Introduction to Quranic Variants

آخـــر الـــمـــشـــاركــــات


مـواقـع شـقــيـقـة
شبكة الفرقان الإسلامية شبكة سبيل الإسلام شبكة كلمة سواء الدعوية منتديات حراس العقيدة
البشارة الإسلامية منتديات طريق الإيمان منتدى التوحيد مكتبة المهتدون
موقع الشيخ احمد ديدات تليفزيون الحقيقة شبكة برسوميات المرصد الإسلامي لمقاومة التنصير
غرفة الحوار الإسلامي المسيحي مكافح الشبهات شبكة الحقيقة الإسلامية موقع الدعوة الإسلامية
شبكة البهائية فى الميزان شبكة الأحمدية فى الميزان مركز براهين شبكة ضد الإلحاد

يرجى عدم تناول موضوعات سياسية حتى لا تتعرض العضوية للحظر

 

       

         

 

    

 

 

    

 

Introduction to Quranic Variants

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  1. #1
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    Introduction to Quranic Variants


    مقدمة في تناقضات بالقرآن الكريم


    By

    Bassam Zawadi



    This will be divided into the following sections



    Introduction

    Abrogation

    The Seven Modes of recitation

    Conclusion



    Introduction

    Some try to argue that there are variants in the Quran and that this is a devastating blow against Muslim claims of its preservation. However, unlike the variants found in the New Testament (see here) these variants are actually part of Islamic teachings approved by the Prophet (peace be upon him) and therefore as a Muslim I am OBLIGED TO ACCEPT THEM. Muslims have formed a consensus regarding them and it comes as no surprise to them unlike with how Christians over time discovered forgeries in their Bible, which affect key doctrinal issues (e.g. Mark 16:9-20, John 8:1-8, 1 John 5:7) and have gone undetected for hundreds of years amongst the Christian community. This only goes to show how careless Christians have been in taking care of their Bible, which provides us with reasonable doubt regarding its authenticity. Only God knows what future archaeological digs and manuscript findings will reveal about other interpolated verses in the Bible unlike the Quran, which has and will never have this problem.


    Abrogation

    Most of the arguments put forth by the Christian missionaries on the Quran are showing hadith that show that certain verses have been abrogated from the Quran. Now to know more about abrogation please read this.

    There are three types of abrogation in the Quran...



    Three Kinds of Naskh (abrogation) in the Quran

    The scholars have divided abrogation into three kinds:

    1)Abrogation of the recited (verse) together with the legal ruling.

    2)Abrogation of the legal ruling without the recited (verse).

    3)Abrogation of the recited (verse) without the legal ruling.

    (Ibn Salama, al-nasikh wa al-mansukh, Cairo, 1966, p.5, cited here)

    Ahmad von Denffer said:

    Examples:

    For abrogation of the recited (verse) together with its legal ruling:

    'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that it had been revealed in the Holy Qur'an that ten clear sucklings make the marriage unlawful, then it was abrogated (and substituted) by five sucklings and Allah's apostle (may peace be upon him) died and it was before that time (found) in the Holy Qur'an (and recited by the Muslims). [34 Muslim, II, No. 3421.]

    For abrogation of a legal ruling without the recited (verse):

    'O Prophet! We have made lawful to thee thy wives to whom thou has paid their dowers; and those whom thy right hand possesses out of the prisoners of war whom God has assigned to thee; and daughters of thy paternal uncles and aunts and daughters of thy maternal uncles and aunts, who migrated (from Makka) with thee; and any believing woman who dedicates her soul to the Prophet if the Prophet wishes to wed her; - this only for thee and not for the believers (at large);We know what we have appointed for them as to their wives and the captives whom their right hands possess; - in order that there should be no difficulty for thee and God is oft-forgiving, most merciful' (33: 50).

    'It is not lawful for thee (to marry more) women after this, nor to change them for (other) wives, even though their beauty attract thee, except any thy right hand should possess (as handmaidens); and God doth watch over all things' (33: 52).

    This is one of the few very clear examples of naskh, though only concerning the Prophet specifically, since for Muslims in general the number of wives has been restricted to four. (Sura 4:3).

    For abrogation of the recited (verse) without the legal ruling:

    'Abdullah bin 'Abbas reported that 'Umar bin Khattab sat on the pulpit of Allah's messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: Verily Allah sent Muhammad (may peace be upon him) with truth and he sent down the book upon him, and the verse of stoning was included in what was sent down to him. We recited it, retained it in our memory and understood it. Allah's messenger (may peace be upon him) awarded the punishment of stoning to death (to the married adulterer and adulteress) and after him, we also awarded the punishment of stoning. I am afraid that with the lapse of time, the people (may forget it) and may say: We do not find the punishment of stoning in the book of Allah, and thus go astray by abandoning this duty prescribed by Allah. Stoning is a duty laid down in Allah's book for married men and women who commit adultery when proof is established, or if there is pregnancy or a confession. [Muslim, III, No. 4194; Bukhari, VIII, No. 816.]

    The punishment of stoning for adultery by married people has been retained in the sunna, while it is not included in the Qur'an . (Ahmad von Denffer, Ulum al Qur'an, Source)



    Imam Al Baji said...




    لأن القرآن لا يثبت إلا بالخبر المتواتر , وأما خبر الآحاد فلا يثبت به قرآن

    Because the Quran is not confirmed unless with Mutawattir narrations, and the Quran cannot be confirmed by Ahad narrations (Abû al-Walîd Sulaymân ibn Khalaf al-Bâjî, Al Muntaqaa Sharh Muwata'a Maalik, Kitab: Al Ridaa', Bab: Jaami' Maa Jaa'a fi Al Ridaa'a, Commentary on Hadith no. 1118, Source)



    So the Quran can only be confirmed with Mutawattir narrations.



    A mutawatir hadith is one which is reported by such a large number of people that they cannot be expected to agree upon a lie, all of them together. (al-Jaza'iri, p.33, cited here)



    Examples of mutawatir hadith include those that talk about the five pillars of Islam and recitation of the Qur'an. (Source)



    So as we see, we cannot accept any verse as being part of the Quran unless it came down to us from Mutawattir narrations. All these hadith about Quranic variants all come from Ahad narrations.
    A hadith ahad or khabar wahid is one which is narrated by people whose number does not reach that of the mutawatir case. (Source)
    Last edited by فداء الرسول; 08-12-2012 at 01:13 PM.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    However, I will address this issue anyway, so that Christian missionaries do not assume that we are running away from this issue (although this issue poses no problem at all). This is because the hadith do indicate that the Prophet (peace be upon him) gave the order for the verse to be abrogated either by recitation, by ruling, or both. So if we want to accept these hadith then we have to accept them in their totality and conclude that abrogation is indeed a part of Islamic teachings.
    One may ask, "What is the wisdom behind abrogating the ruling of a verse but keeping its recitation?" Suyuti answers this question:



    فإن قلت‏:‏ ما الحكمة في رفع الحكم وبقاء التلاوة؟ فالجواب من وجهين‏:


    ‏ أحدهما‏:‏ أَنَّ القرآن كما يتلى ليعرف الحُكْم منه والعمل به، فيتلى لكونه كلام الله فيثاب عليه، فتركت التلاوة لهذه الحكمة‏. ‏

    والثاني‏:‏ أنَّ النسخ غالبًا يكون للتخفيف، فأُبقيت التلاوة تذكيرًا للنعمة، ورفع المشقَّة



    If you said: What is the wisdom of lifting the injunction but keeping the recitation? The answer is from two angles: -

    One of them: The Quran is recited in order to know what injunctions it imposes and to act upon them, so it is recited because it is the word of Allah so he gets rewarded, so its recitation has remained for this wisdom.

    And the second: That the abrogation is usually done to be an ease, so the recitation has remained as a reminder of the blessing, and removal of burden.

    (Al Suyuti, Al Itqaan Fi Ulum Al Quran, Section: The Wisdom of the Lifting of the Injunction But Remaining of Recitation, Source: http://www.altafsir.net/)



    So as we can see there are two possibilities. One is that we realize the blessing of Allah when we see that He relieved us from following a certain law and secondly we receive reward for reciting each verse of the Quran. This is confirmed in the following hadith:


    It is well known that reading one letter of the book of Allaah brings a tenfold reward, as al-Tirmidhi (2910) narrated that 'Abd-Allaah ibn Mas'ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "Whoever reads one letter of the Book of Allaah will have one hasanah for it, and each hasanah is a tenfold reward. I do not say that alif-laam-meem is a letter, rather alif is a letter, laam is a letter and meem is a letter." (Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, cited here)



    So this way, Allah is giving us more Quranic verses to read and therefore we have a greater opportunity to receive a greater reward.
    A third reason for the wisdom is like the example of the prohibition of alcohol. When we read the Quran we can see the wisdom of how Islam came to gradually change the people. We should also learn how to implement this in our lives and not to try to change over a day's time and to change ourselves gradually. We can see this wisdom by reading these verses from the Quran today and see that the Quran was revealed with wisdom.
    Other reasons are that it is Allah testing those who claim to believe to also believe in what He changes of the Quran, which is His word. This is to make us feel humble by making us realize that nothing is in our hands and to praise the believers of before who adhered to the change without hesitation. This is also to let us know that the believers accept everything from Allah and that we had generations before us who fully supported the revelation.

    One may also ask, "What is the wisdom behind abrogating the recitation of a verse but upholding its injunction?" (e.g. verse on stoning)
    This is because the Sunnah is just like the Quran in that both are revelations and equal in authority (not in holiness). The Sunnah is also the actual law and this being a test to those who claim to believe in Allah; they must believe in the Sunnah too and that it takes place of the Quran in many areas. See here for proof of the necessity following Sunnah.
    Finally one may also ask, what is the wisdom behind abrogating both the recitation and injunction of a Quranic verse? (e.g. verse on ten sucklings)

    Allah has decided from the beginning that it is only good for the early generation of Muslims to receive this Quranic command and was not meant to be a permanent ruling for all Muslim generations to come.

    Basically it was better for those people at that time and for certain individuals with strong faith but not as a race of people. Their test was different because God said He would bring something better:


    Surah 2:106

    None of Our revelations do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, but We substitute something better or similar: Knowest thou not that God Hath power over all things?



    So basically the verses whose recitation and injunction have both been abrogated have been made to be forgotten. So God with his wisdom knows that He would be able to substitute something like it or something better than it for certain different people.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    The Seven Modes of Recitation



    The Seven Ahruf (modes of recitation) are part of Islamic doctrine and a Muslim MUST ACCEPT IT...



