Easy guide for new muslims8

آخـــر الـــمـــشـــاركــــات


مـواقـع شـقــيـقـة
شبكة الفرقان الإسلامية شبكة سبيل الإسلام شبكة كلمة سواء الدعوية منتديات حراس العقيدة
البشارة الإسلامية منتديات طريق الإيمان منتدى التوحيد مكتبة المهتدون
موقع الشيخ احمد ديدات تليفزيون الحقيقة شبكة برسوميات شبكة المسيح كلمة الله
غرفة الحوار الإسلامي المسيحي مكافح الشبهات شبكة الحقيقة الإسلامية موقع بشارة المسيح
شبكة البهائية فى الميزان شبكة الأحمدية فى الميزان مركز براهين شبكة ضد الإلحاد

يرجى عدم تناول موضوعات سياسية حتى لا تتعرض العضوية للحظر

 

       

         

 

    

 

 

    

 

Easy guide for new muslims8

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الموضوع: Easy guide for new muslims8

  1. #1
    الصورة الرمزية فداء الرسول
    فداء الرسول غير متواجد حالياً رحمك الله يا سمية
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    افتراضي Easy guide for new muslims8

    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

    Easy guide for new muslims8


    المستــوي الثــامن

    التوسل
    التبرك بالأماكن والآثار والأشخاص أحياءً وأمواتاً
    صيام التطوع
    ايام يحرم ،يكره فيها الصيام
    صلاة التطوع
    أحكام الجنائز
    - تغسيل الميت و دفنه
    -كيفية صلاة الجنازة
    تحريم الغش
    تحريم العقوق
    تحريم الغيبة والنميمة
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  2. #2
    الصورة الرمزية فداء الرسول
    فداء الرسول غير متواجد حالياً رحمك الله يا سمية
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    افتراضي

    Tawassul: Islamic vs. bid’ah



    Tawassul in Arabic means seeking to draw close. Allaah says in the Qur’aan (interpretation of the meaning): “…[they] desire means of access to their Lord…” [al-Isra’ 17:57], i.e., means of drawing close to Him. There are two types of Tawassul, correct Islamic tawassul and forbidden tawassul.

    Correct Islamic tawassul:

    This means seeking to draw close to Allaah through acts of worship which He loves and which please Him; these may be waajib (obligatory) or mustahabb (encouraged), and may take the form of words, actions or beliefs. Some types are as follows:

    Seeking to draw close to Allaah by means of His names and attributes. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allaah, so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech against) His names. They will be requited for what they used to do.” [al-A’raaf 7:180]. So when a person makes du’aa’ to Allaah, he begins by calling on Allaah with the name that is most apt, such as “al-Rahmaan” (the Most Merciful) when seeking mercy and al-Ghafoor (the All-Forgiving) when asking for forgiveness, and so on.

    Seeking to draw close to Allaah by means of faith and Tawheed. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Our Lord! We believe in what You have sent down, and we follow the Messenger, so write us down among those who bear witness (to the truth).” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:53]

    Seeking to draw close to Allaah through righteous deeds, whereby a person asks Allaah by virtue of the best deeds that he has done, such as salaah, fasting, reading Qur’aan, avoiding haraam things, and so on. An example of this is the saheeh hadeeth narrated in the Saheehayn about the three people who entered a cave, and a rock fell and blocked their way out. They asked Allaah by virtue of their best deeds (to save them). A person may also ask Allaah by virtue of his total dependency upon Him, as Allaah mentions in the Qur’aan (interpretation of the meaning): “[Ayyoob said:] ‘Verily, distress has seized me, and You are the Most Merciful of those who show mercy.’ [al-Anbiya’ 21:83]; or by admitting his own wrongdoing and his need for Allaah, as Yoonus is described as saying (interpretation of the meaning): “ ‘None has the right to be worshipped except You (O Allaah). Glorified (and exalted) are You. Truly I have been of the wrong-doers.’” [al-Anbiya’ 21:87]

    The rulings on Islamically correct tawassul vary according to its type. Some types are waajib, such as seeking to draw close to Allaah through His names and attributes and through Tawheed (believing in His absolute Oneness), and some are mustahabb, such as seeking to draw close to Him by virtue of all kinds of righteous deeds.

    Tawassul that is bid’ah and therefore forbidden:

    This is the attempt to draw close to Allaah by means of things that He does not like and that do not please Him, whether they be words, deeds or beliefs. One example of this is trying to draw close to Allaah by calling on the dead or people who are absent, asking them for help, and so on. This is a form of major shirk (shirk akbar), which goes against Tawheed and means that a person is no longer considered to be a Muslim. Calling upon Allaah, whether it is for a purpose such as asking Him to grant some benefit or to ward off some harm, or as an act of worship to express humility and submission before Him, can only be addressed directly to Allaah. If du’aa’s or prayers are addressed to anything or anyone else, this is shirk. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And your Lord said: ‘Invoke Me (and ask Me for anything), I will respond to your invocation. Verily! Those who scorn My worship [i.e., do not invoke Me and do not believe in My Oneness], they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!” [Ghaafir 40:60]. In this aayah, Allaah explains the punishment of those who arrogantly refuse to call on Allaah, whether they call on someone other than Allaah or they do not call on Him at all, out of pride and self-admiration, even if they do not call on anyone else.

    Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Invoke your Lord with humility and in secret…” [al-A’raaf 7:55]. Allaah commands His slaves to call on Him and not anyone else.

    Allaah says of the people of Hell (interpretation of the meaning): “[They say:] ‘By Allaah, we were truly in a manifest error when we held you (false gods) as equals (in worship) with the Lord of the Worlds.” [al-Shu’ara’ 26:96-97]

    Anything that results in equating something other than Allaah with Allaah in worship or acts of obedience is shirk, the crime of associating partners with Him. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And who is more astray than one who calls (invokes) besides Allaah, such as will not answer him until the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their calls (invocations) to them? And when mankind are gathered (one the Day of Resurrection), they (false deities) will become enemies for them and will deny their worshipping.” [al-Ahqaaf 46:5-6]

    Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “ And whoever invokes (or worships) besides Allaah, any other god, of whom he has no proof, then his reckoning is only with his Lord. Surely, al-kaafiroon (the disbelievers in Allaah and in the Oneness of Allaah) will not be successful.” [al-Mu’minoon 23:117].

    Allaah states that anyone who calls on anything other than him is taking that thing as a god, as He says (interpretation of the meaning): “…And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a qitmeer (the thin membrane over a date-stone). If you invoke (or call upon) them, they hear not your call, and if (in case) they were to hear, they could not grant it (your request) to you. And on the Day of Resurrection, they will disown your worshipping them. And none can inform you (O Muhammad), like Him Who is the All-Knower (of everything).” [Faatir 35:13-14].

    In this aayah, Allaah explains that He is the only One Who deserves to be called upon, because He, and no one else, is the Sovereign who is directing everything. Those things that are worshipped cannot hear du’aa’s, let alone respond to the one who invokes them, and even if they were able to hear, they cannot respond, because they do not have the power to either benefit or harm.

    The mushrik Arabs whom the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was sent to call were disbelievers because of this shirk. They would call upon Allaah sincerely at times of difficulty, but they became disbelievers at times of ease and plenty, when they would call on others besides Him. Allaah says (interpretation of the meanings):

    “And when they embark on a ship, they invoke Allaah, making their Faith pure for Him only, but when He brings them safely to land, behold, they give a share of their worship to others.” [al-‘Ankaboot 29:65]

    “And when harm touches you upon the sea, those that you call upon besides Him vanish from you excpet Him (Allaah Alone). But when He brings you safely to land, you turn away (from Him)…” [al-Isra’ 17:67].

    “… till when you are in the ships and they sail with them with a favourable wind, and they are glad therein, then comes a stormy wind and the waves come to them from all sides, and they think that they are encircled therein, they invoke Allaah, making their Faith pure for Him Alone…” [Yoonus 10:33]

    The shirk of some people nowadays goes even further than the shirk of people in the past, because they direct some acts of worship to something other than Allaah, calling upon them and asking them for help even at times of distress; laa hawla wa laa quwwata illa Billaah (there is no strength and no help except in Allaah). We ask Allaah to keep us safe and sound.

    To sum up our response to what your friend mentioned: asking the dead for anything is shirk, and asking the living for anything that no one except Allaah is able to do, is also shirk. And Allaah knows best.

    Islam Q&A
    Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  3. #3
    الصورة الرمزية فداء الرسول
    فداء الرسول غير متواجد حالياً رحمك الله يا سمية
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    افتراضي

    Seeking blessing from scholars and righteous people, and their relics



    Praise be to Allaah.

    It is not permissible to seek blessing from anyone other than the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), not from his wudoo’ or his hair or his sweat or anything else from his body. All of that applies only to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), because of the goodness and blessing that Allaah has put in his body and whatever he touches.

    Hence the Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) did not seek blessing from any one of their number during the lifetime of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or after his death, not with the Khulafaa’ al-Raashideen or anyone else. This indicates that they knew that this applied only to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and not to anyone else. And because this is a means that could lead to shirk and worshipping someone other than Allaah. Similarly it is not permissible to seek means of drawing closer to Allaah (tawassul) by virtue of the position and status of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), or his person, or his attributes, or his blessing, because there is no evidence (daleel) for that, and because these are among the means that may lead to shirk and they are ways of exaggerating about him (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).

    Also, these things were not done by the Sahaabah, and if they were good then they would have done them before us. And this goes against the evidence of sharee’ah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

    “And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allaah, so call on Him by them” [al-A’raaf 7:180]

    Allaah did not command us to call upon Him by virtue of the position or status or blessing of anyone.

    Part of that is seeking means of drawing closer to Him by virtue of His attributes, such as His Glory, His Mercy, His Words, etc. An example of that is to be found in the saheeh ahaadeeth which speak of seeking refuge in the perfect words of Allaah, and seeking refuge in the Glory and Power of Allaah.

    Also connected to that is the idea of seeking means of drawing closer to Allaah by loving Allaah and loving His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), by believing in Allaah and His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and seeking to draw nearer to Allaah by virtue of one’s righteous deeds, as described in the story of the people in the cave, whose need for shelter in the rain led them to enter a cave, then a rock fell down from the mountain and blocked the entrance of the cave. They were not able to push it away, so they discussed amongst themselves ways of getting out.

    They came to an agreement that the only way they would be saved from their predicament would be if they called upon Allaah by virtue of their righteous deeds. So one of them called upon Allaah by virtue of his honouring his parents, and the rock moved a little, but they could not get out… The second one called upon Allaah by virtue of his keeping away from zinaa on an occasion when he was able to indulge in it, and the rock moved a little but they still could not get out… Then the third one called upon Allaah by virtue of his fulfilling a trust, and the rock moved and they were able to escape.

    This hadeeth is reported in al-Saheehayn from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him); it is one of the stories of the people who came before us, in which there is a lesson and a reminder for us.

    The scholars (may Allaah have mercy on them) stated the points mentioned in this answer, such as Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah, his student Ibn al-Qayyim, Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Hasan in Fath al-Majeed Sharh Kitaab al-Tawheed, and others. With regard to the hadeeth about the blind man who sought to call upon Allaah (to cure him of his blindness) by virtue of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) during his life time, so the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) interceded for him and prayed for him, and Allaah restored his sight – this was a case of seeking the help of Allaah by means of the du’aa’ and intercession of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), not by means of his status and virtue. This is clear from the hadeeth… And similarly, the people will seek his intercession on the Day of Resurrection for Judgement to be passed, and the people of Paradise will seek his intercession on the Day of Resurrection for them to be admitted to Paradise. In all these cases, the help of Allaah is sought through him when he is alive, whether that is in this world or in the Hereafter, and it is seeking the help of Allaah through his du’aa’ and intercession, not by virtue of his person or status, as was clearly stated by the scholars, including those whom we have mentioned above.


