks human beings to contemplate on a number of observations in the universe including how mountains are made to stand up on the surface of the earth (88:19).


    Such speculation has led to the formulation of the concept of isostacy which is currently used to explain the rising of mountains (and of all other surface elevations) above their surroundings. In another verse of this group (35:27), the Qur'an describes mountains as being composed of white and red tracts of various shades of colours and of others that are black and intense in hue.


    Dominant colors


    This is in clear reference to both acidic mountains (which are dominantly granitic in composition, with overwhelming white and red colours of various shades) and basic to ultrabasic mountains (which are dominantly basaltic/ gabbroic in composition with black coloured ferromagnesian minerals).
    Each of these major primary rock groups has its specific chemical and mineralogical compositions as well as its specific temperature of separation from its mother magma. Their dominant colors are also reflected in their secondary and/or tertiary products of sedimentary and metamorphic rock, and hence, the importance of these three principal colors (white, red and black) in the classification of igneous rocks and of their derivatives.
    A group of verses that reflect on the earth's hydrosphere and atmosphere, which are both clearly stated to have been outgassed from within the earth (LXXIX: 20, 31), a fact that has only very recently been discovered. Other verses in this group comment on the protective nature of the atmosphere for life on earth (21:32; 86: 11), the absolute darkness of outer space (15: 14, 15), the reduction of atmospheric pressure with elevation (6:125) and the glowing nature of the early nights of our planet before the formation of its protective atmospheric spheres (17:12).


    A group of verses that emphasize the thinness of the earth's crust (71:19), the constant levelling and degradation of the earth's surface and the gradual change in the geographic dimensions of continental masses, and even the contraction of the whole planet and the deformation of its surface (13:41; 21:44; 78:6).


    Verses emphasizing the fact that groundwater is generated from rain, thus reflecting on the hydro-geological cycle (23:18; 31:10), and others relating life on earth to water (21:30; 24:45) or reflecting on the possibility of classifying life forms (6:38).


    Verses emphasizing the fact that the process of creation took place in successive stages over tremendously long spans of time (22:47; 32:5).
    Two verses that describe the end of our planet and of the whole universe by reversing the process of its creation after which the eternal universe will be created (14:48).


    Such knowledge was not available before the turn of the present century, and most of it has just started to be understood through the painstaking analysis of massive amounts of scientific observation. The Qur'anic precedence with such precise and comprehensive knowledge points to only one facet of the multifarious, miraculous nature of this Glorious Book, being the last Divine message, and the only one that has been kept intact with exactly the same language of revelation word for word and letter for letter for more than 14 centuries.


    From the above mentioned discussion it is obvious that Qur'anic verses with geological notions exceed 110 in number and would need voluminous texts to explain. Consequently, the present paper concentrates on only a few of these verses which represent established facts and concepts in the area of Earth Sciences and are only given as examples of the miraculous nature of the Holy Qur'an.


    Source: http://www.islamonline.net
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Qur’anic style transcends the power of man


    Ola bint al-Shoubaki
    7/4/2011
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    Present literary authorities at al-‘Azhar University in Cairo have pointed out the following ways in which the Qur’anic style transcends the power of man and defies imitation: [1]

    1. The form of the Qur’an reflects neither the sedentary softness of the townsmen nor the nomadic roughness of the Bedouins. It possesses in right meansure the sweetness of the former and the vigour of the latter.

    2. The rhythms of the syllables are more sustained than in prose and less patterned than in poetry. The pauses come neither in prose form nor in the manner of poetry but with a harmonious and melodic flow.

    3. The sentences are constructed in an elegant manner which uses the smallest number of words, without sounding too brief, to express ideas of utmost richness.

    4. The Qur’anic words neither transgress by their banality nor by their extreme rarity, but are recognized as expressing admirable nobility.

    5. The conciseness of expression attains such a striking clarity that the least learned Arabic-speaking person can understand the Qur’an without difficulty. At the same time, there is such a profundity, flexibility, inspiration and radiance in the Qur’an that it serves as the basis for the principles and rules of Islamic sciences and arts for theology and the juridical schools. Thus, it is almost impossible to express the ideas of the texts by only one interpretation, either in Arabic or in any other language, even with the greatest care.

    6. There is a perfect blend between the two antagonistic powers of reason and emotion, intellect, and feeling. In the narrations, arguments, doctrines, laws and moral principles, the words have both persuasive teaching and emotive force. Throughout the whole Qur’an the speech maintains its surprising solemnity, power and majesty which nothing can disturb.

    Some other aspects of the literary i’jaz are as follows: [2]

    1. The placement of a particular word in perfect context, over its synonyms. The connotations given by the chosen words are better than those that would have been given by its synonyms.

    2. The unique sentence structure and syntax, which does not follow any one pattern but varies throughout the Qur’an. Each style is unique, and its rhythm clear and resounding.

    3. The use of different tenses (past vs. present; plural vs. singular, etc.) to give deeper meanings to a passage.

    4. The pronunciation of a word matches its context. In other words, when discussing topics that are encouraging and bearing glad tidings, it uses words that are easy to pronounce and melodious to hear, and vice-versa.

    5. The perfect combination of concisement and detail. When the subject requires elaboration, the Qur’an discusses the topic in detail, and when a short phrase suffices, it remains brief.

    References

    [1] Khalifa, M., The Sublime Qur’an and Orientalism, (New York: Longman, 1981). p. 24

    [2] Qadi, Abu ‘Ammar Yasir, An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur’an, (Birmingham: Al-Hidaayah Publishing and Distribution, 2000) p 268 (taken from Itr, Hasan Diyaq ad-Din, al-Mu’jiza al-Khalidah, and al-Qattan, Manna’, Mabahith fi ‘Ulum al-Qur’an)
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

Miraculous Nature of the Qur'an

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Miraculous Nature of the Qur'an

Miraculous Nature of the Qur'an