    Saheeh Bukhari

    Volume 6, Book 61, Number 513:
    Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas:

    Allah's Apostle said, "Gabriel recited the Qur'an to me in one way. Then I requested him (to read it in another way), and continued asking him to recite it in other ways, and he recited it in several ways till he ultimately recited it in seven different ways."

    Volume 6, Book 61, Number 514:

    Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab:

    I heard Hisham bin Hakim reciting Surat Al-Furqan during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle and I listened to his recitation and noticed that he recited in several different ways which Allah's Apostle had not taught me. I was about to jump over him during his prayer, but I controlled my temper, and when he had completed his prayer, I put his upper garment around his neck and seized him by it and said, "Who taught you this Sura which I heard you reciting?" He replied, "Allah's Apostle taught it to me." I said, "You have told a lie, for Allah's Apostle has taught it to me in a different way from yours." So I dragged him to Allah's Apostle and said (to Allah's Apostle),

    "I heard this person reciting Surat Al-Furqan in a way which you haven't taught me!" On that Allah's Apostle said, "Release him, (O 'Umar!) Recite, O Hisham!" Then he recited in the same way as I heard him reciting. Then Allah's Apostle said, "It was revealed in this way," and added, "Recite, O 'Umar!" I recited it as he had taught me. Allah's Apostle then said, "It was revealed in this way. This Qur'an has been revealed to be recited in seven different ways, so recite of it whichever (way) is easier for you (or read as much of it as may be easy for you)."


    Volume 006, Book 061, Hadith Number 582.

    Narated By Abdullah : That he heard a man reciting a Qur'anic Verse which he had heard the Prophet reciting in a different way. So he took that man to the Prophet (and told him the story). The Prophet said, "Both of you are reciting in a correct way, so carry on reciting." The Prophet further added, "The nations which were before you were destroyed (by Allah) because they differed."

    See the commentaries for these hadith here http://hadith.al-islam.com/Display/h...p?Doc=0&n=7440

    Saheeh Muslim

    Book 004, Number 1782:
    'Umar b. Khattab said: I heard Hisham b. Hakim b. Hizam reciting Surah al-Furqan in a style different from that in which I used to recite it, and in which Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) had taught me to recite it. I was about to dispute with him (on this style) but I delayed till he had finished that (the recitation). Then I caught hold of his cloak and brought him to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and said: Messenger of Allah, I heard this man reciting Surah al-Furqan in a style different from the one in which you taught me to recite. Upon this the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) told (me) to leave him alone and asked him to recite. He then recited in the style in which I beard him recite it. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) then said: Thus was it sent down. He then told me to recite and I recited it, and he said: Thus was it sent down. The Qur'an was sent down in seven dialects. So recite what seems easy therefrom.

    Book 004, Number 1784:
    This hadith has been transmitted by Zuhri.

    Book 004, Number 1785:

    Ibn 'Abbas reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Gabriel taught me to recite in one style. I replied to him and kept asking him to give more (styles), till he reached seven modes (of recitation). Ibn Shibab said: It has reached me that these seven styles are essentially one, not differing about what is permitted and what is forbidden.

    Book 004, Number 1787:

    Ubayy b. Ka'b reported: I was in the mosque when a man entered and prayed and recited (the Qur'in) in a style to which I objected. Then another man entered (the mosque) and recited in a style different from that of his companion. When we had finished the prayer, we all went to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said to him: This man recited in a style to which I objected, and the other entered and recited in a style different from that of his companion. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) asked them to recite and so they recited, and the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) expressed approval of their affairs (their modes of recitation). and there occurred In my mind a sort of denial which did not occur even during the Days of Ignorance. When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) saw how I was affected (by a wrong idea), he struck my chest, whereupon I broke into sweating and felt as though I were looking at Allah with fear. He (the Holy Prophet) said to me: Ubayy. a message was sent to me to recite the Qur'an in one dialect, and I replied: Make (things) easy for my people. It was conveyed to me for the second time that it should be recited in two dialects. I again replied to him: Make affairs easy for my people. It was again conveyed to me for the third time to recite in seven dialects And (I was further told): You have got a seeking for every reply that I sent you, which you should seek from Me. I said: O Allah! forgive my people, forgive my people, and I have deferred the third one for the day on which the entire creation will turn to me, including even Ibrahim (peace be upon him) (for intercession).

    Book 004, Number 1789:

    Ubayy b. Ka'b reported that the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) was near the tank of Banu Ghifar that Gabriel came to him and said: Allah has commanded you to recite to your people the Qur'an in one dialect. Upon this he said: I ask from Allah pardon and forgiveness. My people are not capable of doing it. He then came for the second time and said: Allah has commanded you that you should recite the Qur'an to your people in two dialects. Upon this he (the Holy prophet) again said: I seek pardon and forgiveness from Allah, my people would not be able to do so. He (Gabriel) came for the third time and said: Allah has commanded you to recite the Qur'an to your people in three dialects. Upon this he said: I ask pardon and forgiveness from Allah. My people would not be able to do it. He then came to him for the fourth time and said: Allah has commanded you to recite the Qur'an to your people in seven dialects, and in whichever dialect they would recite, they would be right.



    See the commentaries for these hadith here http://hadith.al-islam.com/Display/h...p?Doc=1&n=1765



    Malik's Muwatta

    Book 15, Number 15.4.5:
    Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Urwa ibn az-Zubayr that Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abd al-Qari said that he had heard Umar ibn al-Khattab say, "I heard Hisham ibn Hakim ibn Hizam reciting Surat al-Furqan (Sura 25) differently from me, and it was the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who had recited it to me. I was about to rush up to him but I granted him a respite until he had finished his prayer. Then I grabbed him by his cloak and took him to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, I heard this man reciting Surat al-Furqan differently from the way you recited it to me.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Let him go.' Then he said, 'Recite, Hisham,' and Hisham recited as I had heard him recite. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'It was sent down like that.' Then he said to me, 'Recite' and I recited the sura, and he said, 'It was sent down like that. This Qur'an was sent down in seven (different) ways, so recite from it whatever is easy for you .' "



    See the commentary for this hadith here http://hadith.al-islam.com/Display/D...?Doc=7&Rec=634



    More hadith related to the Seven Ahruf could be found in Sunan Abu Dawud, Kitab Al Salah, Bab: Anzala Al Quran Fi Saba'at Ahruf, Hadith no.1261,1262 &1262. (Source)



    Scholars still have not come to a consensus regarding what these Seven Ahruf are. Some said that the Quran was revealed in seven different ways (not all the verses, only some) with synonyms replacing certain words. For example, besides saying "ehdina al sirat al mustaqeem" in one harf it would read "arshudna al sirat al mustaqeem" in another and they would both mean the same thing, which is "Guide us unto the right path". It seems to me that this is the strongest opinion as to what the seven ahruf are.

    Also the ten Qira'at are the different ways of reciting the Quran, which (according to the strongest opinion of the scholars) contain parts of the seven ahruf in them. It is also very important

    to mention that these Qira'at have

    MUTAWATTIR NARRATIONS GOING STRAIGHT BACK TO THE COMPANIONS OF THE PROPHET

    , which means that the Prophet approved of them. Once we have strong evidence as we do now knowing that the Prophet approved of them then that is enough for the Muslim to know that they are all good and divinely accepted.

    If one properly understands the concept of the seven ahruf and the Qira'at you would do nothing but conclude that the Quran is indeed a great miracle and it proves even more that the Prophet (peace be upon him) could not have authored such a book. Read more here.
    When one studies the concept of the seven ahruf and Qira'at you will indeed find that scholars are not forming a consensus regarding what the seven ahruf are exactly. However, at the end of the day one thing that the scholars do have a consensus on is the fact that all of the readings that we have today are indeed CONFIRMED BY THE PROPHET AND THIS IS BACKED UP BY MUTAWATTIR NARRATIONS GOING BACK TO HIM AND HIS COMPANIONS and that is good enough for the Muslim.



    I will not be writing about them in detail because there are already excellent articles available regarding them. If one wants to fully understand this issue then you must read all the following links...



    MUST READ ARTICLES ON SEVEN AHRUF AND QIRA'AT

    http://www.bismikaallahuma.org/archi...quran/#article

    http://www.bismikaallahuma.org/archi...uraan/#article

    http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Qur...raat/hafs.html

    http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Qur...aat/green.html

    http://www.sunnipath.com/Resources/P...0040P0022.aspx

    http://www.sunnipath.com/Resources/P...0040P0023.aspx



    Conclusion

    One must fully understand these concepts in order to be able to respond back to attacks against Islam regarding this issue and make them understand that this is part of our religion and show them the wisdom behind it. Don't let Christian missionaries fool you by letting them say, "Well we won't criticize your variants if you don't criticize ours" because this comparison is fallacious. Their variants are due to forgeries being inserted into the text and scribal errors, and this is unlike Islam which confirms that these variants are a part of our religion confirmed by the Prophet (peace be upon him) and there is a great wisdom behind it.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Missing Verse On Suckling?

    By

    Bassam Zawadi
    أية الرضاعة المحذوفة من القرآن


    Here are the hadiths which supposedly speak about the "missing verse" from the Qur'an:


    Saheeh Muslim

    Book 008, Number 3421:
    'A'isha (Allah be pleased with, her) reported that it had been revealed in the Holy Qur'an that ten clear sucklings make the marriage unlawful, then it was abrogated (and substituted) by five sucklings and Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) died and it was before that time (found) in the Holy Qur'an (and recited by the Muslims).

    Malik's Muwatta

    Book 030, Hadith Number 017.
    -----------------------------
    Section : Suckling in General.

    Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Hazm from Amra bint Abd ar-Rahman that A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Amongst what was sent down of the Qur'an was 'ten known sucklings make haram' - then it was abrogated by 'five known sucklings'. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died, it was what is now recited of the Qur'an." Yahya said that Malik said, "One does not act on this."





    Imam Nawawi says in his commentary on Saheeh Muslim...