    Kitaab Majmoo’ Fataawa wa Maqaalaat Mutanawwi’ah li Samaahat al-Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him), vol. 7, p. 65
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  4. #4
    الصورة الرمزية فداء الرسول
    فداء الرسول غير متواجد حالياً رحمك الله يا سمية
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    افتراضي

    Voluntary Fasts


    The Prophet has exhorted us to fast during the following days: six days of the month of Shawwal, first ten days of Zhul-Hijjah for those not performing the pilgrimage, month of Muharram.

    Volume 3, Page 124b: Voluntary Fasts, six days of the month of Shawwal
    Abu Ayyub al-Ansari reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "Whoever fasts during the month of Ramadan and then follows it with six days of Shawwal will be [rewarded] as if he had fasted the entire year." This is related by "the group," except for al-Bukhari and anNasa'i.

    According to Ahmad, one may fast on these days consecutively or nonconsecutively, as neither practice is preferred over the other. Hanafiyyah and Shaf'iyyah maintain that it is preferable to fast on consecutive days after the 'id.

    Volume 3, Page 124c: Voluntary FastsThe first ten days of Zhul-Hijjah, especially the day of Arafah, for those who are not performing the pilgrimage
    -1- Abu Qatadah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: "Fasting on the day of 'Arafah is an expiation for two years, the year preceding it and the year following it. Fasting the day of 'Ashurah is an expiation for the year preceding it." This is related by "the group," except for al-Bukhari and at-Tirmizhi.

    -2- Hafsah reported: "There are five things that the Prophet never abandoned: fasting the day of 'Ashurah, fasting the [first] ten [days of Zhul-Hijjah], fasting three days of every month and praying two rak'ah before the dawn prayer." This is related by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i.

    -3- 'Uqbah ibn 'Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah said: "The day of 'Arafah, the day of sacrifice, and the days of tashreeq are 'ids for us--the people of Islam--and they are days of eating and drinking." This is related by "the five," except for Ibn Majah. At-Tirmizhi grades it sahih.

    -4- Abu Hurairah stated: "The Messenger of Allah forbade fasting on the day of 'Arafah for one who is actually at 'Arafah." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah.

    At-Tirmizhi comments: "The scholars prefer that the day of 'Arafah be fasted unless one is actually at 'Arafah."

    -5- Umm al-Fadl said: "The people were in doubt over whether or not the Prophet was fasting on the day of 'Arafah. I sent him some milk, and he drank it while he was delivering an address to the people at 'Arafah." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

    Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, sent a person to announce: "Do not fast on these days, as they are days of eating, drinking and rejoicing with one's family." At-Tabarani related it in al-'Awsat.

    Volume 3, Page 125: Voluntary Fasts, Fasting during the month of Muharram, especially the day of 'Ashurah and the days immediately preceding and following it
    Abu Hurairah reported: "I asked the Prophet: 'Which prayer is the best after the obligatory prayers?' He said: 'Prayer during the middle of the night.' I asked: 'Which fast is the best after the fast of Rarnadan?' He said, 'The month of Allah that you call Muharram.' " This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.

    Mu'awiyyah ibn Abu Sufyan reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: "Concerning the day of 'Ashurah, it is not obligatory upon you to fast on it as I do. Whoever wishes may fast and whoever does not wish to is not obliged to do so." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

    'Aishah stated: "The tribe of Quraish used to fast on the day of 'Ashurah in the days before Islam, as did the Prophet. When he came to Madinah, he still fasted on it and ordered the people to do likewise. Then, when fasting during the month of Ramadan becam obligatory, he said: 'Whoever wishes may fast ['Ashurah] and whoever wishes may leave it." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

    Ibn 'Abbas reported: "The Prophet came to Madinah and found the Jews fasting on the day of 'Ashurah. He said to them: 'What is this fast?' They said: 'A great day. Allah saved Moses and the tribes of Israel from their enemies on this day and therefore, Moses fasted on this day.' The Prophet said: 'We have more of a right to Moses than you,' so he fasted on that day also and ordered the people to fast on that day." This is recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

    According to al-Bukhari and Muslim, Musa al-Ash'ari reported: "The Jews would honor the day of 'Ashurah as an 'id. The Prophet said: 'You [Muslims] are to fast on it.'"

    Ibn 'Abbas reported: "The Messenger of Allah fasted on the day of 'Ashurah and ordered the people to fast on it. The people said: 'O Messenger of Allah, it is a day that the Jews and Christians honor.' The Prophet said, 'When the following year comes--Allah willing--we shall fast on the ninth.' The death of the Prophet came before the following year." This is recorded by Muslim and Abu Dawud. In one version the wording is: "If I remain until next year, we shall fast the ninth," meaning, the tenth. This is related by Muslim and Abu Dawud.

    The scholars have mentioned that the fast of 'Ashurah is of three levels:

    -1- fasting three days--that is, on the 9th, 10th, and 11th of Muharram;

    -2- fasting on the 9th and 10th; and

    -3- fasting only on the 10th.

    Volume 3, Page 126: Being generous in providing household provisions on the day of 'Arafah
    Jabir reported that the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever is generous to himself and to his family on the day of 'Ashurah will have Allah's generosity bestowed on him for the rest of the year." This is related by al-Baihaqi in ash-Shu'ab and by Ibn 'Abdul-Barr. The hadith has other chains, but they are all weak; however, strung together these chains strengthen the rank of the hadith, as as-Sakhawi said.

    Volume 3, Page 127: Fasting most of the month of Sha'ban (the month preceding Ramadan)
    The Prophet would fast most of the month of Sha'ban. 'Aishah said: "I never saw the Messenger of Allah fast a complete month save for Ramadan, and I have never seen him fast more in a month than he did in Sha'ban." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

    Usamah ibn Zaid inquired: "O Messenger of Allah, I never find you fasting in any month like you do during the month of Sha'ban." The Prophet responded: "That is a month the people neglect. It comes between Rajab and Ramadan. It is a month in which the deeds are raised to the Lord of the Worlds. I love that my deeds be raised while I am fasting." This is related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and by Ibn Khuzaimah in his Sahih.

    Some people fast on the 15th of Sha'ban in particular, thinking that that day contains more virtues than the other days. This is an unsubstantiated claim.

    Volume 3, Page 127a: Fasting during the "forbidden" months
    The "forbidden" months (during which killing is forbidden) are Zhul-Qidah, ZhulHijjah, Muharram, and Rajab. It is preferred to fast a lot during these months.

    A man from Bahila came to the Prophet and said: "O Messenger of Allah, I am the man who came to you during the first year." The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "What has changed you? You used to be much more handsome!" He answered: "I did not eat save during the night since I left you." The Messenger of Allah asked: "Why did you punish yourself? Fast during the month of patience [that is, Ramadan] and then one day of every month." The man said: "Add something to that for me, for I have more strength than that." The Prophet responded: "Fast two days [a month]." The man said: "Add more for me." The Prophet said three times: "Fast from the forbidden months, then leave fasting." He pointed with three of his fingers by clenching them and releasing them. This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and al-Baihaqi with a good chain.

    Fasting during Rajab contains no more virtue than during any other month. There is no sound report from the sunnah that states that it has a special reward. All that has been related concerning it is not strong enough to be used as a proof. Ibn Hajr says: "There is no authentic hadith related to its virtues, not fasting during it or on certain days of it, nor concerning exclusively making night prayers during that month."

    Volume 3, Page 128: Fasting Mondays and Thursdays
    Abu Hurairah reported that the most the Prophet would fast would be Monday and Thursday. He was asked about that and he said: "The actions are presented on every Monday and Thursday. Allah forgives every Muslim or every believer, except for those who are boycotting each other. He says [about them]: 'Leave them.' " This is related by Ahmad with a sahih chain. It is recorded in Sahih Muslim that the Prophet, when asked about fasting on Monday, said: "That is the day on which I was born and the day on which I received revelations."

    Volume 3, Page 128a: Fasting three days of every month
    Abu Zharr al-Ghafari reported: "The Messenger of Allah ordered us to fast for three days of every month--that is, on the days of the full moon (the 13th, 14th, and 15th of the lunar month). And he said: 'It is like fasting the whole year.' " This is related by an-Nasa'i and by Ibn Hibban, who called it sahih.

    It is related that the Prophet would fast on Saturday, Sunday, and Monday of one month and on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday of the next month. He would also fast for three days at the beginning of the month, or on the first Thursday and the next two Mondays of the month.

    Volume 3, Page 128b: Fasting one day and not fasting the next
    Abu Salama ibn 'Abdurrahman reported from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said to him: 'I have been informed that you stay up in prayer during the night and fast during the day. 'Abdullah answered: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah." The Prophet said: "Fast and do not fast, pray and sleep, for your body, your wife, and your guests have a right upon you. It is sufficient for you to fast three days a month." 'Abdullah said: "I wanted to be stricter on myself and I said: "O Messenger of Allah, I have the strength to do more." The Prophet said: "Then fast three days a week." 'Abdullah said: "I have the strength to do more!" The Prophet said: "Fast the fast of the Prophet David and do not do more than that!" 'Abdullah inquired: "And what was the fast of David?" The Prophet replied: "He would fast one day and then not fast the next." This is recorded by Ahmad and others.

    Ahmad also related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr that the Prophet said: "The fast most loved by Allah is the fast of David, and the most loved prayer is the prayer of David. He would sleep half the night, pray for a third of the night, and then sleep during the last sixth of the night. He would also fast one day and then eat on the next."

    Volume 3, Page 129: It is permissible for one who is performing a voluntary fast to break his fast
    Umm Hani reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, entered her room during the day of the conquest of Makkah. He was offered something to drink and he drank from it. Then he offered it to Umm Hani and she said: "I am fasting." The Prophet said: "The one who is fasting voluntarily is in charge of himself. If you wish you may fast and if you wish you may break your fast." This is recounted by Ahmad, ad-Daraqutni, and alBaihaqi. Al-Hakim also related it and said that its chain is sahih. The version he recorded states: "And if one wishes he may fast and if he wishes he may break his fast."

    Abu Juhaifah said: "The Prophet established the bond of brotherhood between Salman and Abu ad-Darda. Once, Salman visited Abu ad-Darda and saw Umm ad-Darda wearing very plain clothes. He said to her: 'What's happening to you?' She said: 'Your brother Abu ad-Darda has no need in this world.' When Abu adDarda came, he prepared some food for Salman and said: 'Eat, for I am fasting.' Salman said: 'I shall not eat until you eat.' So he ate. When it was night, Abu ad-Darda got up to pray and Salman said, 'Sleep,' and he did so. Toward the end of the night Salman woke Abu ad-Darda and said, Pray now.' And they prayed. Salman told him: 'Your Lord has a right upon you, you have a right upon yourself, and so does your wife. Give each one its due right.' Abu adDarda went to the Prophet and told him what Salman had said. The Prophet said: 'Salman has said the truth.' " This is related by al-Bukhari and at-Tirmizhi.

    Abu Sa'id al-Khudri said: "I prepared food for the Prophet. He came to me with some of his companions. When the food was laid out, one of the men said: 'I am fasting.' The Messenger of Allah said: 'Your brother has invited you and incurred expenses in your behalf.' Then he asked [him], Break your fast and fast another day in its place if you wish.' " This is related by al-Baihaqi. Al-Hafizh says it has a hassan chain.

    Most scholars maintain that one who is performing a voluntary fast can break it. It is, however, preferred to make up that day later on. The preceding view is clear and authentic hadith are support for that position.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  5. #5
    الصورة الرمزية فداء الرسول
    فداء الرسول غير متواجد حالياً رحمك الله يا سمية
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Jun 2008
    المشاركات
    11,681
    الدين
    الإسلام
    الجنس
    أنثى
    آخر نشاط
    30-11-2017
    على الساعة
    11:44 AM

    افتراضي

    The Forbidden Days to Fast

    Volume 3, Page 120b: The Forbidden Days to Fast, the days of 'id
    All scholars agree that such a fast is prohibited. It does not matter if the fast is obligatory or voluntary. 'Umar testifies: "The Messenger of Allah has forbidden fasting on these two days. Concerning the 'id of breaking the fast, it is for you to break your fast [of Ramadan]. On the 'id of sacrifice, you should eat from what you sacrifice." This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, atTirmizhi, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah.