    هو بضم الياء من ( يقرأ ) ومعناه أن النسخ بخمس رضعات تأخر إنزاله جدا حتى أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم توفي وبعض الناس يقرأ خمس رضعات ويجعلها قرآنا متلوا لكونه لم يبلغه النسخ لقرب عهده فلما بلغهم النسخ بعد ذلك رجعوا عن ذلك وأجمعوا على أن هذا لا يتلى

    There is a dumma on the letter ya'a and it means that the abrogation of the five sucklings came very late until the time that the Prophet (peace be upon him) died and a few people were reciting the five sucklings verse making it part of the Qur'an for they might not have been informed of its abrogation. So when he (Muhammad peace be upon him) did inform them afterwards they stopped reciting it and formed a consensus that this verse should not be recited anymore. (Imam Nawawi, Sharh Saheeh Muslim, Kitab: Al Ridaa', Bab: Al Tahreem Bi Khams Ridaa'aat, Commentary on hadith no.2634, Source)



    Al Sindi says in his commentary on Sunan Al Nisaa'i...



    فقيل إن الخمس أيضا منسوخة تلاوة إلا أن نسخها كان في قرب وفاته صلى الله تعالى عليه وسلم فلم يبلغ بعض الناس فكانوا يقرءونه حين توفي صلى الله تعالى عليه وسلم ثم تركوا تلاوته



    It is said that the five's (verse on five sucklings) recitation has been abrogated and its abrogation came near the death of the Prophet (peace be upon him) so some people weren't informed about it. So they used to recite it but when the Prophet (peace be upon him) died they left its recitation. (Al Sindi, Sharh Sunan Al Nisaa'i, Kitab: Al Nikah, Bab: Al Qadar Allazhi Yuharrim Min Al Ridaa'aa, Commentary on Hadith no. 3255, Source)



    Muhammad Shams al-Haqq al-Adhim Abadi says in his commentary on Sunan Abu Dawud...



    والمعنى أن النسخ بخمس رضعات تأخر إنزاله جدا حتى أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم توفي وبعض الناس يقرأ خمس رضعات ويجعلها قرآنا متلوا لكونه لم يبلغه النسخ لقرب عهده فلما بلغهم النسخ بعد ذلك رجعوا عن ذلك وأجمعوا على أن هذا لا يتلى . والنسخ ثلاثة أنواع : أحدها ما نسخ حكمه وتلاوته كعشر رضعات . والثاني ما نسخت تلاوته دون حكمه كخمس رضعات



    And what this means is that the abrogation by five sucklings was revealed very late to the extent that when the Prophet (peace be upon him) died, some people were still reciting the verse of five sucklings and making it part of recited Qur'an for they were not informed about its abrogation but when they were after that, they went back on that and formed a consensus on that this verse must not be recited. And abrogation is of three types: One of them is that its ruling and recitation be abrogated just like the ten sucklings verse. And the second is that its recitation has been abrogated without its ruling just like the five sucklings verse... (Muhammad Shams al-Haqq al-Adhim Abadi, Awn al-Mabud Sharh Sunan Abu Dawud, Kitab: Al Nikah, Bab: Hal Yuhharram Ma Doona Khamsa Ridaa'aat, Commentary on hadith no. 1765, Source)



    Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid said...



    For breastfeeding to have the effect of transmitting its benefits from the nursing woman to the child suckled, it must meet certain conditions, which are:

    The breastfeeding must happen within the first two years of the child's life, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): "The mothers shall give suck to their children for two whole years, (that is) for those (parents) who desire to complete the term of suckling." [al-Baqarah 2:233].

    The number of breastfeedings must total the known five feeds, in which the child eats his fill as if eating and drinking. If the child leaves the breast for a reason, such as to take a breath or to switch from one breast to the other, this (i.e., each separate time the child latches on) is not counted as one breastfeeding. This is the opinion of al-Shaafa'i, and the opinion favoured by Ibn al-Qayyim. The definition of rad'ah (one breastfeeding) is when the child sucks at the breast and drinks until the milk enters his stomach, then he leaves the breast of his own accord. The evidence for the number five (number of breastfeedings) is the report from 'Aa'ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) who said: "There was in the Qur'aan [an aayah which stipulated that] ten [was the number of] breastfeedings which created the relationship of mahram, then this was abrogated [by another aayah which stipulated] five. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) died and [the aayah which stipulated five] was still being recited as part of the Qur'aan." (Reported by Muslim, 1452). In other words, the abrogation came so late that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) died, some people had not yet heard that this aayah had been abrogated, but when they heard that it had been abrogated, they stopped reciting it, and agreed that it should not be recited, although the ruling mentioned in the aayah remained in effect. This is an abrogation of the recitation without abrogation of the ruling, which is one type of abrogation. (Source)



    We can clearly see that the evidence shows that the consensus amongst the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) was that the verse's recitation was meant to be abrogated and it was also commanded by the Prophet (peace be upon him) to abrogate this verse. However, the command came just a very short while before the Prophet's (peace be upon him) death and therefore not everyone was informed about it and some still thought that it was still a recited part of the Quran. However, once they have been informed that the Prophet (peace be upon him) ordered its abrogation, then they stopped reciting it.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    The Quranic Verse On Stoning

    آية الرجم المحذوفة من القرآن

    By

    Bassam Zawadi




    Some of the hadith that talk about the verse on stoning...



    Saheeh Bukhari

    Volume 8, Book 82, Number 816:
    Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:

    'Umar said, "I am afraid that after a long time has passed, people may say, "We do not find the Verses of the Rajam (stoning to death) in the Holy Book," and consequently they may go astray by leaving an obligation that Allah has revealed. Lo! I confirm that the penalty of Rajam be inflicted on him who commits illegal sexual intercourse, if he is already married and the crime is proved by witnesses or pregnancy or confession." Sufyan added, "I have memorized this narration in this way." 'Umar added, "Surely Allah's Apostle carried out the penalty of Rajam, and so did we after him."


    Saheeh Muslim

    Book 017, Number 4194:
    'Abdullah b. 'Abbas reported that 'Umar b. Khattab sat on the pulpit of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: Verily Allah sent Muhammad (may peace be upon him) with truth and He sent down the Book upon him, and the verse of stoning was included in what was sent down to him. We recited it, retained it in our memory and understood it. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) awarded the punishment of stoning to death (to the married adulterer and adulteress) and, after him, we also awarded the punishment of stoning, I am afraid that with the lapse of time, the people (may forget it) and may say: We do not find the punishment of stoning in the Book of Allah, and thus go astray by abandoning this duty prescribed by Allah. Stoning is a duty laid down in Allah's Book for married men and women who commit adultery when proof is established, or it there is pregnancy, or a confession.



    Christian missionaries tend to argue that this verse was removed from the Quran and they claim that this is proof that Muslims corrupted the Quran. Let's see if this argument holds any water.


    The alleged verse is...




    الشيخ والشيخة إذا زنيا فارجموهما البتة



    The old man and the old lady if they committed adultery then stone them



    Another opinion is that it is...



    الشيخ والشيخة إذا زنيا فارجموهما البتة نكالا من الله والله عزيز حكيم



    The old man and the old lady if they committed adultery then stone them as a punishment from Allah and Allah is the Most Mighty, Most Wise





    Imam ibn Hajar Al Asqalani says in his commentary on Saheeh Bukhari...



    فقال عمر : لما نزلت أتيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقلت أكتبها ؟ فكأنه كره ذلك , فقال عمر : ألا ترى أن الشيخ إذا زنى ولم يحصن جلد , وأن الشاب إذا زنى وقد أحصن رجم



    Umar said: "When this verse came down I approached the Prophet peace be upon him so I asked him: Should I write it down?' It is as if he hated that" Then Umar said: "Cant you see that if the old man if he commits adultery he does not get the whip, and that if the young man if he commits adultery he gets stoned?" (Ibn Hajar Al Asqalani, Fathul Bari, Kitab: Al Hudood, Bab: Al I'tiraaf bil Zina, Commentary on Hadith no. 6327, Source)





    Here we clearly see that the Prophet (peace be upon him) did not want the verse to be written down because it was never meant to be part of the text of the Quran. The scholars of Islam are unanimous that the recitation of this verse has been abrogated but its ruling still remains in effect.

    However, the only reason why Umar got emotional and wanted to put the verse in the Quran was because he was afraid that one day people would think that its ruling had been cancelled. However, the companions did not allow him to because they all knew that its recitation had been abrogated. In order to put a verse in the Quran there needed to be two witnesses and Umar was all by himself. Umar himself knew that its recitation was abrogated but he was getting emotional, for he feared that people in the future would not believe in the ruling of stoning the adulterers.


    Imam ibn Hajar Al Asqalani has in his commentary...



    أي في الآية المذكورة التي نسخت تلاوتها وبقي حكمها , وقد وقع ما خشيه عمر أيضا فأنكر الرجم طائفة من الخوارج أو معظمهم وبعض المعتزلة



    In the verse whose recitation has been abrogated but its ruling remained, and it has happened what Umar feared. A tribe from the Khawarij or most of them and some of the Mu'tazilites rejected the stoning.



    وقد أخرج عبد الرزاق والطبري من وجه آخر عن ابن عباس أن عمر قال " سيجيء قوم يكذبون بالرجم "




    And it was reported by Abd al Razzaq and Al Tabari from another view that Ibn Abbas said that Umar said "There will come a people that will lie (or disbelieve) in the stoning" (Ibn Hajar Al Asqalani, Fathul Bari, Kitab: Al Hudood, Bab: Rajam Al Hublah min Zana Eezha Ahsanat, Commentary on Hadith no. 6328, Source)





    Imam Nawawi says in his commentary in Saheeh Muslim...



    وهذا مما نسخ لفظه وبقي حكمه



    And this is whose recitation has been abrogated and its ruling remained.




    وفي ترك الصحابة كتابة هذه الآية دلالة ظاهرة أن المنسوخ لا يكتب في المصحف , وفي إعلان عمر بالرجم وهو على المنبر وسكوت الصحابة وغيرهم من الحاضرين عن مخالفته بالإنكار دليل على ثبوت الرجم



    And the companions of the Prophet abandoning the writing of this verse is clear evidence that the abrogated should not be written in the Quran and that Umar's statement about the stoning as he is on the pulpit and the silence of the companions and other than them from who were present from opposing him is evidence about the ruling of the stoning (still being implemented) (Imam Nawawi, Sharh Saheeh Muslim, Kitab: Al Hudood, Bab: Rajam Al Thayb fil Zina, Commentary on Hadith no. 3201, Source)





    Al Sindi says in his commentary on Sunan Ibn Majah...