    Volume 3, Page 120c: The Forbidden Days to Fast, the days of tashreeq (three days following the 'Id al-Azha)
    It is not permissible to fast during the three days following the 'Id al-Azha. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, sent 'Abdullah ibn Huzhaqah to announce at Mina: "You are not to fast these days. They are days of eating and drinking and remembering Allah." This is related by Ahmad with a good chain.

    Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, sent a person to announce: "Do not fast on these days, as they are days of eating, drinking and rejoicing with one's family." At-Tabarani related it in al-'Awsat.

    The Shaf'iyyah allow fasting on the days of tashreeq if there is some reason for the fasting - that is, if it is due to an oath, for expiation, or for making up a missed day of Ramadan. Those fasts that have no special reason behind them are not allowed, and there is no disagreement on this point. The Shaf'iyyah applied the same reasoning that they used in saying that prayers that are performed for a specific reason are allowed to be performed during the prohibited times of prayer [for example, the prayer of salutation to the mosque, and so on].

    Volume 3, Page 121: The Forbidden Days to Fast, prohibited to single out Friday as a day of fasting
    The day of Friday is a kind of weekly 'id for Muslims and, therefore, it is prohibited to fast on that day. Most scholars say that this prohibition is one of dislike,9 not one of complete forbiddance.

    If one fasts on the day before or after it, or if it is a day that one customarily fasts on (for example, the 13th, 14th, or 15th of the month), or if it is the day of 'Arafah or 'Ashurah, then it is not disliked to fast on such a Friday.

    'Abdullah ibn 'Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah entered the room of Juwairiyah bint al-Harith while she was fasting on a Friday. He asked her: "Did you fast yesterday?" She answered, "No." He said: "Do you plan to fast tomorrow?" She answered, "No." Therefore he said: "Then break your fast." This is related by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i with a good chain.

    'Amr al-'Ashari reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: "Verily, Friday is an 'id for you, so do not fast on it unless you fast the day before or after it." This is related by al-Bazzar with a good chain.

    'Ali counseled: "He who wants to [fast] voluntarily should fast on Thursday instead of Friday, for Friday is a day of eating, drinking, and remembrance." This is related by Ibn Abu Shaibah with a good chain.

    In the two Sahih (those of al-Bukhari and Muslim), Jabir reported that the Prophet said: "Do not fast on Friday unless you fast on it together with the day before or the day after." Muslim's version states: "Do not exclusively choose the night of Friday [Thursday night in English] as a special night for performing the night prayers. Also, do not exclusively choose Friday as a day of fasting unless it occurs on a day that you regularly fast."

    Volume 3, Page 122: The Forbidden Days to Fast, prohibited to single out Saturday as a day of fasting
    Busr as-Salmi related from his sister as-Sama' that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Do not fast on Saturdays unless it is an obligatory fast. [You should not fast] even if you do not find anything [to eat] save some grape peelings or a branch of a tree to chew on."

    This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, at-Tirmizhi, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and al-Hakim. Al-Hakim said that it is sahih according to the conditions of Muslim, while at-Tirmizhi called it hassan. AtTirmizhi said that what is disliked here is for a person to exclusively choose Saturday as a day of fasting, as it is the day that the Jews honor.

    In contradiction with the preceding report, Umm Salamah claims: "The Prophet used to fast more often on Saturdays and Sundays than on the other days. He would say: 'They are the 'ids of the polytheists, and I love to differ from them.' " This is related by Ahmad, al-Baihaqi, al-Hakim, and Ibn Khuzaimah who called it sahih.

    The Hanafiyyah, Shaf'iyyah, and Hanbaliyyah say it is disliked to fast on Saturday by itself due to the preceding evidence. Malik differs from them, but the hadith is proof against him.

    Volume 3, Page 122a: The Forbidden Days to Fast, on the "day of doubt"
    'Ammar ibn Yasir said: "Whoever fasts the 'day of doubt has disobeyed Abu alQasim [the Prophet]." This is related by an-Nasa'i, at-Tirmizhi, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah.

    Of its status, at-Tirmizhi says: "It is a hassan sahih hadith. Most of the knowledgeable people act in accordance with it. It is the opinion of Sufyan ath-Thauri, Malik ibn Anas, 'Abdullah ibn alMubarak, ash-Shaf'i, Ahmad, and Ishaq. They all hate that one fasts on a 'day of doubt.' Most of them believe that if one fasts on such a day and it turns out to be Ramadan, then that day still has to be made up later. If such a day occurs during one's regular fasting period, then it is permissible to fast on such a day."

    As related by "the group," Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: "Do not precede Ramadan by fasting the day or two before it unless it is a day on which the person usually fasts."

    About this hadith, at-Tirmizhi says: "The hadith is hassan sahih and the scholars act in accordance with it. They dislike that a person should hasten Ramadan by fasting on the day before it. If a person usually fasts on a day and 'the day of doubt' occurs on that day, then there is no problem with his fasting on that day, in their opinion."

    Volume 3, Page 123: The Forbidden Days to Fast, every day of the year
    It is forbidden to do so because there are certain days of the year on which one is not allowed to fast. The Messenger of Allah said: "There is no [reward for] fasting for the one who perpetually fasts." This is related by Ahrnad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.

    If one breaks his fast during the days of 'id and the days of tashreeq, then his perpetual fasting would no longer be considered disliked. In his comments on this issue, at-Tirmizhi says: "A group of scholars dislike fasting every day if it includes the 'ids ['id al-Fitr, 'id al-Azha] and the days of tashreeq. If one breaks his fast on those days, his action is no longer disliked, as he is no longer fasting the whole year." The scholars are Malik, ash-Shaf'i, Ahrnad, and Ishaq.

    The Prophet approved of Hamzah al-Aslami's nurnerous fasts when he told him: "Fast if you wish and break your fast if you wish." This hadith was mentioned earlier.

    Volume 3, Page 123a: The Forbidden Days to Fast, woman to fast while her husband is present except with his permission
    The Messenger of Allah forbade a woman to fast if her husband was present until he gave her his perrnission to do so. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet said: "A woman is not to fast [even] for one day while her husband is present except with his permission, unless it is during Ramadan." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim. The scholars have interpreted this prohibition as one of forbiddance, and they allow the husband to end his wife's fasting if she fasted without his perrnission and he seeks his right [to sex] from her. This is also true, obviously, for days other than those of Ramadan in which case she does not need her husband's permission. Similarly, if she fasted without his permission because he was not present, he has the right to end her fast when he retums.

    If the husband is sick or incapable of intercourse, it is permissible for the woman to fast without his perrnission--that is, it is similar to the case of where the husband is not present.

    Volume 3, Page 124: The Forbidden Days to Fast, consecutive days without eating at all [al-wisal]
    Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Do not perforrn al-wisal." He said that three times and the people said to him: "But you perform al-wisal, O Messenger of Allah!" He said: "You are not like me in that matter. I spend the night in such a state that Allah feeds me and gives me to drink.. Devote yourselves to the deeds which you can perform." This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

    The scholars say this prohibition implies that the act is disliked. Ahmad and Ishaq say that it is allowed to fast until the time of the pre-dawn meal as long as it is not a hardship on the one fasting. This opinion is based on what al-Bukhari recorded on the authority of Abu Sa'id al-Khudri: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'Do not make al-wisal. If one of you insists on making al-wisal, he may continue his fast [after sunset] until the time of the pre-dawn
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  6. #6
    الصورة الرمزية فداء الرسول
    فداء الرسول غير متواجد حالياً رحمك الله يا سمية
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Jun 2008
    المشاركات
    11,681
    الدين
    الإسلام
    الجنس
    أنثى
    آخر نشاط
    30-11-2017
    على الساعة
    11:44 AM

    افتراضي

    Supererogatory Prayers


    Volume 2, Page 1a: Their significance

    At-tatawwu', or nawafil or supererogatory prayers, have been legislated to make up for any deficiencies left in the performance of fard salah (obligatory prayers). In salah, there are virtues that are not found in any other form of worship. Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The first thing that the people will be called to account for on the Day of Resurrection will be the prayers. Our Lord will say to the angels although He knows better: 'Look into the salah of my servant to see if he observed it perfectly or been negligent in it. So if he observed it perfectly it will be recorded to his credit, but if he had been negligent in it in any way, Allah would say: See if My servant has any supererogatory prayers. Then if he has any supererogatory prayers, Allah would say: Make up the deficiency in My servant's obligatory prayer with his supererogatory prayers.' Thereafter all his actions will be examined in like manner" (Abu Dawud).

    Abu Umamah narrates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Allah does not listen to anything from His slave as He does to the two rak'at (of prayer) that he offers. Mercy descends over the servant's head as long as he remains in prayer" (Ahmad and at-Tirmizhi). As-Sayuti grades it sahih. In al-Muwatta', Malik says: "It has reached me that the Prophet said: '(Try to) keep to the straight path although you won't be able to do so completely; and know that the best of your deeds is the salah, and only a (true) believer preserves his wudu.'" Muslim records from Rabi'ah ibn Malik al-Aslami that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Ask (anything)." Rabi'ah said: "I ask of you to be your companion in paradise." The Prophet said: "Or anything else?" Rabi'ah said: "That is it." The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said to him: "Then help me by making many prostrations (ie, supererogatory prayers)."

    Volume 2, Page 2: Offering Supererogatory Prayers in One's House
    Ahmad and Muslim relate from Jabir that the Messenger of Allah said: "If one of you offers his prayers in the Mosque then he should make a portion of his prayers in his house, as Allah has made his prayers in his house a means of betterment (for him)."

    Ahmad records from 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah said: "The nawafil salah of a man in his house are a light; whoever wishes should lighten up his house."

    'Abdullah ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Make some of your prayers in your houses and do not turn your houses into graves." This statement is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. Abu Dawud records from Zaid ibn Thabit on sound authority that the Messenger of Allah said: "A person's salah in his house is better than his salah in my mosque, except for the fard salah."

    These hadith prove that it is preferred to say one's nawafil prayers in one' s house since prayers in one ' s house are better than those that he performs in the mosque. An-Nawawi says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam encouraged one to offer nawafl in one's house because then the prayers are more private and will have less of a chance of being done for show and will be free from defects that vitiate good deeds. Furthermore, this will be a blessing for the house as mercy and angels will descend on it while Satan flees from it."

    Volume 2, Page 2a: Supererogatory prayers, their Elongation
    It is preferred to prolong the reciting by making many rak'at.
    The group, except for Abu Dawud, reports that al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah said: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would stand and pray until his feet or shanks swelled. When he was asked about it, he said: 'Should I not be a thankful slave?"' Abu Dawud records from 'Abdullah ibn Hubshi al-Khath'ami that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam was asked: "What is the best deed?" He said: "Prolonging the qiyam; (standing) [in the prayer]." Then it was asked: "What is the best charity?" He replied: "The sacrifice made by one who has little to give." Then it was asked: "What is the best migration?" He responded: "The migration from what Allah has forbidden." Then it was asked: "What is the best jihad?" He replied: "Whoever strives against the polytheists with his wealth and soul." They asked: "What is the most honorable death?" He answered: "He whose blood is spilled and whose horse is wounded."

    Volume 2, Page 3: It is allowed to make supererogatory prayers while in julus (sitting)
    It is acceptable for one to make nawafil while sitting even though he has the ability to stand. It is also acceptable for one to make part of such prayers sitting and part of them standing even if all of that is in one rak'ah, (ie, one sits for part of the first rak'ah and then stands for the rest of it, or vice versa). All of that is acceptable without any dislike for it. One may sit in any manner one likes although it is preferable to sit cross-legged. Muslim records that 'Alqamah asked 'Aishah: "How did the Prophet perform two rak'at while sitting?" She replied: "He would recite while sitting and then when he wished to make ruku', he would stand and bow." Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, an-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah record that she said: "I never saw the Messenger of Allah ever sitting while reciting during the night prayer until he became old, then he would sit until when about thirty or forty verses were left of his recital then he would stand, finish the recital and make ruku'..."

    Volume 2, Page 3a: Different Types of Nawafil
    Nawafil may be divided into two types: general and specific
    prayers. The nawafil are said to be those prayers which are in addition to the fard salah, as prayed by the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam.

    An-Nawawi says: "If one decides to make nawafil prayers and he does not make any intention concerning the number [of rak'at] he shall make, then he may end the prayer after one rak'ah or make it two rak'at or increase it to three or one hundred or one thousand, and so forth. If he prays a number of [rak'at], without knowing how many, and then ends the prayer his salah will still be valid." There is no difference of opinion on this. The Shaf'iyyah are in agreement with it and there is a text attributed to ash-Shaf'i on this point.

    Al-Baihaqi records with a chain of narrators, that Abu Zharr prayed many rak'at and then concluded his salah. Al-Ahnaf ibn Qais asked him: "Do you know if you finished on an odd or an even number?" He replied: "Even if I do not know, Allah knows. I heard my friend Abu al-Qasim say: 'No slave makes a sajdah to Allah without Allah raising him a degree and wiping out one of his sins due to it."' This is related by ad-Darimi in his Musnad with a sahih chain, but it should be noted that there is a difference of opinion over the integrity of one of its narrators.

    The specific nawafil prayers are referred to as al-sunan ar-ratibah, or the sunnah prayers that have a specific order, number, and so on. These include the sunnah prayers of fajr, zuhr, 'asr, maghrib, and 'isha.

    Volume 2, Page 4: The Two rak'at of Fajr
    There are a number of hadith that state the virtues of observing the sunnah prayer at dawn time. For example: 'Aishah relates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said about the two rak'at before the fajr "They are dearer to me than the whole world." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and at-Tirmizhi. Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "Do not leave the two rak'at of the fajr, even if you are being attacked by a cavalry." This is confirmed by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqi, and at-Tahawi. The message of the hadith is that one should not leave the two rak'at of the fajr no matter what the excuse, even while under enemy attack or under most trying conditions. 'Aishah says: "The Messenger of Allah was not so particular about observing any supererogatory prayer as he was in observing the two rak'at before salatul fajr." This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, and Abu Dawud. She also reports that the Prophet said: "The two rak'at of the fajr are better than this world and all it contains." This is reported by Ahmad, Muslim, at-Tirmizhi, and an-Nasa'i. Ahmad and Muslim also record that she said: "I have never seen him [the Prophet] more in haste to do a good deed than he was to perform the two rak'at before the morning [prayer]."

    Volume 2, Page 4a: To Make Them Quickly
    It is well-known that the Prophet would make a very short recital in the two rak'at before the dawn. Hafsah reports: "The Prophet would pray the two rak'at of fajr before the dawn in my house and he would make it very quick." Naf'i states: "Abdullah [Ibn 'Umar] would also make it very quickly." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim. 'Aishah narrates: "The Prophet would pray the two rak'at before the dawn prayer in my house so quickly that I wondered if he had recited the Fatihah in them or not." This is related by Ahmad and others. She also said: "When the Prophet prayed the two rak'at before the dawn prayer I estimated the time that he took in recital was like what it takes to recite al-Fatihah. This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, al-Baihaqi, Malik, and at-Tahawi. It is preferred to recite what has been related from the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam: 'Aishah reports that the Prophet would silently recite the following in the two rak'at before salatul fajr

    "Say: O disbelievers," and "Say: He is Allah, the One."

    This is related by Ahmad and at-Tahawi. He would recite them after al-Fatihah as there is no prayer without the recital of al-Fatihah, as we have already discussed. She also reports that the Prophet said: "These are the two most blessed surahs," and he would recite them in the two rak'at before salatul fajr. This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Jabir relates that a man stood to pray the two rak'at before the dawn prayer and recited "Say: O disbelievers!" in the first rak'ah until he finished the surah. The Prophet said: "That slave knows his Lord." In the second rak'ah he recited: "Say: He is Allah, the One"...to the end of the surah. The Prophet said: "That slave (of Allah) believes in his Lord." Talhah said: "I love to recite these two surahs in these two rak'at." This is related by Ibn Hayyan and at-Tabarani. Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would recite the following in the two rak'at before the dawn prayer: "Say: We believe in Allah and what has been revealed to us,"' and from surah al-Imran, 'Come to common terms as between us and you.' This is related by Muslim.

    Volume 2, Page 5: First rak'ah of fajr
    In the first rak'ah, after al-Fatiha, he would recite the verse: "Say: We believe in Allah, and the revealation given to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob and the tribes, and [in what] was given to Moses and Jesus, and what was given to the Prophets, from their Lord and we do not differentiate between any of them. And we are Muslims."

    Volume 2, Page 5a: Second rak'ah of fajr
    In the second rak'ah he would recite: "Say: O People of the Book, come to a statement that is common between us and you; that we shall not worship any save Allah and we shall not associate any partners with Him and we shall not take others as Lords besides Allah. And if they turn away then say: Bear witness that we are they who have surrendered unto Him."

    He also reports, in a version recorded by Abu Dawud, that in the first rak'ah the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would recite: "Say: We believe in Allah..."

    In the second rak'ah he would recite: "But when Jesus became conscious of their disbelief, he cried: 'Who will be my helpers in the cause of Allah?' The disciples said: 'We will be Allah's helpers. . . ' "

    From the report of 'Aishah, mentioned earlier, it is concluded that it is permissible just to recite al-Fatihah in each rak'ah.

    Volume 2, Page 6: Supplication after finishing the two sunnah rak'at before the fajr prayer
    An-Nawawi says in al-Azhkar. "It is related in the book of Ibn as-Sanni from Abu al-Malih (whose name was 'Aamr ibn Usamah) on the authority of his father that his father had prayed the two rak'at of the dawn [before salatul fajr] and the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam was praying the two rak'at close to him, and he heard the Prophet say, while sitting:

    'O Allah, Lord of Jibrail, Israfeel, Mikail, and Muhammad, the Prophet, I seek refuge in Thee from the Fire,'"...three times.

    He also records from Anas that the Prophet said: "Whoever says, on Friday morning before the salatul fajr,

    'I seek the forgiveness of Allah, there is no other god except Him, the Living, the Sustaining, and I repent unto him,' three times, Allah will forgive his sins even if they were as abundant as the foam on the sea."

    Volume 2, Page 6a: Lying down after the two sunnah rak'at of fajr
    'Aishah says: "After the Prophet had prayed the two [sunnah] rak'at of the fajr, he would lie down on his right side." This is related by the group. They also record that she reported: "After the Messenger of Allah had prayed the two [sunnah] rak'at of the fajr, he would lie down if I was asleep or would talk to me if I was awake."

    There is quite a difference of opinion over this point. Apparently, it is preferred for one to do so if one prays these sunnah rak'at in one's house and not in the mosque. Ibn Hajar says in Fath al-Bari: "Some of the early scholars were of the opinion that it is preferred to do so if one prays in one's house rather than in the mosque." This has been recorded from Ibn 'Umar. Some of our scholars reinforce this argument by stating that there is no evidence that the Prophet ever did so in the mosque. It has also been authentically recorded from Ibn 'Umar that "he would throw pebbles at anyone who did so in the mosque," and this was related by Ibn Abi Shaibah. Imam Ahmad was asked about it and he said: "I do not do it but if a person does it, it is good."

    Volume 2, Page 7: Belated performance of sunnah rak'at of fajr
    Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever fails to pray the two [sunnah] rak'at of the fajr until the sun rises, [he should then] pray them." This is related by al-Baihaqi. About its chain an-Nawawi says it is good.

    Qais ibn 'Umar relates that he went to the dawn prayer and found the Prophet praying fajr. Although Qais had not prayed the sunnah prayer, he joined the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and prayed with him. When he had finished salatul fajr, he prayed the two rak'at (sunnah) prayer. The Messenger of Allah passed by him and inquired: "What is this prayer?" Qais then informed him of all that had happened. The Prophet kept silent and did not say anything. This is related by Ahmad, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hibban, at-Tirmizhi, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah. Al-'Iraqi says its chain is hasan.

    Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim relate from 'Imran ibn Hussain that, during a journey, the Prophet slept past the time of salatul fajr and when he woke he waited for the sun to rise a little and then he ordered the mu'zhzhin to make the azhan. Then, the Prophet prayed the fajr sunnah, after which he ordered the iqamah to be made and prayed salatul fajr. It is apparent from this hadith that one is to make up the sunnah prayer before or after the sun rises, regardless of whether only sunnah prayer is missed or both sunnah and fard are missed, and whether there is a valid excuse or not. It may be made up by itself or with the obligatory dawn prayer.

    Volume 2, Page 7a: The Sunnah Prayer Of Zuhr
    It has been related that the sunnah rak'at at zuhr are four, six, or eight.

    Volume 2, Page 7b: Reports concerning four rak'at
    Ibn 'Umar said: "We observed and preserved from the Prophet ten rak'at [of sunnah prayers]: two before zuhr and two after it, two after maghrib in his house, two after 'isha in his house and two rak'at before the fajr." This is related by al-Bukhari.

    Al-Mughirah ibn Sulaiman reports that he heard Ibn 'Umar say: "The Prophet never left the two rak'at before zuhr and two rak'at after it, two rak'at after maghrib, two rak'a~ after 'isha and two rak'at before fajr." This is related by Ahmad with a good chain.

    Volume 2, Page 8: Reports concerning six rak'at
    'Abdullah ibn Shaqiq said: "I asked 'Aishah about the prayer of the Prophet and she said: 'He would pray four rak'at before zuhr and two after it."' This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and others.

    Umm Habibah bint Abu Sufyan reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever prays twelve rak'at during the day and night will have a house built for him in paradise: four rak'at before zuhr and two after it, two rak'at after maghrib, two rak'at after 'isha, and two rak'at before fajr." This is related by at-Tirmizhi who called it hasan sahih. Muslim reports it briefly.

    Volume 2, Page 8a: Reports concerning eight rak'at
    Umm Habibah reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever prays four rak'at before zuhr and four after it, Allah will forbid that his flesh be in the fire." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi who calls it sahih.

    It is related that Abu Ayyub al-Ansari would pray four rak'at before zuhr. The people said to him: "You made that prayer continue too long!" He said: "I saw the Messenger of Allah doing so. I asked him about it and he said: 'It is a time in which the doors of the heavens are opened and I wish that my good deeds be raised (to heaven) during it.'" This is related by Ahmad with a good chain.

    Volume 2, Page 8b: The merits of four rak'at before zuhr
    'Aishah said: "The Prophet never left praying four rak'at before zuhr and two rak'at before fajr under any circumstances." This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari. It is also related from her that during those four rak'at, he would prolong the qiyam [the portion in which one recites the Qur'an] and perfect the ruku' and sujud therein.

    There is no contradiction between the hadith of Ibn 'Umar, which states that the Prophet prayed two rak'at before zuhr, and other hadith which state that the Prophet prayed four rak'at before zuhr. Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari: "It is better to take them as describing different circumstances, sometimes he prayed two rak'at and sometimes he prayed four rak'at. Some say that it may be construed that if he prayed them in the mos que , he prayed only two rak'at, and when he prayed in his house, he prayed four rak'at. On the other hand, it could imply that he prayed two rak'at in his house and then went to the mosque and prayed two rak'at there also. Ibn 'Umar only saw what he prayed in the mosque and not what he prayed in his house, while 'Aishah was aware of both of them. The first interpretation is strengthened by what Ahmad and Abu Dawud recorded from 'Aishah, namely, that the Prophet prayed four rak'at in his house before zuhr and then he went to the mosque."

    Abu Ja'far at-Tabari says: "Most of the time he prayed four rak'at and occasionally he prayed two rak'at."