    أي آية الرجم وهذه الآية مما نسخ لفظها وبقي حكمها

    The verse of stoning: Its recitation has been abrogated and its ruling still remains in effect. (Al Sindi, Sharh Sunan Ibn Majah, Kitab: Al Hudood, Bab: Al Rajam, Commentary on Hadith no. 2543, Source)





    Muhammad Shams al-Haqq al-Adhim Abadi says in his commentary on Sunan Abu Dawud...



    وهذا مما نسخ لفظه وبقي حكمه



    And this is whose recitation has been abrogated but ruling remains in effect. (Muhammad Shams al-Haqq al-Adhim Abadi, Awn al-Mabud Sharh Sunan Abu Dawud, Kitab: Al Hudood, Bab: Fil Rajam, Commentary on Hadith no. 3835, Source)





    Conclusion

    We can clearly see that there was a consensus amongst the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the scholars that the recitation of the verse on stoning was abrogated and that they did not corrupt it. How can all the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) who sacrificed everything they had for this religion just happen to decide to come together and purposely corrupt the Quran by removing this verse? What motive would they have in doing so if its law was to remain being implemented? So there can't be a motive to remove this verse simply because they wished to not follow its ruling since the ruling still remains in effect up to this day.
    So clearly the evidence shows that this recitation was always meant to be abrogated while its ruling remains in effect.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Are The Verses From Surah 9:128-129 And Surah 33:23 Falsely Added To The Quran?


    آيات اضيفت للقرآن
    By

    Bassam Zawadi



    There are hadiths which speak about Surah 9:128-129 and Surah 33:23 in a "suspicious" way according to some people and therefore it makes them believe that these verses are not reliable. Here are the hadiths that they allude to:


    Saheeh Bukhari

    Volume 005, Book 059, Hadith Number 379.

    Narated By Zaid bin Thabit : When we wrote the Holy Qur'an, I missed one of the Verses of Surat-al-Ahzab which I used to hear Allah's Apostle reciting. Then we searched for it and found it with Khuzaima bin Thabit Al-Ansari. The Verse was:

    'Among the Believers are men Who have been true to Their Covenant with Allah, Of them, some have fulfilled Their obligations to Allah (i.e. they have been Killed in Allah's Cause), And some of them are (still) waiting" (33.23) So we wrote this in its place in the Qur'an.

    Volume 6, Book 61, Number 510:

    Narrated Anas bin Malik:

    Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman came to Uthman at the time when the people of Sham and the people of Iraq were Waging war to conquer Arminya and Adharbijan. Hudhaifa was afraid of their (the people of Sham and Iraq) differences in the recitation of the Qur'an, so he said to 'Uthman, "O chief of the Believers! Save this nation before they differ about the Book (Quran) as Jews and the Christians did before." So 'Uthman sent a message to Hafsa saying, "Send us the manuscripts of the Qur'an so that we may compile the Qur'anic materials in perfect copies and return the manuscripts to you." Hafsa sent it to 'Uthman. 'Uthman then ordered Zaid bin Thabit, 'Abdullah bin AzZubair, Said bin Al-As and 'AbdurRahman bin Harith bin Hisham to rewrite the manuscripts in perfect copies. 'Uthman said to the three Quraishi men, "In case you disagree with Zaid bin Thabit on any point in the Qur'an, then write it in the dialect of Quraish, the Qur'an was revealed in their tongue." They did so, and when they had written many copies, 'Uthman returned the original manuscripts to Hafsa. 'Uthman sent to every Muslim province one copy of what they had copied, and ordered that all the other Qur'anic materials, whether written in fragmentary manuscripts or whole copies, be burnt. Said bin Thabit added, "A Verse from Surat Ahzab was missed by me when we copied the Qur'an and I used to hear Allah's Apostle reciting it. So we searched for it and found it with Khuzaima bin Thabit Al-Ansari. (That Verse was): 'Among the Believers are men who have been true in their covenant with Allah.' (33.23)

    Volume 6, Book 61, Number 509:
    Narrated Zaid bin Thabit:

    Abu Bakr As-Siddiq sent for me when the people! of Yamama had been killed (i.e., a number of the Prophet's Companions who fought against Musailama). (I went to him) and found 'Umar bin Al-Khattab sitting with him. Abu Bakr then said (to me), "Umar has come to me and said: "Casualties were heavy among the Qurra' of the! Qur'an (i.e. those who knew the Quran by heart) on the day of the Battle of Yalmama, and I am afraid that more heavy casualties may take place among the Qurra' on other battlefields, whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost. Therefore I suggest, you (Abu Bakr) order that the Qur'an be collected." I said to 'Umar, "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" 'Umar said, "By Allah, that is a good project. "Umar kept on urging me to accept his proposal till Allah opened my chest for it and I began to realize the good in the idea which 'Umar had realized." Then Abu Bakr said (to me). 'You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Apostle. So you should search for (the fragmentary scripts of) the Qur'an and collect it in one book)." By Allah If they had ordered me to shift one of the mountains, it would not have been heavier for me than this ordering me to collect the Qur'an. Then I said to Abu Bakr, "How will you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" Abu Bakr replied, "By Allah, it is a good project." Abu Bakr kept on urging me to accept his idea until Allah opened my chest for what He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and 'Umar. So I started looking for the Qur'an and collecting it from (what was written on) palmed stalks, thin white stones and also from the men who knew it by heart, till I found the last Verse of Surat At-Tauba (Repentance) with Abi Khuzaima Al-Ansari, and I did not find it with anybody other than him. The Verse is:

    'Verily there has come unto you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty..(till the end of Surat-Baraa' (At-Tauba) (9.128-129) Then the complete manuscripts (copy) of the Qur'an remained with Abu Bakr till he died, then with 'Umar till the end of his life, and then with Hafsa, the daughter of 'Umar.



    Volume 6, Book 61, Number 511:
    Narrated Zaid bin Thabit:

    Abu Bakr sent for me and said, "You used to write the Divine Revelations for Allah's Apostle : So you should search for (the Qur'an and collect) it." I started searching for the Qur'an till I found the last two Verses of Surat At-Tauba with Abi Khuzaima Al-Ansari and I could not find these Verses with anybody other than him. (They were):

    'Verily there has come unto you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty ...' (9.128-129)



    Volume 009, Book 093, Hadith Number 521.

    Narated By Zaid bin Thabit : Abu Bakr sent for me, so I collected the Qur'an till I found the last part of Surat-at-Tauba with Abi Khuzaima Al-Ansari and did not find it with anybody else. (The Verses are): 'Verily, there has come to you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves... (till the end of Surat Bara'a) (i.e., At-Tauba).' (9.128-129)




    Now people might get curious as to why these two verses were only known to one man. They might ask how come no one else knew about them? Why didn't Zayd find it with no one else besides Abi Khuzaymah?



    Imam ibn Hajar Al Asqalani says in Fathul Bari...



    وقد كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أذن في كتابة القرآن ونهى أن يكتب معه غيره , فلم يأمر أبو بكر إلا بكتابة ما كان مكتوبا , ولذلك توقف عن كتابة الآية من آخر سورة براءة حتى وجدها مكتوبة , مع أنه كان يستحضرها هو ومن ذكر معه



    The Prophet (peace be upon him) permitted the writing of the Quran and prohibited the writing of anything else along with it, so Abu Bakr did not order anything to be written down except what has already been written down, and that is the reason why he (Zayd bin Thaabit) refrained from writing the last verses from Surah al Bara'a until he found it written, for he already knew it and had people who remembered it along with him.



    قام عمر فقال : من كان تلقى من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم شيئا من القرآن فليأت به . وكانوا يكتبون ذلك في الصحف والألواح والعسب قال وكان لا يقبل من أحد شيئا حتى يشهد شاهدان " وهذا يدل على أن زيدا كان لا يكتفي بمجرد وجدانه مكتوبا حتى يشهد به من تلقاه سماعا ; مع كون زيد كان يحفظه , وكان يفعل ذلك مبالغة في الاحتياط . وعند ابن أبي داود أيضا من طريق هشام بن عروة عن أبيه " أن أبا بكر قال لعمر ولزيد : اقعدا على باب المسجد فمن جاءكما بشاهدين على شيء من كتاب الله فاكتباه " ورجاله ثقات مع انقطاعه , وكأن المراد بالشاهدين الحفظ والكتاب , أو المراد أنهما يشهدان على أن ذلك المكتوب كتب بين يدي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم , أو المراد أنهما يشهدان على أن ذلك من الوجوه التي نزل بها القرآن . وكان غرضهم أن لا يكتب إلا من عين ما كتب بين يدي النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لا من مجرد الحفظ .



    Umar said: Who ever received anything regarding the Quran from the Prophet (peace be upon him) then let him bring it. And they used to write it on the manuscripts and boards and date palmed stalks. He said that nothing would be accepted from anyone until two witnesses testify to it. "And this points out that Zayd was not satisfied with only finding it written down until someone testified that he heard it, even though Zayd himself had memorized it, and they used to take this extra precaution in order to be more cautious. And Abu Dawud contained a narration on the authority of Hisham bin Arwa that his father said that Abu Bakr said to Umar and Zayd: Sit down on the door of the Mosque and whoever of two witnesses come to you regarding the Quran then write it down'. The men of this narration are trustworthy despite the chain being broken, and the intended meaning regarding two witnesses was memorization and writing, or it meant that they both testify that what was written down was actually written down under the authority of the Messenger peace be upon him, or it meant that they both testify that it was sent down as Quranic revelation. And it was their way that nothing was written down except that they receive what was written down during the time of the Prophet peace be upon him and not just from memorization. (Ibn Hajar Al Asqalani, Fathul Bari, Kitab: Fadaa'il Al Qur'aan, Bab: Jami' Al Qur'aan, Commentary on Hadith no. 4603, Source)



    So here we clearly see that Zayd did not find the verses WRITTEN DOWN with anyone else except Abi Khuzaymah. That didn't mean that no one else knew about the verse.



    This is clear from Zayd's statement when he said...



    I missed one of the Verses of Surat-al-Ahzab which I used to hear Allah's Apostle reciting.



    So clearly Zayd already knew about this verse. If he didn't already know about this verse then how did he know that he must go out and search for it? How can he go out searching for something that he didn't even know existed if we were to assume that only Abi Khuzayma knew about the verse?


    Furthermore, Ibn Kathir says...