    If one prays four rak'at before or after the noon prayers, it is preferred to pray them in two sets consisting of two rak'at each, although it is permissible to make them together with only one taslim at the end of the four rak'at, as the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The prayers of the night and day are (sets of) two [rak'at]." This was related by Abu Dawud with a sahih chain.

    Volume 2, Page 9: Making up the missed sunnah of zuhr
    'Aishah reports that if the Prophet missed the four rak'at before zuhr, he would pray them afterward. This is related by at-Tirmizhi who calls it hasan ghareeb. Ibn Majah records that she said: "If the Prophet missed the four rak'at before zuhr, he would pray them following the two rak'at after zuhr."

    The preceding is concerned with making up the sunnah prayers that one is to pray before zuhr. Concerning making up the two rak'at after zuhr, we have the following reports as recorded by Ahmad.

    Umm Salamah says: "The Prophet prayed zuhr and then he received some wealth and he sat to distribute it [and continued to do so] until the mu'azhzhin made the azhan for 'asr. He prayed 'asr and came to me, as it was my day, and he prayed two quick rak'at. I said: 'What are those two rak'at, O Messenger of Allah? Have you been ordered to perform them?' He said: 'No, they are the two rak'at that I perform after zuhr but I was busy distributing this wealth until the azhan was made for 'asr and I hated to miss them.'" This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and by Abu Dawud in somewhat different wording.

    Volume 2, Page 9a: The sunnah of maghrib
    It is sunnah to pray two rak'at after maghrib. Earlier we mentioned that Ibn 'Umar narrated that the Prophet would not miss them. As to their content, it is preferred to recite, after al-Fatihah: "Say: O Disbelievers," and "Say: He is Allah, the One," in the sunnah prayer after salatul maghrib.

    Ibn Mas'ud says: "I cannot count how many times I heard the Messenger of Allah recite, in the two rak'at after maghrib and in the two rak'at before fajr 'Say: O disbelievers,' and 'Say: He is Allah, the One.'" This is related by Ibn Majah and at-Tirmizhi. The later grades it hasan.

    It is preferred to pray this sunnah prayer in one's house. Mahmud ibn Labid reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed maghrib with the tribe of 'Abd al-Ashhal. After he made the taslim, he told them: "Perform these two rak'at in your houses." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, and an-Nasa'i. We have already mentioned that the Prophet prayed them in his house.

    Volume 2, Page 10: The sunnah of 'Isha
    We have already mentioned the hadith which record that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed two rak'at after 'isha.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  7. #7
    الصورة الرمزية فداء الرسول
    فداء الرسول غير متواجد حالياً رحمك الله يا سمية
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Jun 2008
    المشاركات
    11,681
    الدين
    الإسلام
    الجنس
    أنثى
    آخر نشاط
    30-11-2017
    على الساعة
    11:44 AM

    افتراضي

    Supererogatory Prayers


    Volume 2, Page 1a: Their significance

    At-tatawwu', or nawafil or supererogatory prayers, have been legislated to make up for any deficiencies left in the performance of fard salah (obligatory prayers). In salah, there are virtues that are not found in any other form of worship. Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The first thing that the people will be called to account for on the Day of Resurrection will be the prayers. Our Lord will say to the angels although He knows better: 'Look into the salah of my servant to see if he observed it perfectly or been negligent in it. So if he observed it perfectly it will be recorded to his credit, but if he had been negligent in it in any way, Allah would say: See if My servant has any supererogatory prayers. Then if he has any supererogatory prayers, Allah would say: Make up the deficiency in My servant's obligatory prayer with his supererogatory prayers.' Thereafter all his actions will be examined in like manner" (Abu Dawud).

    Abu Umamah narrates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Allah does not listen to anything from His slave as He does to the two rak'at (of prayer) that he offers. Mercy descends over the servant's head as long as he remains in prayer" (Ahmad and at-Tirmizhi). As-Sayuti grades it sahih. In al-Muwatta', Malik says: "It has reached me that the Prophet said: '(Try to) keep to the straight path although you won't be able to do so completely; and know that the best of your deeds is the salah, and only a (true) believer preserves his wudu.'" Muslim records from Rabi'ah ibn Malik al-Aslami that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Ask (anything)." Rabi'ah said: "I ask of you to be your companion in paradise." The Prophet said: "Or anything else?" Rabi'ah said: "That is it." The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said to him: "Then help me by making many prostrations (ie, supererogatory prayers)."

    Volume 2, Page 2: Offering Supererogatory Prayers in One's House
    Ahmad and Muslim relate from Jabir that the Messenger of Allah said: "If one of you offers his prayers in the Mosque then he should make a portion of his prayers in his house, as Allah has made his prayers in his house a means of betterment (for him)."

    Ahmad records from 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah said: "The nawafil salah of a man in his house are a light; whoever wishes should lighten up his house."

    'Abdullah ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Make some of your prayers in your houses and do not turn your houses into graves." This statement is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. Abu Dawud records from Zaid ibn Thabit on sound authority that the Messenger of Allah said: "A person's salah in his house is better than his salah in my mosque, except for the fard salah."

    These hadith prove that it is preferred to say one's nawafil prayers in one' s house since prayers in one ' s house are better than those that he performs in the mosque. An-Nawawi says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam encouraged one to offer nawafl in one's house because then the prayers are more private and will have less of a chance of being done for show and will be free from defects that vitiate good deeds. Furthermore, this will be a blessing for the house as mercy and angels will descend on it while Satan flees from it."

    Volume 2, Page 2a: Supererogatory prayers, their Elongation
    It is preferred to prolong the reciting by making many rak'at.
    The group, except for Abu Dawud, reports that al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah said: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would stand and pray until his feet or shanks swelled. When he was asked about it, he said: 'Should I not be a thankful slave?"' Abu Dawud records from 'Abdullah ibn Hubshi al-Khath'ami that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam was asked: "What is the best deed?" He said: "Prolonging the qiyam; (standing) [in the prayer]." Then it was asked: "What is the best charity?" He replied: "The sacrifice made by one who has little to give." Then it was asked: "What is the best migration?" He responded: "The migration from what Allah has forbidden." Then it was asked: "What is the best jihad?" He replied: "Whoever strives against the polytheists with his wealth and soul." They asked: "What is the most honorable death?" He answered: "He whose blood is spilled and whose horse is wounded."

    Volume 2, Page 3: It is allowed to make supererogatory prayers while in julus (sitting)
    It is acceptable for one to make nawafil while sitting even though he has the ability to stand. It is also acceptable for one to make part of such prayers sitting and part of them standing even if all of that is in one rak'ah, (ie, one sits for part of the first rak'ah and then stands for the rest of it, or vice versa). All of that is acceptable without any dislike for it. One may sit in any manner one likes although it is preferable to sit cross-legged. Muslim records that 'Alqamah asked 'Aishah: "How did the Prophet perform two rak'at while sitting?" She replied: "He would recite while sitting and then when he wished to make ruku', he would stand and bow." Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, an-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah record that she said: "I never saw the Messenger of Allah ever sitting while reciting during the night prayer until he became old, then he would sit until when about thirty or forty verses were left of his recital then he would stand, finish the recital and make ruku'..."

    Volume 2, Page 3a: Different Types of Nawafil
    Nawafil may be divided into two types: general and specific
    prayers. The nawafil are said to be those prayers which are in addition to the fard salah, as prayed by the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam.

    An-Nawawi says: "If one decides to make nawafil prayers and he does not make any intention concerning the number [of rak'at] he shall make, then he may end the prayer after one rak'ah or make it two rak'at or increase it to three or one hundred or one thousand, and so forth. If he prays a number of [rak'at], without knowing how many, and then ends the prayer his salah will still be valid." There is no difference of opinion on this. The Shaf'iyyah are in agreement with it and there is a text attributed to ash-Shaf'i on this point.

    Al-Baihaqi records with a chain of narrators, that Abu Zharr prayed many rak'at and then concluded his salah. Al-Ahnaf ibn Qais asked him: "Do you know if you finished on an odd or an even number?" He replied: "Even if I do not know, Allah knows. I heard my friend Abu al-Qasim say: 'No slave makes a sajdah to Allah without Allah raising him a degree and wiping out one of his sins due to it."' This is related by ad-Darimi in his Musnad with a sahih chain, but it should be noted that there is a difference of opinion over the integrity of one of its narrators.

    The specific nawafil prayers are referred to as al-sunan ar-ratibah, or the sunnah prayers that have a specific order, number, and so on. These include the sunnah prayers of fajr, zuhr, 'asr, maghrib, and 'isha.

    Volume 2, Page 4: The Two rak'at of Fajr
    There are a number of hadith that state the virtues of observing the sunnah prayer at dawn time. For example: 'Aishah relates that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said about the two rak'at before the fajr "They are dearer to me than the whole world." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and at-Tirmizhi. Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "Do not leave the two rak'at of the fajr, even if you are being attacked by a cavalry." This is confirmed by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqi, and at-Tahawi. The message of the hadith is that one should not leave the two rak'at of the fajr no matter what the excuse, even while under enemy attack or under most trying conditions. 'Aishah says: "The Messenger of Allah was not so particular about observing any supererogatory prayer as he was in observing the two rak'at before salatul fajr." This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, and Abu Dawud. She also reports that the Prophet said: "The two rak'at of the fajr are better than this world and all it contains." This is reported by Ahmad, Muslim, at-Tirmizhi, and an-Nasa'i. Ahmad and Muslim also record that she said: "I have never seen him [the Prophet] more in haste to do a good deed than he was to perform the two rak'at before the morning [prayer]."

    Volume 2, Page 4a: To Make Them Quickly
    It is well-known that the Prophet would make a very short recital in the two rak'at before the dawn. Hafsah reports: "The Prophet would pray the two rak'at of fajr before the dawn in my house and he would make it very quick." Naf'i states: "Abdullah [Ibn 'Umar] would also make it very quickly." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim. 'Aishah narrates: "The Prophet would pray the two rak'at before the dawn prayer in my house so quickly that I wondered if he had recited the Fatihah in them or not." This is related by Ahmad and others. She also said: "When the Prophet prayed the two rak'at before the dawn prayer I estimated the time that he took in recital was like what it takes to recite al-Fatihah. This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, al-Baihaqi, Malik, and at-Tahawi. It is preferred to recite what has been related from the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam: 'Aishah reports that the Prophet would silently recite the following in the two rak'at before salatul fajr

    "Say: O disbelievers," and "Say: He is Allah, the One."

    This is related by Ahmad and at-Tahawi. He would recite them after al-Fatihah as there is no prayer without the recital of al-Fatihah, as we have already discussed. She also reports that the Prophet said: "These are the two most blessed surahs," and he would recite them in the two rak'at before salatul fajr. This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Jabir relates that a man stood to pray the two rak'at before the dawn prayer and recited "Say: O disbelievers!" in the first rak'ah until he finished the surah. The Prophet said: "That slave knows his Lord." In the second rak'ah he recited: "Say: He is Allah, the One"...to the end of the surah. The Prophet said: "That slave (of Allah) believes in his Lord." Talhah said: "I love to recite these two surahs in these two rak'at." This is related by Ibn Hayyan and at-Tabarani. Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would recite the following in the two rak'at before the dawn prayer: "Say: We believe in Allah and what has been revealed to us,"' and from surah al-Imran, 'Come to common terms as between us and you.' This is related by Muslim.

    Volume 2, Page 5: First rak'ah of fajr
    In the first rak'ah, after al-Fatiha, he would recite the verse: "Say: We believe in Allah, and the revealation given to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob and the tribes, and [in what] was given to Moses and Jesus, and what was given to the Prophets, from their Lord and we do not differentiate between any of them. And we are Muslims."

    Volume 2, Page 5a: Second rak'ah of fajr
    In the second rak'ah he would recite: "Say: O People of the Book, come to a statement that is common between us and you; that we shall not worship any save Allah and we shall not associate any partners with Him and we shall not take others as Lords besides Allah. And if they turn away then say: Bear witness that we are they who have surrendered unto Him."

    He also reports, in a version recorded by Abu Dawud, that in the first rak'ah the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would recite: "Say: We believe in Allah..."

    In the second rak'ah he would recite: "But when Jesus became conscious of their disbelief, he cried: 'Who will be my helpers in the cause of Allah?' The disciples said: 'We will be Allah's helpers. . . ' "

    From the report of 'Aishah, mentioned earlier, it is concluded that it is permissible just to recite al-Fatihah in each rak'ah.

    Volume 2, Page 6: Supplication after finishing the two sunnah rak'at before the fajr prayer
    An-Nawawi says in al-Azhkar. "It is related in the book of Ibn as-Sanni from Abu al-Malih (whose name was 'Aamr ibn Usamah) on the authority of his father that his father had prayed the two rak'at of the dawn [before salatul fajr] and the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam was praying the two rak'at close to him, and he heard the Prophet say, while sitting:

    'O Allah, Lord of Jibrail, Israfeel, Mikail, and Muhammad, the Prophet, I seek refuge in Thee from the Fire,'"...three times.

    He also records from Anas that the Prophet said: "Whoever says, on Friday morning before the salatul fajr,

    'I seek the forgiveness of Allah, there is no other god except Him, the Living, the Sustaining, and I repent unto him,' three times, Allah will forgive his sins even if they were as abundant as the foam on the sea."

    Volume 2, Page 6a: Lying down after the two sunnah rak'at of fajr
    'Aishah says: "After the Prophet had prayed the two [sunnah] rak'at of the fajr, he would lie down on his right side." This is related by the group. They also record that she reported: "After the Messenger of Allah had prayed the two [sunnah] rak'at of the fajr, he would lie down if I was asleep or would talk to me if I was awake."

    There is quite a difference of opinion over this point. Apparently, it is preferred for one to do so if one prays these sunnah rak'at in one's house and not in the mosque. Ibn Hajar says in Fath al-Bari: "Some of the early scholars were of the opinion that it is preferred to do so if one prays in one's house rather than in the mosque." This has been recorded from Ibn 'Umar. Some of our scholars reinforce this argument by stating that there is no evidence that the Prophet ever did so in the mosque. It has also been authentically recorded from Ibn 'Umar that "he would throw pebbles at anyone who did so in the mosque," and this was related by Ibn Abi Shaibah. Imam Ahmad was asked about it and he said: "I do not do it but if a person does it, it is good."

    Volume 2, Page 7: Belated performance of sunnah rak'at of fajr
    Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever fails to pray the two [sunnah] rak'at of the fajr until the sun rises, [he should then] pray them." This is related by al-Baihaqi. About its chain an-Nawawi says it is good.

    Qais ibn 'Umar relates that he went to the dawn prayer and found the Prophet praying fajr. Although Qais had not prayed the sunnah prayer, he joined the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and prayed with him. When he had finished salatul fajr, he prayed the two rak'at (sunnah) prayer. The Messenger of Allah passed by him and inquired: "What is this prayer?" Qais then informed him of all that had happened. The Prophet kept silent and did not say anything. This is related by Ahmad, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hibban, at-Tirmizhi, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah. Al-'Iraqi says its chain is hasan.

    Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim relate from 'Imran ibn Hussain that, during a journey, the Prophet slept past the time of salatul fajr and when he woke he waited for the sun to rise a little and then he ordered the mu'zhzhin to make the azhan. Then, the Prophet prayed the fajr sunnah, after which he ordered the iqamah to be made and prayed salatul fajr. It is apparent from this hadith that one is to make up the sunnah prayer before or after the sun rises, regardless of whether only sunnah prayer is missed or both sunnah and fard are missed, and whether there is a valid excuse or not. It may be made up by itself or with the obligatory dawn prayer.

    Volume 2, Page 7a: The Sunnah Prayer Of Zuhr
    It has been related that the sunnah rak'at at zuhr are four, six, or eight.

    Volume 2, Page 7b: Reports concerning four rak'at
    Ibn 'Umar said: "We observed and preserved from the Prophet ten rak'at [of sunnah prayers]: two before zuhr and two after it, two after maghrib in his house, two after 'isha in his house and two rak'at before the fajr." This is related by al-Bukhari.

    Al-Mughirah ibn Sulaiman reports that he heard Ibn 'Umar say: "The Prophet never left the two rak'at before zuhr and two rak'at after it, two rak'at after maghrib, two rak'a~ after 'isha and two rak'at before fajr." This is related by Ahmad with a good chain.

    Volume 2, Page 8: Reports concerning six rak'at
    'Abdullah ibn Shaqiq said: "I asked 'Aishah about the prayer of the Prophet and she said: 'He would pray four rak'at before zuhr and two after it."' This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and others.

    Umm Habibah bint Abu Sufyan reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever prays twelve rak'at during the day and night will have a house built for him in paradise: four rak'at before zuhr and two after it, two rak'at after maghrib, two rak'at after 'isha, and two rak'at before fajr." This is related by at-Tirmizhi who called it hasan sahih. Muslim reports it briefly.

    Volume 2, Page 8a: Reports concerning eight rak'at
    Umm Habibah reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever prays four rak'at before zuhr and four after it, Allah will forbid that his flesh be in the fire." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi who calls it sahih.

    It is related that Abu Ayyub al-Ansari would pray four rak'at before zuhr. The people said to him: "You made that prayer continue too long!" He said: "I saw the Messenger of Allah doing so. I asked him about it and he said: 'It is a time in which the doors of the heavens are opened and I wish that my good deeds be raised (to heaven) during it.'" This is related by Ahmad with a good chain.

    Volume 2, Page 8b: The merits of four rak'at before zuhr
    'Aishah said: "The Prophet never left praying four rak'at before zuhr and two rak'at before fajr under any circumstances." This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari. It is also related from her that during those four rak'at, he would prolong the qiyam [the portion in which one recites the Qur'an] and perfect the ruku' and sujud therein.

    There is no contradiction between the hadith of Ibn 'Umar, which states that the Prophet prayed two rak'at before zuhr, and other hadith which state that the Prophet prayed four rak'at before zuhr. Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari: "It is better to take them as describing different circumstances, sometimes he prayed two rak'at and sometimes he prayed four rak'at. Some say that it may be construed that if he prayed them in the mos que , he prayed only two rak'at, and when he prayed in his house, he prayed four rak'at. On the other hand, it could imply that he prayed two rak'at in his house and then went to the mosque and prayed two rak'at there also. Ibn 'Umar only saw what he prayed in the mosque and not what he prayed in his house, while 'Aishah was aware of both of them. The first interpretation is strengthened by what Ahmad and Abu Dawud recorded from 'Aishah, namely, that the Prophet prayed four rak'at in his house before zuhr and then he went to the mosque."

    Abu Ja'far at-Tabari says: "Most of the time he prayed four rak'at and occasionally he prayed two rak'at."

    If one prays four rak'at before or after the noon prayers, it is preferred to pray them in two sets consisting of two rak'at each, although it is permissible to make them together with only one taslim at the end of the four rak'at, as the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The prayers of the night and day are (sets of) two [rak'at]." This was related by Abu Dawud with a sahih chain.

    Volume 2, Page 9: Making up the missed sunnah of zuhr
    'Aishah reports that if the Prophet missed the four rak'at before zuhr, he would pray them afterward. This is related by at-Tirmizhi who calls it hasan ghareeb. Ibn Majah records that she said: "If the Prophet missed the four rak'at before zuhr, he would pray them following the two rak'at after zuhr."

    The preceding is concerned with making up the sunnah prayers that one is to pray before zuhr. Concerning making up the two rak'at after zuhr, we have the following reports as recorded by Ahmad.

    Umm Salamah says: "The Prophet prayed zuhr and then he received some wealth and he sat to distribute it [and continued to do so] until the mu'azhzhin made the azhan for 'asr. He prayed 'asr and came to me, as it was my day, and he prayed two quick rak'at. I said: 'What are those two rak'at, O Messenger of Allah? Have you been ordered to perform them?' He said: 'No, they are the two rak'at that I perform after zuhr but I was busy distributing this wealth until the azhan was made for 'asr and I hated to miss them.'" This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and by Abu Dawud in somewhat different wording.

    Volume 2, Page 9a: The sunnah of maghrib
    It is sunnah to pray two rak'at after maghrib. Earlier we mentioned that Ibn 'Umar narrated that the Prophet would not miss them. As to their content, it is preferred to recite, after al-Fatihah: "Say: O Disbelievers," and "Say: He is Allah, the One," in the sunnah prayer after salatul maghrib.

    Ibn Mas'ud says: "I cannot count how many times I heard the Messenger of Allah recite, in the two rak'at after maghrib and in the two rak'at before fajr 'Say: O disbelievers,' and 'Say: He is Allah, the One.'" This is related by Ibn Majah and at-Tirmizhi. The later grades it hasan.

    It is preferred to pray this sunnah prayer in one's house. Mahmud ibn Labid reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed maghrib with the tribe of 'Abd al-Ashhal. After he made the taslim, he told them: "Perform these two rak'at in your houses." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, and an-Nasa'i. We have already mentioned that the Prophet prayed them in his house.

    Volume 2, Page 10: The sunnah of 'Isha
    We have already mentioned the hadith which record that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed two rak'at after 'isha.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  8. #8
    الصورة الرمزية فداء الرسول
    فداء الرسول غير متواجد حالياً رحمك الله يا سمية
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Jun 2008
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    11,681
    الدين
    الإسلام
    الجنس
    أنثى
    آخر نشاط
    30-11-2017
    على الساعة
    11:44 AM

    افتراضي

    Funeral Prayers

    Volume 4, Page 37a: Its Legal Status
    There is a consensus among all the great Muslim jurists that a funeral prayer for a deceased person is a collective obligation or fard kifayah. The Prophet, peace be upon him, commanded the Muslims to offer it, and they have been doing so ever since they received this commandment.

    Abu Hurairah reported that when the Prophet, peace be upon him, was informed of the death of a person, he used to ask: Does he owe anything to anyone?' If the answer was in the affirmative, he would then ask: 'Has he (the deceased) left anything to settle his debt?' If he had left something to settle his debt, he would offer the funeral prayer for him. Otherwise, he would say to the Muslims: 'Offer a (funeral) prayer for your brother"' (Bukhari and Muslim).

    Volume 4, Page 37b: Reward for Offering Funeral Prayer
    Abu Hurairah narrates that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Whoever follows a funeral procession and offers the prayer for the deceased, will get one kerat 68 of reward. And whoever follows it and remains with it until the body is buried, will get two kerats of reward, the least of which is equal in weight to 'Mount Uhud' or he said 'one of them is like Uhud.' The narrator is not certain as to the exact words used by the Prophet, peace be upon him. This is reported by the group.

    Khabbab reported that he asked "O 'Abdullah Ibn 'Umar! Did you hear what Abu Hurairah says? He says that he heard Allah's Messenger, saying. 'Whoever leaves his house to attend a funeral prayer, offers funeral prayer, and then follows the funeral procession until the body is buried will receive two kerats of reward, each of which is like the mountain of Uhud. And whoever offers the funeral prayer and then leaves for home (This proves that a person does not need permission of the family of the deceased to leave after attending the funeral) will get a reward like the mountain of Uhud" (Muslim). Ibn 'Umar sent Khabbab to 'Aishah asking her about the statement of Abu Hurairah. She said, "Abu Hurairah has told the truth." When Ibn ' Umar was informed about this he said, "We have indeed lost many a kerat."

    Volume 4, Page 38: Requisite Conditions for Funeral Prayer
    The prerequisites for a funeral prayer are the same as for the obligatory prayers. Anyone intending to offer funeral prayer must be in a state of purity, be free from all minor and major impurities, must cover his or her "awrah," and stand facing the direction of the Ka'bah.

    Malik reported from Nafi' that Abdullah Ibn 'Umar used to say: "One should not offer a funeral prayer unless he is in a state of purity."