    وَقَالَ أَحْمَد : حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيّ بْن بَحْر حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيّ بْن مُحَمَّد بْن سَلَمَة عَنْ مُحَمَّد بْن إسْحَاق عَنْ يَحْيَى بْن عَبَّاد عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَبَّاد بْن الزُّبَيْر رَضِيَ اللَّه عَنْهُ قَالَ أَتَى الْحَارِث بْن خُزَيْمَة بِهَاتَيْنِ الْآيَتَيْنِ مِنْ آخِر بَرَاءَة " لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُول مِنْ أَنْفُسكُمْ " إِلَى عَبْد اللَّه بْن عُمَر بْن الْخَطَّاب فَقَالَ مَنْ مَعَك عَلَى هَذَا ؟ قَالَ لَا أَدْرِي وَاَللَّه إِنِّي لَأَشْهَد لَسَمِعْتهَا مِنْ رَسُول اللَّه صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَآله وَسَلَّمَ وَوَعَيْتهَا وَحَفِظْتهَا فَقَالَ عُمَر : وَأَنَا أَشْهَد لَسَمِعْتهَا مِنْ رَسُول اللَّه صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ

    And Ahmad said: Ali bin Bahr said that Ali bin Muhammad bin Salma on the authority of Muhammad ibn Ishaq on the authority of Yahya bin Ebad on the authority of his father Ebad bin Zubayr may Allah be pleased with him said that Al Harith (Zayd) approached bin Khuzaymah with these two verses from the ending of Surah Al Bara'a (Surah 9) 'Verily there has come unto you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves' to Abdullah ibn Umar Al Khattab so he said 'Who is with you on this?' He said 'I don't know' and by Allah I testify that I heard it from the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him and I learned it and memorized it then Umar said: And I testify that I heard it from the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him. (Tafsir of Ibn Kathir, Commentary on Surah 9:129, Source)



    So we clearly see that indeed the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) did know about these two verses.



    Some may argue that Zayd was satisfied with only collecting the Quran from people who memorized for he said...



    So I started looking for the Qur'an and collecting it from (what was written on) palmed stalks, thin white stones and also from the men who knew it by heart,



    However, Imam Ibn Hajar Al Asqalani argues back...



    ‏ الواو بمعنى مع أي أكتبه من المكتوب الموافق للمحفوظ في الصدر .



    The letter waaow means to find it with those who had it written down agreeing with what was memorized in his heart.




    ‏أي مكتوبة , لما تقدم من أنه كان لا يكتفي بالحفظ دون الكتابة



    Meaning written down, it was not enough for him to only take from memorization without written evidence.



    ولعلهم لما وجدها زيد عند أبي خزيمة تذكروها كما تذكرها زيد



    And when Zayd found it with Abi Khuzaymah they remembered it just like how Zayd remembered it (Ibn Hajar Al Asqalani, Fathul Bari, Kitab: Fadaa'il Al Qur'aan, Bab: Jami' Al Qur'aan, Commentary on Hadith no. 4603, Source)



    We also see a similar situation regarding Surah 33:23. Imam Al Qurtubi has in his Tafsir of Surah 9:129...



    فَإِنَّ تِلْكَ ثَبَتَتْ بِشَهَادَةِ زَيْد وَخُزَيْمَة لِسَمَاعِهِمَا إِيَّاهَا مِنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ

    It became confirmed by the testimony of Zayd and Khuzayma for they both heard it from the Prophet peace be upon him. (Abu 'Abdullah Al-Qurtubi, Tasfir al Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an, Commentary on Surah 9:129, Source)





    Even though the commentary was in Surah 9:129, Qurtubi was speaking about Surah 33:23.



    At the end of the day even if Abi Khuzayma was the only one witness, his witness still amounted to two because the Prophet gave him that honor...



    Saheeh Bukhari

    Volume 004, Book 052, Hadith Number 062.

    Narated By Kharija bin Zaid : Zaid bin Thabit said, "When the Qur'an was compiled from various written manuscripts, one of the Verses of Surat Al-Ahzab was missing which I used to hear Allah's Apostle reciting. I could not find it except with Khuzaima bin Thabit Al-Ansari, whose witness Allah's Apostle regarded as equal to the witness of two men. And the Verse was: "Among the believers are men who have been true to what they covenanted with Allah." (33.23)
    Volume 006, Book 060, Hadith Number 307.

    Narated By Zaid bin Thabit : When we collected the fragramentary manuscripts of the Qur'an into copies, I missed one of the Verses of Surat al-Ahzab which I used to hear Allah's Apostle reading. Finally I did not find it with anybody except Khuzaima Al-Ansari, whose witness was considered by Allah's Apostle equal to the witness of two men. And that Verse was:

    'Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah.'


    Sunan Abu Dawud

    Book 018, Hadith Number 3600.
    ------------------------------
    Chapter : Not known.

    Narated By Uncle of Umarah ibn Khuzaymah : The Prophet (pbuh) bought a horse from a Bedouin. The Prophet (pbuh) took him with him to pay him the price of his horse. The Apostle of Allah (pbuh) walked quickly and the Bedouin walked slowly. The people stopped the Bedouin and began to bargain with him for the horse as and they did not know that the Prophet (pbuh) had bought it.

    The Bedouin called the Apostle of Allah (pbuh) saying: If you want this horse, (then buy it), otherwise I shall sell it. The Prophet (pbuh) stopped when he heard the call of the Bedouin, and said: Have I not bought it from you? The Bedouin said: I swear by Allah, I have not sold it to you. The Prophet (pbuh) said: Yes, I have bought it from you. The Bedouin began to say: Bring a witness. Khuzaymah ibn Thabit then said: I bear witness that you have bought it. The Prophet (pbuh) turned to Khuzaymah and said: On what (grounds) do you bear witness?

    He said: By considering you trustworthy, Apostle of Allah (pbuh)! The Prophet (pbuh) made the witness of Khuzaymah equivalent to the witness of two people. (declared authentic by Shaykh Albani in Sunan Abu Dawud no. 3607)



    Conclusion

    So as we can clearly see there is no doubt at all regarding the authenticity of these verses. The companions already knew that these verses existed. However, the only issue was that since the caliph was so strict regarding the collection of the Quran, Zayd needed to find the evidence written down and not only memorized. Even after the verses were found with Abi Khuzaymah, the rest of the other companions remembered them and that strengthened the authority of these verses. This only goes to show how strict and cautious the Muslims were when they collected the Quran. Plus, even if Abi Khuzayma was the only witness, the Prophet (peace be upon him) honored his testimony to amount to two. So perhaps it was for this wisdom and purpose that Abi Khuzayma was the only witness for this verse and therefore Allah had it planned to be this way. This could be a test for us to put our trust in the Prophet (peace be upon him) and accept Abi Khuzayma as the only witness, since his testimony is equal to two.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Is Surah 2:238 Not Complete According To Aisha?

    By

    Bassam Zawadi






    Here are the hadiths which speak about this supposed controversial verse...


    Saheeh Muslim

    Book 004, Number 1316:
    Abu Yunus, the freed slave of 'A'isha said: 'A'isha ordered me to transcribe a copy of the Qur'an for her and said: When you reach this verse:" Guard the prayers and the middle prayer" (ii. 238), inform me; so when I reached it, I informed her and she gave me dictation (like this): Guard the prayers and the middle prayer and the afternoon prayer, and stand up truly obedient to Allah. 'A'isha said: This is how I have heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).



    Book 004, Number 1317:
    Al-Bara' b. 'Azib reported: This verse was revealed (in this way):" Guard the prayers and the 'Asr prayer." We recited it (in this very way) so long as Allah desired. Allah, then, abrogated it and it was revealed:" Guard the prayers, and the middle prayer." A person who was sitting with Shaqiq (one of the narrators in the chain of transmitters) said: Now it implies the 'Asr prayer. Upon this al-Bara' said: I have already informed you how this (verse) was revealed and how Allah abrogated it, and Allah knows best. Imam Muslim said: Ashja'i narrated it from Sufyan al-Thauri, who narrated it from al-Aswad b. Qais, who narrated it from 'Uqba, who narrated it from al-Bara' b. 'Azib who said: We recited with the Prophet (may peace be upon him) (the above-mentioned verse like this, i. e. instead of Salat al- Wusta, Salat al-'Asr) for a certain period. as It has been mentioned (in the above-quoted hadith).



    Malik's Muwatta

    Book 8, Number 8.8.26:
    Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from al-Qaqa ibn Hakim that Abu Yunus, the mawla of A'isha, umm al-muminin said, ''A'isha ordered me to write out a Qur'an for her. She said, 'When you reach this ayat, let me know, "Guard the prayers carefully and the middle prayer and stand obedient to Allah." ' When I reached it I told her, and she dictated to me, 'Guard the prayers carefully and the middle prayer and the asr prayer and stand obedient to Allah.' A'isha said, 'I heard it from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' "

    Book 8, Number 8.8.27:

    Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam that Amr ibn Rafi said, "I was writing a Qur'an for Hafsa, umm al-muminin, and she said, 'When you reach this ayat, let me know, "Guard the prayers carefully and the middle prayer and stand obedient to Allah." When I reached it I told her and she dictated to me, 'Guard the prayers carefully and the middle prayer and the asr prayer and stand obedient to Allah.' "



    Commentator 'Abd al-Rahman al-Mubarkafuri said in his commentary on Sunan Al Tirmidhi...



    قال الباجي : يحتمل أنها سمعتها على أنها قرآن ثم نسخت كما في حديث البراء الذي رواه مسلم , فلعل عائشة لم تعلم
    بنسخها أو اعتقدت أنها مما نسخ حكمه وبقي رسمه , ويحتمل أنه ذكرها صلى الله عليه وسلم على أنها من غير القرآن لتأكيد فضيلتها فظنتها قرآنا فأرادت إثباتها في المصحف . لذلك قاله الزرقاني في شرح الموطأ

    Al Baaji said: It is possible that she (Aisha) heard that it is Quran then it was abrogated in the hadith of Bara'a as reported by Muslim. So its possible that Aisha did not know that it was abrogated or she thought that only its ruling was abrogated and its recitation remained, and its possible that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) reminded her that it was not part of the Qur'an to ensure its specialty so she thought that it was part of the Qur'an so she wanted to have it established in the manuscript. That is what al Zarqaani said in the commentary of Muwaat'a. ('Abd al-Rahman al-Mubarkafuri, Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi Bi Sharh Jami` Al-Tirmidhi, Kitab: Tafseer al Qur'aan A'an Rasool Allah, Bab: Wa Man Soorat Al Baqara, Commentary on Hadith no. 2908, Source)



    Al Baji says in his commentary on Malik's Muwatta'...