    The funeral prayer differs from the prescribed prayers in that there is no fixed time for offering it. It may be offered at any time, including the times when regular prayers may not be offered. This is the opinion of the Hanafi and Shafi'i schools. Ahmad, Ibn Al-Mubarak, and Ishaq dislike offering a funeral prayer at sunrise, at noon when the sun is at its zenith, and at dusk when the sun is about to set, except in cases when it is feared that if delayed, the body might decompose.

    Volume 4, Page 38a: Main Requirements of the Funeral Prayer
    Certain requirements must be met for a valid funeral prayer, and failure to meet any of these may invalidate the prayer. These requirements are given below:

    -1- Intention

    The real intention is what is in the heart, and its verbal utterance is not legally required. Allah says in the Qur'an: "And they have been commanded no more than this: To worship Allah, offering Him sincere devotion, being true in (faith)." Qur'an 98.5 And the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Verily, all deeds (of a person) will be judged in the light of the intentions behind them, and every person will attain what he intends."

    -2- Standing Prayer

    The majority of scholars regard it as an essential condition for a valid funeral prayer to stand while praying if one is physically able to do so. A funeral prayer offered while sitting or riding, without any valid excuse, is not valid.

    It is reported in Al-Mughni "It is not permissible for one to offer a funeral prayer while riding, as in this case an essential condition - standing while praying - would be missing." This is the opinion of Abu Hanifah, Ash-Shafi'i, and Abu Thaur. There is no difference on this point. It is preferable to put one's hands together, placing the right on the left, as is done in the prescribed regular prayer. Some disagree, but in our view it is better and preferable.

    -3- Loud Recitation of Four Takbirs

    This is based on a report transmitted by both Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Jabir who said: "Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him, offered funeral prayers for Najashi (Negus) and said four takbirs. (That is, he said Allahu akbar four times)

    Tirmizhi said: Most of the learned Companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them) and others followed and acted in accordance with the above example of the Prophet. They hold that four takbirs should be said in a funeral prayer. Among these scholars are Sufyan, Malik, Ibn Al-Mubarak, Ash-Shafi'i, Ahmad, and Ishaq.

    Volume 4, Page 39: Raising of One's Hands During the Takbirs
    It is sunnah to raise one's hands while uttering the first takbir. There is nothing related from the Prophet, peace be upon him, to show that he raised his hands in funeral prayer except for the first takbir. Ash-Shawkani mentions various opinions about takbirs and the arguments for them and says: "In short nothing except the first takhir is reported from the Prophet, peace be upon him. The acts and sayings of the Companions of the Prophet (may Allah bless them) by themselves do not constitute a conclusive argument. Therefore one should raise one's hands only on saying the first lakhir. For the rest of the (three) takbirs no such instruction is available, except when one changes from one posture to another as in the regular prayer. There is no such change of posture required in the funeral prayer, so there is no need for raising hands in other than the first "takbir".

    Volume 4, Page 39a: Reciting "Al-Fatihah" and Salutations to the Prophet
    (Abu Hanifah and Malik regard these as two essential requisites of funeral prayer)

    Ash-Shafi'i has in his Musnad narrated from Abu Umamah ibn Sahl that one of the Companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them) told him that when offering a (funeral) prayer it is sunnah for the imam to say aloud Allahu Akbar (first opening takbir), then to recite al-Fatihah silently in his heart, and then send salutations to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and then pray for forgiveness of the deceased. Nothing else is to be recited in between takbirs. Finally, he should end his prayer with salutations in his heart. (According to the majority of scholars, reciting al-fatihah, sending blessings upon the Prophet, supplicating for the deceased, and salutations are sunnah. In the case of the imam, however, it is sunnah to utter the takbir and salutations aloud in order to communicate with those praying with him) The author of Al-Fath says: "The chain of narrators of this hadith is sound."

    Bukhari reported from Talha ibn Abdullah that he said: "I offered a funeral prayer that was led by Ibn Abbas. He recited Al-Fatihah and said: 'This is a sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him."' Tirmizhi also reported this and remarked that this has been the practice of some of the learned among the Companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them). Others prefer to recite Al-Fatihah after the first takbir. This is the opinion of Ash-Shafi'i, Ahmad, and Ishaq. Some others hold that Al-Fatihah is not to be recited in a funeral prayer. The funeral prayer should consist of praise for Allah (thana), blessings (salawat) upon the Prophet, peace be upon him, and a prayer (du'a) for forgiveness of the deceased. This is the opinion of Al-Thawri and other scholars of Kufah. Those who hold the recitation of al-Fatihah in a funeral prayer obligatory argue that the Prophet, peace be upon him, called it a prayer (salat) when he said: "Offer prayer (sallu) for your deceased friend." And as no prayer can be complete without al-Fatihah, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, also told us "no prayer is valid unless al-Fatihall is recited in it."

    Volume 4, Page 40: Invoking Blessings Upon Allah's Prophet
    Prayer for peace and blessings upon the Prophet, peace be upon him, may be said in any form. If someone were to say: "O Allah, bless Muhammad," it should suffice. It is better, however, to use the prayers transmitted through tradition, like the following:: Extravagance in Shrouding is Disliked

    (Allahumma Salli 'ala-Muhammad wa'ala ali Muhammad kama sallayta 'ala Ibrahim wa 'ala ali Ibrahim wa barik 'ala Muhammad wa 'ala ali Muhammad kama barakta' ala Ibrahim wa 'ala ali Ibrahim innaka hamidun Majid)." "O Allah! Grant peace to Muhammad and his family as you did to Ibrahim and his family. O Allah! Bless Muhammad and his family as you blessed Ibrahim and his family. Truly You are Most Glorious and Most Praiseworthy.'

    This should be said after the second takbir, as is obvious, though there is nothing specifically reported in this regard as to its precise place in the funeral prayer.

    Volume 4, Page 40a: Supplication for the Deceased
    This is a basic element of funeral prayer according to the consensus of juristic opinion. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "When you offer a funeral prayer for a deceased person, pray sincerely for him to Allah." This is reported by Abu Daw'ud, Al-Baihaqi and Ibn Hibban, who said it is a sound hadith.

    For this purpose any supplication, even a brief one, may be used. It is recommended, however, to use one of the following supplications reported from the Prophet, peace be upon him:

    -1- Abu Hurairah said: The Prophet, peace be upon him, prayed in one of the funeral prayers: Allahumma anta Rubbuha wa ant khalaqtaha wa anta razaqtaha wa ant hadaytaha lil lslam wa anta qabadata ruha-ha wa anta alamu bisirriha wa 'alaniyatiha. Ji'nashuf'ala-hafaghfir laha zanbaha "Oh Allah ! You are her Sustainer, You are her Creator, You provided her with sustenance, guided her to Islam, caused her to die, and You best know her secret and public life. We plead to You on her behalf to forgive her sins."

    -2- Wa'ilah ibn al-Asqa reported: "The Prophet, peace be upon him, led us in a funeral prayer for a man from among the Muslims. I heard him saying: Allahumma inna fulana ibna fulan fi zhimatika wa habla jawaraka, fa-qihu min fitnatal qabri wa azhabin nar wa anta ahlal wafa' wal haq, allahumma faghfirlahu war-rahmhufa innaka antal ghafurur Raheem. 'O Allah! So-and-so, son of so-and-so, is under Your protection and mercy, so protect him from the trial of the grave and the torture of Hell Fire. You are the guardian of the truthful and the faithful. OAllah! Forgive him and be merciful to him, as You are the Most Merciful, Most Forgiving'." Narrated by Ahmad and Abu Daw'ud.

    -3- ' Awf ibn Malik reported: "I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, while offering a funeral prayer, say: Allahumma-ghfir lahu war-rhamhu wa'fu anhu wa 'afahu wa akrim nuzulahu wa wassi' mudkhalahu waghsilhu bi-ma' ind wa thalj wa barad wa naqi minal khataya kama yunaqi athaubu danis minad danas wa abdilhu daran khairan min darihi wa ahlan khairan min ahlihi wa zaujan khairan min zaujihi wa qih fitnatal qabr wa azhaban nar. 'O Allah! Forgive him, have mercy on him, pardon him, heal him, be generous to him, cause his entrance to be wide and comfortable, wash him with the most pure and clean water, and purify him from sins as a white garment is washed clean of dirt. Give him in exchange a home better than his home (on earth) and a family better than his family, and a wife better than his wife, and protect him from the trial of the grave and the torture of Hell Fire'." This is narrated by Muslim.

    -4- It is reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet, peace be upon him, offered a funeral prayer and said: Allahummaghfir lihayatina wa mayatina wa saghirina wa kahirina wa zhakirina wa unthana. Allahumma man ahyatahu minna fa-ahyahu 'alal Islam wa man tawafthu minna fa-tawafthu 'ala iman. Allahumma la tahrimna ajrahu wa la tudalana ba'dahu. "O Allah! Forgive our living, our dead, our young, our old, our males and our females, those of us who are present, and those who are absent. O Allah! Whomsoever among us You keep to live, make him to live in Islam, and whomsoever You cause to die, let him die in faith. O Allah! Do not deprive us of our reward for (supplicating for) him, and cause us not to go astray after him." This is narrated by Ahmad and the other Sunan books. (Authentic canonical collections of hadith)

    If the deceased is a child, then it is desirable to pray: Allahumma 'ij'alhu lana salafan wa zhukhran. "O Allah! Make him our forerunner and make him (a means of) reward for us and a treasure." Bukhari and Al-Baihaqi report it from Al-Hasan. Nawawi said: "If the deceased is a child, a boy or a girl, one should say what is reported in the hadith, namely, "O Allah! Forgive our living, our dead, . . . ," and add the words: Allahumma 'ij'alhu faratan li-abwaihi wa salafan wa zhukhran wa izatan wa i'tibaran wa shafi'an wa thaqil bihi mawazlnahumma wa afrlghas sabra 'ala qulubihima wa la taftinhumma ba'dahu wa la tuharim-humma ajrahu. "O Allah, make him (or her) for hisparents a forerunner, a treasure and an admonition, an honor, an intercessor, and cause him (or her) to make their scales of good deeds heavier (on the Day of Judgement). O Allah! Grant them patience, and O Allah! Do not put them to trial after him (or her) nor deprive them of his (or her) reward."

    Volume 4, Page 43: Timing of Supplications
    Ash-Shawkani said: There are no fixed times for these prayers. One may use any of these after all the takbirs, or after the first or second or third takbir, or divide it between each two takbirs, or say any of these prayers in between each two takbirs in the light of the practice of the Prophet, peace be upon him. It is also said that supplications should be done in the words given in the above reported hadith for both male or female dead persons.

    Volume 4, Page 43a: Supplications after the fourth takbir
    It is preferred to supplicate for the deceased after the fourth takbir, even though the supplicant rnay have done so after the third takbir. This is based on a narration by Ahmad on the authority of ' Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa who said that when his daughter died, at his funeral prayer for her he made four takbirs. After the fourth takbir, he stood supplicating for as much as he did in between the other takbirs. Then he said: "The Prophet, peace be upon him, used to do the same in a funeral prayer."

    Ash-Shafi'i said: "After the fourth takbir one may say, Allahumma la tuharimna ajrahu wa la taftinna ba'dahu. 'O Allah! Do not deprive us of reward for (supplicating for) him/her, nor put us to trial after him (or her)'."

    Ibn Abu Hurairah said: "After the fourth takbir the elders used to say: Allahumma Rabbana atina fi ad-Dunya hasanatan wafi al-Akhirati hasanatan wa qina 'azhab an-Nar. 'O Allah! Grant us good in this life and good in the life to come, and save us from the torment of Hell Fire."

    Volume 4, Page 43b: Salutations
    All jurists with the exception of Abu Hanifah are in agreement that the two salutations (saying assalamu 'alaikum wa rahmatullah), one to the right and the other to the left, are obligatory. Abu Hanifah, however is of the view that they are required, but not obligatory as a condition. Those who hold it to be obligatory argue that the funeral prayer is a prayer (salah), and as such it cannot be terminated except by salutations (to the right and left).