    يقتضي أن يكون قبل جمع القرآن في مصحف وقبل أن يجمع الناس على المصاحف التي كتب بها عثمان إلى الأمصار لأنه لم يكتب بعد ذلك من المصاحف إلا ما وقع الإجماع عليه وثبت بالخبر المتواتر أنه قرآن فأما غير ذلك مما كان يكتب من معنى التفسير فأجمعوا على المنع منه .

    Its possible that it was before the collection of the Quran in a manuscript and before the people began collecting the manuscripts that were written by Uthman to the Amsaar because he did not write after that in the manuscripts except what was agreed upon by consensus and proven by Mutawaatir narrations that it is part of the Qur'an. Other than that from what was written from the commentaries, they formed a consensus on its prohibition.



    She ordered to be excused when she wanted him to write down the extra part that wasn't established in the manuscript that he was copying from and any other than that, which he can copy from. And she narrated that she heard that extra part from the Prophet (peace be upon him) so she wanted to have it established in the manuscript for that purpose. (Abû al-Walîd Sulaymân ibn Khalaf al-Bâjî, Al Muntaqaa Sharh Muwata' Maalik, Kitab: Nidaa' Al Salaah, Bab: Al Salaatul Wusta, Commentary on Hadith no. 288, Source)





    So it seems pretty clear that in the beginning there was a verse that had the extra added words regarding Asr prayer and then it was removed and replaced with another verse that only mentioned the "middle prayer", which implied the Asr prayer. This is just another example of an abrogated verse which no longer belongs in the Quran. It seems pretty clear that Aisha was not aware of the verse's abrogation. Otherwise; we would have found several other companions arguing that this verse should belong in the Qur'an. However, the Qur'an could only be established by consensus and not by the opinion of one person.
    It seems that some other brother, Dr Ahmad Shafaat, has already written a detailed article on this topic. He argues that the hadith are unreliable and cannot be used as a proof to suggest that this abrogated verse ever existed in the first place. Even though I don't support his views, I still find it to be a worthwhile and professional article that is worth reading and pondering about.





    The reference to the Asr prayer in 2:238



    We earlier noted that traditions alleging variant readings of the Qur`an without textual evidence are not trustworthy. We illustrate this point by a detailed look at one such tradition that has relatively early attestation. This is the tradition where 'Aishah allegedly dictated the addition of and 'asr prayer in 2:238. This tradition is found in Muwatta and Muslim, both versions being almost identical. We quote from Muwatta:

    Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from al-Qa'qa' ibn Hakim that Abu Yunus, the mawla of 'Aishah, umm al-muminin said: 'Aishah ordered me to write out a copy of the Qur`an for her. She said, "Let me know, when you reach this verse, 'Guard the prayers carefully and the middle prayer and stand obedient to God' [2:238]." When I reached it I told her, and she dictated to me, "Guard the prayers carefully and the middle prayer and the 'asr prayer and stand obedient to God." 'Aishah said, "I heard it from the Messenger of God."

    Notice the words of 'Aishah: "'Let me know, when you reach this verse ." These words admit that the verse in question was known without any reference to the 'asr prayer and it was written without that reference in the manuscript from which copy was being made at the request of 'Aishah. The basis on which 'Aishah tells the scribe to make an addition is that she heard it from the Messenger of God. The question is why the existing manuscripts did not have these additional words. If they were part of the Qur`an, as this story implies, then the Messenger was duty bound to tell about the additional words to every one (2:159-160, 5:67). One may say that they were abrogated, as a tradition from Muslim suggests. But what is there to abrogate in an exhortation to guard one of the prayers that remains obligatory any way? And why would 'Aishah want to add the abrogated words? Perhaps, she was ignorant of the fact of abrogation? But if we admit 'Aishah's ignorance about the Prophet's intention about the additional words, the tradition looses much of its credibility. More importantly, the story is discredited above all by the fact that it is found in Muwatta in another version in which both the wife of the Prophet and the scribe have changed:

    Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam that 'Amr ibn Rafi' said: I was writing a copy of the Qur`an for Hafsah, umm al-muminin, and she said, "Let me know when you reach this verrse, 'Guard the prayers carefully and the middle prayer and stand obedient to God'." When I reached it I told her and she dictated to me, "Guard the prayers carefully and the middle prayer and the 'asr prayer and stand obedient to God." (Muwatta; in some late versions Hafsah just like 'Aishah in the previous tradition adds that she heard these additional words from the Prophet).

    Here the wife of the Prophet who requests a copy of the Qur`an and dictates the verse with an addition is not 'Aishah but Hafsah and the scribe is not Abu Yunus but 'Amr ibn Rafi', probably two different persons. Malik hears both versions from the same source, Zayd bin Aslam, who does not seem to remember, which wife dictated the additional words and which scribe recorded them. The story therefore has little credibility and it seems that Bukhari who does not include it in his Sahih thought the same. Despite this a late tradition reports Nafi' as saying that he saw with his own eyes a copy of the Qur`an with the additional words.

    Muslim gives another somewhat similar story in which the variant reading has changed:

    Al-Bara' bin 'Azib reported: "The following verse was revealed: 'Guard the prayers and the 'asr prayer.' We recited it (in this way) so long as God desired. Then God abrogated it and it was revealed: 'Guard the prayers, and the middle prayer'." A person who was sitting with Shaqiq (one of the narrators in the chain of transmitters) said: Now this implies the 'asr prayer. Upon this al-Bara' said: "I have already informed you how this (verse) was revealed and how God abrogated it, and God knows best." Imam Muslim said: Aisha' narrated it from Sufyan al-Thawri, who narrated it from al-Aswad bin Qays, who narrated it from 'Uqbah, who narrated it from al-Bara' bin 'Azib who said: "We recited with the Prophet for a certain period" as mentioned in the above hadith (Muslim).

    Here we have a clearer admission that the reference to 'asr prayer was never a part of the Qur`an in the form that the Prophet left it with the community, whether in writing or in recitation. We are told here that the words about `asr prayer were abrogated and replaced by those that we now find in our copies of the Qur`an. In other words, in the Qur`an as it was completed by the Prophet, 2:238 was exactly as it is today.

    Notice that in this story the variant is simply

    "Guard your prayers and the "asr prayer"

    and this is replaced after abrogation by:

    "Guard your prayers and the middle prayer"

    This is different from what we read earlier in the ahadith about 'Aishah and Hafsah. In those ahadith the variant is:

    "Guard your prayers and the middle prayer and the "asr prayer".

    Also, the theory of abrogation invoked in the hadith attributed to al-Bara` bin 'Azib to justify the variant reading is not present in the ahadith about 'Aishah and Hafsah. There the phrase is added to the Qur`an as something that should be there. Clearly these contradictions do nothing to build any confidence in the trustworthiness of any of these ahadith.

    Comparing the various versions and looking at the other traditions about the middle prayer, we can actually see how these stories came to be formed. To begin with we can clearly see that the "middle prayer" became at some point a subject of discussion. Some identified it with the zuhr (noon) prayer, some with the subh or fajr (morning) prayer, and some with the 'asr (afternoon) prayer.

    Yahya related to me from Malik from Da`ud ibn al-Husayn that Ibn Yarbu al-Makhzumi said, "I heard Zayd ibn Thabit say, 'The middle prayer is the prayer of zuhr.' " (Muwatta)

    But in another tradition we read:

    Two men sent by a group of people from Quraysh asked Zayd bin Thabit about the middle prayer. He answered that it was 'asr. Then two other men asked him the same question and he answered that it was zuhr. Then the two asked Usamah who said it was zuhr.

    Once, some people were sitting in the company of Zayd bin Thabit. The question of the middle prayer came under discussion. People sent a man to Usamah to find out. He answered that this is the zuhr prayer that the Messenger of God used to pray as soon as its time started (Tayalsi).

    The earliest statement of the view that the middle prayer is the morning (subh) prayer is found in Muwatta:

    Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that 'Ali ibn abi Talib and 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas used to say, "The middle prayer is the prayer of subh." (Muwatta)

    Malik himself preferred the same view:

    Malik said, "Out of all that I have heard about the matter, I prefer what 'Ali ibn abi Talib and 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas said."

    But while according to Malik 'Ali identified the middle prayer with the morning prayer, in a hadith narrated on the authority of 'Ali in both Muslim and Bukhari the Holy Prophet identifies it with the 'asr prayer:

    Narrated 'Ali bin Abi Talib: We were in the company of the Prophet on the day (of the battle) of al-Khandaq (the Trench). The Prophet said, "May God fill their (the infidels') graves and houses with fire, as they have kept us so busy that we could not offer the middle prayer till the sun had set; and that prayer was the 'asr prayer" (Bukhari).

    'Ali reported: The Messenger of God said on the day (of the battle) of al-Ahzab: They diverted us from saying the middle prayer. May God fill their houses and graves with fire; he then observed this prayer between the evening prayer and the night prayer (Muslim).

    There are other versions of this hadith that conflict with the above version. Thus while in the above version the 'asr prayer was delayed till after the sunset, the following version delays it to a time before the sunset:

    'Abd Allah (bin Mas'ud) reported that the polytheists detained the Messenger of God from observing the 'asr prayer till the sun became red or it became yellow. Upon this the Messenger of God said: They have diverted us from (offering) the middle prayer. May God fill (mal`a) their bellies and their graves with fire, or he said: May God stuff (hasha) their bellies and their graves with fire (Muslim).

    More importantly, both Muslim and Bukhari give a hadith in which it is 'Umar who scolds the polytheists for causing through battle a delay in the `asr prayer and there is no mention of the middle prayer:

    Jabir bin 'Abd Allah reported that 'Umar bin al-Khattab had been cursing the pagans of the Quraysh on the day (of the battle) of al-Khandaq. (He came to the Holy Prophet) and said: "Messenger of God! By God, I could not perform the 'asr prayer till the sun set." Upon this the Messenger said: "By God, I, too, have not performed it." So we went to a valley. The Messenger of God performed ablution and we too performed ablution, and then the Messenger of God performed the 'asr prayer after the sun had set and then performed the maghrib prayer after it (Muslim).

    Narrated Jabir bin 'Abd Allah: On the day of al-Khandaq 'Umar bin al-Khattab came cursing the disbelievers of Quraysh after the sun had set and said, "O God's Messenger, I could not perform the 'asr prayer till the sun had set." The Prophet said, "By God! I, too, have not prayed." So we turned towards Buthan, and the Prophet performed ablution and we too performed ablution and offered the 'asr prayer after the sun had set, and then he offered the maghrib prayer (Bukhari).

    Even more, Bukhari gives a version of this last tradition in which the Prophet is not explicitly involved:

    Narrated Jabir: 'Umar came cursing their disbelievers on the day of al-Khandaq and said, "I could not offer the 'asr prayer till the sun had set. Then we went to Buthan and he offered the prayer after sunset and then he offered the maghrib prayer (Bukhari).

    Here there is no talk of the Prophet also being unable to perform the 'asr prayer in time due to engagement in battle. Thus it seems that the historical event underlying the above traditions may be nothing more than the simple fact that in about the battle of al-Khandaq some Muslims could not perform 'asr prayer in time and had to perform it after its appointed time. This incident was used to make various points of fiqh and also to identify the 'asr prayer with the middle prayer. This identification becomes much more explicit in some traditions found in relatively late or less reliable documents:

    Abu Hurayrah was once asked about the middle prayer. He said: We also once differed about it. Abu Hashim bin 'Utbah rose from the gathering and went to the house of the Messenger of God. After seeking permission, he entered and obtained the information. He came out and told us that it was 'asr (al-Tabari, Tafsir).

    Once in the company of 'Abd al-'Aziz bin Marwan the question of the middle prayer came up. He said, "Go and ask such and such companion." But one person in the gathering said: "Listen! When I was young I was sent by Abu Bakr and 'Umar to the Prophet to ask the same question. The Prophet took my little finger and said: 'Look, this is the fajr prayer.' Then he took the finger next to it and said: 'This is the zuhr prayer.' He took the thumb and said: 'This is the magrib prayer.' He took the finger used for shahadah in prayer (the finger next to the thumb) and said: 'This is the 'isha prayer.' He then asked: 'Which finger remains.' I said, 'the middle finger.' He asked: 'Which prayer remains.' I said: 'Asr.' He said: 'Well, that is the middle prayer'." (Al-Tabari, Tafsir).

    The Prophet recited the verse [2:238] and said: This is the 'asr prayer (Musnad Ahmad).

    There are still more traditions in the literature attributing different views to different companions, sometimes opposite views to the same companions. Thus 'Ali, Ibn Mas'ud, Abu Ayyub, Ibn 'Umar, Ibn 'Abbas, Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, and Abu Hurayrah are said to identify the middle prayer as the 'asr prayer. Traditions attributed to 'Ali, 'Umar, Ma'adh bin Jabal, Ibn 'Abbas, Ibn 'Umar, Jabir, 'Ata, and 'Akramah identify the middle prayer as the subh or fajr prayer. Tradtiions attributed to Zayd bin Thabit, Usamah bin Zayd, Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, and 'Aishah identify it as zuhr prayer. Among the later generations, we again find contradictory views attributed to the same scholar. Iman Malik is known only to favor the subh prayer. Shafi'i probably held the same view, but later scholars of the Shafi'i school argued that since Shafi'i was bound by every hadith, therefore had he known the ahadith identifying the middle prayer with the 'asr prayer he would have revised his view. But if Shafi'i (died 204) did not know these ahadith, then it is probable that they are relatively late. Hasan Basri, Ibrahim Nakh'i, Qatadah, Dahhak, Kalbi, Maqatil, Abu Hanifah, Ahmad, Abu Da`ud, Ibn Mundhar were of the opinion that the middle prayer was the 'asr prayer, although one tradition from Abu Hanifah identifies it as zuhr prayer. There are also other opinions, e.g. that the middle prayer is the maghrib prayer (attributed to Ibn 'Abbas) or 'isha` prayer, or jum'ah prayer, or one of the 'Id prayers or an unidentifiable prayer.

    From this one should not get the impression that the middle prayer was never clearly understood. What this means is that in the early period the question was not discussed, probably because it was clear to the well-informed companions what prayer was the middle prayer. For, the companions who counted the start of the day from sunset the middle prayer was probably understood as the morning prayer and this is probably also how it is understood in the Qur`an. Its special mention can be explained because sleep can easily prevent people from praying the morning prayer on time. But outside Arabia people counted the start of the day in other ways and this gave rise to other interpretations of the middle prayer. Thus those who started the day from some point in the night (e.g., midnight) the middle prayer will be either zuhr prayer or the 'asr prayer, depending on whether they counted the night prayer or the morning prayer as the first prayer of the day. If one started the day from sunrise the middle prayer will be the maghrib prayer. The identification with the maghrib prayer is also suggested by the fact that it divides 24-hour period into day and night, with two prayers before it during the day and two prayers after it during the night. But it is the identification with the 'asr prayer that became a popular alternative to the earlier view that correctly identified the middle prayer with the subh prayer.

    We earlier noted that often the variants of the Qur`an arose when some explanatory words were by mistake made part of the Qur`anic verses and then, out of enthusiasm for those explanations and willful clinging to the mistakes, stories were created to justify the mistakes. Thus the view that the middle prayer was the 'asr prayer made some half-informed over-enthusiastic imam to read the verse with the "middle prayer" replaced by "'asr prayer". The wrong reading when confronted with the standard correct reading did not result in a correction of the mistake but in willful insistence on it. Stories were fabricated to show that the reading was indeed once a part of the Qur`an. The absence of the phrase from all the written copies of the Qur`an and from its recitation by everyone else is explained in two ways: by the theory of abrogation and by assuming that it somehow got omitted from all the copies of the Qur`an. The first approach gave rise to the story attributed to al-Bara` bin 'Azib while the second approach led to the story of 'Aishah/Hafsah.

    These stories, though they were probably created to identify the middle prayer with the 'asr prayer, inadvertently left a loophole. In the hadith of al-Bara` bin 'Azib the abrogation of "guard your prayers and the "asr prayer" by "guard your prayers and the middle prayer" can suggest that the middle prayer is not the 'asr prayer, for otherwise abrogation merely substitutes one name of the prayer by another, hardly a meaningful change. This explains the exchange in the hadith between Shaqiq and his companion, in which the question whether the middle prayer is the 'asr prayer is not clearly resolved.

    The same ambiguity characterizes the variant given in the story about 'Aishah or Hafsah. In fact the variant has been used to argue that the middle prayer is not the 'asr prayer. This is because the statement "guard . the middle prayer and the 'asr prayer" can be understood in two ways. One way is that the middle prayer is identical to the 'asr prayer. This is possible in Arabic as in English. For example, a person could say, "I saw my friend and my collegue," referring to one and the same person. The second interpretation is that the middle prayer and the 'asr prayer are not the same prayer. It is perhaps using this last interpretation that Malik can record this story and still prefer the view that the middle prayer is the subh prayer, although admittedly the earlier Muslim scholars often quoted traditions without necessarily fully accepting them. In any case, the ambiguity left by the earlier form of the alleged variant reading of the Qur`an was removed at some stage. Thus al-Tabari in his Tafsir gives the following variant reading:

    Guard the prayers carefully and the middle prayer -- and this is the 'asr prayer (wa hiya salat al-'asr)--and stand obedient to God.

    This variant leaves little doubt about which prayer was the middle prayer!

    How some explanatory words could be made variants of the Qur`an by some ill-informed or over-enthusiastic people is illustrated by examples in the Hadith. We need not go further from the subject of the middle prayer for an example. The versions in Bukhari of the hadith about the delay in the 'asr prayer on the day of al-Khandaq provide and example. We quote these versions again for the sake of convenience of the reader:

    1) Narrated Jabir bin 'Abd Allah: On the day of al-Khandaq 'Umar bin al-Khattab came cursing the disbelievers of Quraysh after the sun had set and said, "O God's Messenger, I could not perform the 'asr prayer till the sun had set." The Prophet said, "By God! I, too, have not prayed." So we turned towards Buthan, and the Prophet performed ablution and we too performed ablution and offered the 'asr prayer after the sun had set, and then he offered the maghrib prayer.

    In this version there is no mention of the middle prayer; the delayed prayer is simply called the 'asr prayer. The same is the case in the next version:

    2) Narrated Jabir: 'Umar came cursing the disbelievers on the day of al-Khandaq and said, "I could not offer the 'asr prayer till the sun had set. Then we went to Buthan and he offered the prayer after sunset and then he offered the maghrib prayer (Bukhari).

    But in the following version the delayed prayer is called the middle prayer:

    3) Narrated 'Ali: On the day of al-Khandaq, the Prophet said "God fill their houses and graves with fire as they have prevented us from offering the middle prayer till the sun had set."

    4) Narrated 'Ali bin abi Talib: We were in the company of the Prophet on the day (of the battle) of al-Khandaq. The Prophet said, "May God fill their (the infidels') graves and houses with fire, as they have kept us so busy (in battle) that we could not offer the middle prayer till the sun had set; and this (was) the 'asr prayer (wa hiya salat al-'asr)"

    In both versions attributed to 'Ali (number 3 and 4) it is clear that the middle prayer is understood to be the afternoon ('asr) prayer, since it is said to be delayed till sunset. But notice that in the version number 4 we have the words "and this (was) the 'asr prayer" that are not found in the version number 3. It is probable that these words were added to the more original version to further clarify the identification of the middle prayer with the 'asr prayer. And in view of the ahadith attributed to Jabir in which the middle prayer is not even mentioned, it is likely that even in the version number 3 the reference to the middle prayer is secondary. We can thus see two developments: First 'asr prayer was changed to middle prayer and then the identification between the two was made more explicit.

    It seems fairly certain that something similar happened during the transmission of the Qur`an at some places at the hands of some careless people: First the middle prayer was explained as 'asr prayer and then this explanation was made a variant reading of the Qur`an. Indeed, in Arabic the additional words (wa hiya salat al-'asr) in the version number 4 are identical to the additional words in alleged variant of the Qur`anic verse as given in al-Tabari.

    Regardless of whether one accepts the above explanation of how the traditions about an alleged variant of 2:238 referring to 'asr prayer came to be formed, it is clear from the above review of the various traditions that we are not dealing here with a reliable set of reports. Muslim scholars in earlier times reached the same conclusion. Thus Ibn Kathir wrote in his Tafsir:

    This khabar wahid [about the variant reading of 2:238] does not establish the reading in the absence of tawatur. This is why 'Uthman did not accept it in his mushaf of the Qur`an. Nor are these additional words found in the recitation of any of the seven reciters or even any other trusted reciter. Moreover, another hadith establishes the abrogation of this reading. (Dr. Ahmad Shafaat, PRESERVATION OF THE REVELATIONS RECEIVED BY THE PROPHETS MUHAMMAD AND JESUS, Chapter 6, Source)
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    The Verse On The State Of Martyrs
    By
    Bassam Zawadi


    Saheeh Bukhari
    Volume 004, Book 052, Hadith Number 299.
    Narated By Anas : The people of the tribes of Ril, Dhakwan, 'Usiya and Bani Lihyan came to the Prophet and claimed that they had embraced Islam, and they requested him to support them with some men to fight their own people. The Prophet supported them with seventy men from the Ansar whom we used to call Al-Qurra'(i.e. Scholars) who (out of piety) used to cut wood during the day and pray all the night. So, those people took the (seventy) men till they reached a place called Bi'r-Ma'ana where they betrayed and martyred them. So, the Prophet invoked evil on the tribe of Ril, Dhakwan and Bani Lihyan for one month in the prayer.
    Narrated Qatada: Anas told us that they (i.e. Muslims) used to recite a Qur'anic Verse concerning those martyrs which was: "O Allah! Let our people be informed on our behalf that we have met our Lord Who has got pleased with us and made us pleased." Then the Verse was cancelled.Volume 5, Book 59, Number 416:Narrated Anas bin Malik:
    (The tribes of) Ril, Dhakwan, 'Usaiya and Bani Lihyan asked Allah's Apostle to provide them with some men to support them against their enemy. He therefore provided them with seventy men from the Ansar whom we used to call Al-Qurra' in their lifetime. They used to collect wood by daytime and pray at night. When they were at the well of Ma'una, the infidels killed them by betraying them. When this news reached the Prophet , he said Al-Qunut for one month In the morning prayer, invoking evil upon some of the 'Arab tribes, upon Ril, Dhakwan, 'Usaiya and Bani Libyan. We used to read a verse of the Qur'an revealed in their connection, but later the verse was cancelled. It was: "convey to our people on our behalf the information that we have met our Lord, and He is pleased with us, and has made us pleased." (Anas bin Malik added:) Allah's Prophet said Qunut for one month in the morning prayer, invoking evil upon some of the 'Arab tribes (namely), Ril, Dhakwan, Usaiya, and Bani Libyan. (Anas added:) Those seventy Ansari men were killed at the well of Mauna.

    Volume 005, Book 059, Hadith Number 421.
    Narated By Anas bin Malik : The Prophet invoked evil upon those (people) who killed his companions at Bir Mauna for 30 days (in the morning prayer). He invoked evil upon (tribes of) Ril, Lihyan and Usaiya who disobeyed Allah and His Apostle. Allah revealed a Qur'anic Verse to His Prophet regarding those who had been killed, i.e. the Muslims killed at Bir Ma'una, and we recited the Verse till later it was cancelled. (The Verse was:) 'Inform our people that we have met our Lord, and He is pleased with us, and we are pleased with Him."
    Imam Ibn Hajar Al Asqalani says in Fathul Bari...
    ‏أي نسخت تلاوته

    Its recitation has been abrogated.
    ورواه أحمد عن غندر عن شعبة بلفظ " ثم نسخ ذلك "

    And it is narrated on the authority of Ahmed, on the authority of Ghandar that Sha'abah reported in his version "then it was abrogated" (Ibn Hajar Al Asqalani, Fathul Bari, Kitab: Al Maghaazi, Bab: Ghazwat Al Rajee' wa Ra'al wa Zhakwaan wa Ba'ir Ma'awna wa hadith A'adal wal Qaaraah, Commentary on Hadith no. 3781, Source)
    As we can see this is a verse whose recitation has been abrogated and was never meant to be permanently part of the textual Quran here on earth.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    The Alleged Addition To Surah 92
    By
    Bassam Zawadi



    Here are the hadith that Christian missionaries present to show that an addition has been made to the Quran...
    Saheeh Bukhari
    Volume 5, Book 57, Number 85:Narrated 'Alqama:
    I went to Sham and offered a two-Rak'at prayer and then said, "O Allah! Bless me with a good pious companion." So I went to some people and sat with them. An old man came and sat by my side. I asked, "Who is he?" They replied, "(He is) Abu-Ad-Darda.' I said (to him), "I prayed to Allah to bless me with a pious companion and He sent you to me." He asked me, "From where are you?" I replied, "From the people of Al-Kufa." He said, "Isn't there amongst you Ibn Um 'Abd, the one who used to carry the shoes, the cushion(or pillow) and the water for ablution? Is there amongst you the one whom Allah gave Refuge from Satan through the request of His Prophet. Is there amongst you the one who keeps the secrets of the Prophet which nobody knows except him?" Abu Darda further asked, "How does 'Abdullah (bin Mas'ud) recite the Sura starting with, 'By the Night as it conceals (the light)." (92.1) Then I recited before him:
    'By the Night as it envelops: And by the Day as it appears in brightness; And by male and female.' (91.1-3) On this Abu Ad-Darda' said, "By Allah, the Prophet made me recite the Sura in this way while I was listening to him (reciting it)."
    Volume 5, Book 57, Number 105:Narrated Alqama:
    I went to Sham and was offering a two-Rak'at prayer; I said, "O Allah! Bless me with a (pious) companion." Then I saw an old man coming towards me, and when he came near I said, (to myself), "I hope Allah has given me my request." The man asked (me), "Where are you from?" I replied, "I am from the people of Kufa." He said, "Weren't there amongst you the Carrier of the (Prophet's) shoes, Siwak and the ablution water container? Weren't there amongst you the man who was given Allah's Refuge from the Satan? And weren't there amongst you the man who used to keep the (Prophet's) secrets which nobody else knew? How did Ibn Um 'Abd (i.e. 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud) use to recite Surat-al-lail (the Night:92)?" I recited:--
    "By the Night as it envelops By the Day as it appears in brightness. And by male and female." (92.1-3) On that, Abu Darda said, "By Allah, the Prophet made me read the Verse in this way after listening to him, but these people (of Sham) tried their best to let me say something different."
    When reading the Hadith we see that the companion Abu Darda believed that he heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) and Abdullah ibn Masud recite Surah 92:3 as...
    And by male and female
    Besides how we have it today, which is:
    And by the creation of the male and the female,
    Qurtubi says in his Tafsir of Surah 92, verse 3...
    قَالَ أَبُو بَكْر : كُلّ مِنْ هَذَيْنَ الْحَدِيثَيْنِ مَرْدُود بِخِلَافِ الْإِجْمَاع لَهُ , وَأَنَّ حَمْزَة وَعَاصِمًا يَرْوِيَانِ عَنْ عَبْد اللَّه بْن مَسْعُود مَا عَلَيْهِ جَمَاعَة الْمُسْلِمِينَ , وَالْبِنَاء عَلَى سَنَدَيْنِ يُوَافِقَانِ الْإِجْمَاع أَوْلَى مِنْ الْأَخْذ بِوَاحِدٍ يُخَالِفُهُ الْإِجْمَاع وَالْأُمَّة , وَمَا يُبْنَى عَلَى رِوَايَة وَاحِد إِذَا حَاذَاهُ رِوَايَة جَمَاعَة تُخَالِفهُ , أُخِذَ بِرِوَايَةِ الْجَمَاعَة , وَأُبْطِلَ نَقْل الْوَاحِد لِمَا يَجُوز عَلَيْهِ مِنْ النِّسْيَان وَالْإِغْفَال . وَلَوْ صَحَّ الْحَدِيث عَنْ أَبِي الدَّرْدَاء وَكَانَ إِسْنَاده مَقْبُولًا مَعْرُوفًا , ثُمَّ كَانَ أَبُو بَكْر وَعُمَر وَعُثْمَان وَعَلِيّ وَسَائِر الصَّحَابَة - رَضِيَ اللَّه عَنْهُمْ يُخَالِفُونَهُ , لَكَانَ الْحُكْم الْعَمَل بِمَا رَوَتْهُ الْجَمَاعَة , وَرَفْض مَا يَحْكِيهِ الْوَاحِد الْمُنْفَرِد , الَّذِي يُسْرِع إِلَيْهِ مِنْ النِّسْيَان مَا لَا يُسْرِع إِلَى الْجَمَاعَة , وَجَمِيع أَهْل الْمِلَّة

    Abu Bakr said: Both of these hadith have been rejected because it contradicts what the majority have said, And Hamzah and A'asim both narrate on the authority of Ibn Mas'ud what the majority of Muslims agree on, and that the narrations that agree with the consensus should be taken first before the one that contradicts the consensus and Ummah (Muslim community) and it should not be based on a single narration that contradicts the narrations given by the majority. Take the narration that is accepted by the majority. That single narration became infected from forgetfulness and ignorance. And if the hadeeth by Abi Darda'a was authentic and its narration was accepted, and then Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali and the majority of the Sahabah (companions of the Prophet) may Allah bless them contradict it, then we should still take what the majority have said and reject what one narrator said due to being affected by forgetfulness, which did not affect the rest of the majority, and the rest of the followers of this religion. (Abu 'Abdullah Al-Qurtubi, Tasfir al Jami' li-ahkam al-Qur'an, Commentary on Surah 92:3 Source)
    Therefore, as we can see this is only one narration by a certain individual who believed that he heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) recite the verse the way he thought. However, how come there was no one else who also supported Abu Darda'a? How can ALL OF THE UMMAH be wrong while only he was right? Obviously he was speaking from bad memory and human error. More on this topic could be read here.
    If I interview 10,000 people who watched a TV program and I asked them what the actor said and all of them say the exact same thing except one of them who says something slightly different, then does this give me a good reason to doubt what the other 9,999 had to say? Of course not! It is obvious that the one individual was not paying attention properly or he had a bad memory.
    When Muslims say that the Quran was preserved and handed down to us by the memory of the companions we are not talking about some kind of divine memory. Of course they were human beings and some could make mistakes when they relate certain Surahs, however the majority would go and correct them. It's not like we had two majorities arguing here regarding alleged differences in the Quran. So the majority of the companions narrated this verse down to us this way and there is no reason at all to start doubting the authenticity of any verse just because one or a couple of people might have got it wrong due to bad memory or human error.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

Introduction to Quranic Variants

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Introduction to Quranic Variants

Introduction to Quranic Variants