    Ibn Mas'ud said: "Salutations at the end of a funeral prayer are similar to those said at the end of any formal prayer. The minimum that would suffice in this respect is to say: "As-Salamu 'Alaikum" or "salamun 'alaikum" (the peace be with you or peace be with you)."

    Ahmad is of the opinion that one salutation - the salutation to the right - is sunnah, and there is no harm if one says it while looking straight ahead. This is based on the practice of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and his Companions who ended their funeral prayer with one salutation. No difference of opinion among them is on record on this issue.

    Ash-Shafi'i holds that two salutations, turning one's face first to the right and then to the left, are commendable. Ibn Hazm said: "The second salutation is remembrance of Allah, and an act of virtue."

    Volume 4, Page 44: Summary for Funeral Prayer
    -1- Make sure that you meet all the requirements for a formal prayer (salah);

    -2- Stand up with the intention of supplicating for the deceased;

    -3- Raise both hands with a takbir (takbirat al ihram);

    -4- Fold your right hand over your left hand;

    -5- Commence the funeral prayer with the (silent) recitation of Al-Fatihah.

    -6- After Al-Fatihah say another takbir,

    -7- Offer salutations to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and end with a takbir.

    -8- Now supplicate for the deceased, and end with a takbir.

    -9- Make a general supplication.

    -10- End the prayer with salutations (to the right and to the left side).

    Volume 4, Page 44a: Imam's Position in Funeral Prayer for a Male or a Female
    It is sunnah for the imam to stand opposite the head of a male body, and opposite the middle of a female body. This is based on a hadith reported from Anas that he offered a funeral prayer for a male standing opposite his head. As soon as the body of the man was removed, a female body was brought in for funeral prayer. He led the prayer standing opposite the middle of her body. Thereupon he was asked, "Did the Prophet, peace be upon him, stand where you stood in the cases of a man and a woman?" He answered: "Yes." This is narrated by Ahmad, Abu Daw'ud, Ibn Majah and Tirmizhi, who regards it as a sound hadith. Al-Tahawi said: This is the most preferred position, because it is supported by other reports from Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him.

    Volume 4, Page 44b: Funeral Prayer for a Number of Dead Persons
    If there are a number of bodies, including both male and female, they should be placed in separate rows, between the imam and the direction of the Ka'abah, with the best among them nearer to the imam, and a single funeral prayer may be offered for all of them.

    If the deceased include both male and female, a separate prayer for each may be offered. But it is also permissible to offer one prayer for all of them at once. In such a case the male should be placed immediately before the Imam and then the female in the direction of the Qiblah.

    It is reported by Nafi' from Ibn 'Umar that he offered a funeral prayer for nine of the deceased, males and females. He placed the males closest to the imam and then the females in the direction of the Qiblah. He placed all of them in one row. The funeral of Umm Kulthum, daughter of 'Ali and the wife of 'Umar, and her son called Zaid, was led by Sa'id ibn al-'As, and among the people attending this funeral were Ibn Abbas, Abu Hurairah, Abu Sa'id and Abu Qatadah. The little boy was placed before the imam. A man said: "I do not like this arrangement, and looked towards Ibn 'Abbas, Abu Hurairah, Abu Sa'id and Abu Qatadah, and said to them: "What is this?" They replied: "This is the sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him,. This was narrated by Nasa'i and Al-Baihaqi, and Al-Hafiz says its chain of authorities is sound.

    Another hadith says that if a funeral prayer is offered for a child together with a woman, the boy should be placed nearer the imam and the woman next to it in the direction of the Qiblah. And if there are men, women and children, then the children should be placed next to the men.

    Volume 4, Page 45: Three Rows for a Funeral Prayer are Commended
    It is recommended that the people should make three rows ( The minimum number of people for a row is two persons) while offering a funeral prayer, and that these rows should be straight. This is based on a report from Malik ibn Habairah who said: "The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: 'Every believer who dies is forgiven by Allah if a group of Muslims comprising three rows prays for him'." That is why, if there were not many people attending a funeral prayer, Malik ibn Habayrah would make them stand in three rows. This is narrated by Ahmad, Abu Daw'ud, Ibn Majah, Tirmizhi, and Al-Hakim, who considers it a sound hadith.

    Ahmad said: "If the number of people present at the funeral prayer is very small I would still prefer that they make three rows." He was asked: "What if there are only four people present?" He replied: "They may make two rows, with two persons in each line." He did not like three rows with each of them consisting of only one person.

    Volume 4, Page 45a: A Larger Number is Much Preferred
    A larger gathering of people for the funeral prayer is preferable, as is reported by 'Aishah who said: "The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, 'If a Muslim dies and his funeral prayer is attended by a group of a hundred Muslims, and they all sincerely pray for his forgiveness, he is forgiven'." This is narrated by Ahmad, Muslim, and Tirmizhi.

    Ibn 'Abbas reported: "I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, saying: 'If a Muslim dies and a group of forty people, who do not associate any one with Allah, pray for him, their prayer is accepted and he is forgiven' ." This has been narrated by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Daw'ud.

    Volume 4, Page 46: Arriving Late for Funeral Prayer
    A person who misses a part of a funeral prayer should make up the missed takbirs--making them consecutively. This is preferable, but if he cannot do it there is no harm. Ibn 'Umar, Al-Hasan, Ayyub Al-Sukhtiani, and Al-Awza'i are of the opinion that such a person is not required to repeat the missed takbirs, and he should finish his prayer with the salutations led by the imam.

    Ahmad said: "If he cannot make the missed takbirs, there is no harm." The author of Al-Mughni prefers this opinion and remarks: "It is supported by a saying of Ibn ' Umar and there is nothing on record from the Companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them) to contradict it. It is reported by 'Aishah that she said to the Prophet, peace be upon him, "O Allah's Messenger, sometimes when I offer a funeral prayer, I cannot hear some of the takbirs by the imam?" He replied: "Say the takbir that you hear and do not worry about the ones that you miss. You do not have to repeat these later on." This statement is quite explicit. These are consecutive--uninterrupted--takbirs and, if missed, they need not be repeated like the ones in the 'Eid prayer.

    Volume 4, Page 46a: Persons for Whom Funeral Prayer is to be Offered
    There is a consensus among the jurists that funeral prayer is offered for all Muslims, male or female, and young or old. Ibn Al-Munzhir said: "The scholars are in agreement that if it is established that an infant is born alive, that is, by his crying, sneezing, or moving etc., then, if it dies, a funeral prayer should be offered for it."

    Al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah reports that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "One may ride one's mount behind the funeral, and walk on foot a little ahead of it or to its right or left. A funeral prayer should be offered for an aborted baby, seeking for his parents the mercy and forgiveness of Allah." This is reported by Ahmad and Abu Daw'ud. Another narration reads: "A person on foot may walk behind a funeral, or ahead of it, or on its left side or right side or still nearer to it." According to another report, "A rider should ride behind the funeral, whereas one on foot may walk anywhere. And a funeral prayer should be offered for a child." This is reported by Ahmad, Nasa'i, and Tirmizhi, who consider it a sound hadith.

    Volume 4, Page 46b: Funeral Prayer for an Aborted Child
    A miscarried fetus, less than four months old, may not be washed, nor may a funeral prayer be offered for it. It should be wrapped in a piece of cloth and buried. The majority of jurists are in agreement on this point.

    On the other hand, if a miscarried fetus is four months old or older, and the existence of life in it is established, then there is a consensus that it should be washed and a funeral prayer offered for it. But if its life is not established by its movements or other evidence, then according to Malik, Al-Awza'i, AlHasan, and the Hanafi school, funeral prayer may not be offered for it. They base their opinion on a hadith transmitted by Tirmizhi, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and Al-Baihaqi on the authority of Jabir that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "If in a miscarried fetus life is established by its movements, a funeral prayer should be offered for it, and it is entitled to its share of inheritance." According to this hadith offering a funeral prayer for a miscarried fetus is conditioned upon proof of its life evident in signs of life, such as its movement, etc.

    Ahmad, Sa' id, Ibn Sirin, and Ishaq are of the opinion that in the light of the above hadith, a miscarried fetus may be washed and a funeral prayer may be offered for it. The words used in this hadith are "a funeral prayer should be offered for a miscarried fetus" because it has a soul and is alive. The Prophet, peace be upon him, informed us that a fetus receives a soul when it is four months old. Others refute this argument with the assertion that there is confusion in the chain of narrators of this hadith, and besides, a stronger hadith contradicts it. But this alone does not constitute a valid argument.

    Volume 4, Page 47: Funeral Prayer for a Martyr
    A martyr is one who is killed in a battlefield fighting the enemies of Islam. All the hadith on this subject are quite explicit that no funeral prayer may be offered for a martyr.

    Bukhari has narrated from Jabir that the Prophet, peace be upon him, ordered that the martyrs of the battle of Uhud be buried while they were still bleeding. He neither washed them nor offered a funeral prayer for them.

    Ahmad, Ahu Daw 'ud and Tirmizhi reported that Anas said: "The martyrs of Uhud were not washed. They were buried with their wounds unwashed, and no funeral prayer was offered for them."

    There are, however, some hadith that are equally explicit and state that a funeral prayer should be offered for martyrs. Bukhari reported from 'Uqbah ibn 'Amir that one day the Prophet, peace be upon him, went out and offered a funeral prayer for the martyrs of Uhud, eight years after their death, as if he were bidding farewell to both the living and the dead.

    Abu Malik Al-Ghafari reported: "The bodies of the martyrs of Uhud were brought in batches of nine and placed with the body of Hamzah, who served as the tenth. Then the Prophet, peace be upon him, offered a funeral prayer for them. After that the nine bodies were removed leaving Hamzah undisturbed. Then a batch of another nine martyrs was brought and placed beside Hamzah. The Prophet, peace be upon him, offered a funeral prayer for them as well. This way the Prophet offered funeral prayer for all of them. This hadith has been narrated by Al-Baihaqi, who says: "This is the most sound hadith on this subject. It is, however, a mursal hadith. (Mursal: A hadith that rests on a chain of authonties going no further back than the second generation after the Prophet (peace be upon him))

    The difference in the narrations in these various hadith has led jurists to differ on this matter. Some take all of them together, while others prefer some narrations over others. Ibn Hazm holds that either--offering or not offering (funeral prayer for the martyrs)--is permissible. It is alright whether or not a funeral prayer is offered for the martyrs. In one of his statements Ahmad has also expressed a similar view. Ibn al-Qayyim approves of this view and says: "The correct position in this regard is that one is given a choice whether or not to offer a funeral prayer (for a martyr), because there are reports in favor of both positions." This is the opinion also of Ahmad, and he is the proper person to describe the principles of his school. He says: "What is apparent from this is that no funeral prayer was offered for the martyrs of Uhud before burying them. There were seventy people who fell martyrs in that battle, and any funeral prayer for them could not have taken place in secret."

    The hadith reported by Jabir ibn 'Abd Allah that the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not offer funeral prayer for these martyrs is sound and very explicit. Jabir' s father was among those who were killed that day, and he knew what few besides him knew.

    Abu Hanifah, Al-Thawri, Al-Hasan, and Ibn Al-Musayiyaib, however, are inclined to the reports stating that the Prophet, peace be upon him, did offer funeral prayer for the martyrs. They hold that a funeral prayer must be offered for martyrs. However, Malik, Ash-Shafi'i, Ishaq, and, according to one report, Ahmad, prefer the reports that say no funeral prayer is to be offered for martyrs. Ash-Shafi'i in his Kitab al-Umm writes: "All reports received concerning this subject are sound and show that the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not offer funeral prayer for the martyrs of Uhud. Those who report that he offered funeral prayer for them and said seventy takbirs for Hamzah are not correct. Those who turn away from these sound hadith should be ashamed of themselves. The hadith reported by 'Uqbah ibn 'Amir also states that the Prophet, peace be upon him, did so eight years after their death, as if he were bidding them farewell. This does not constitute abrogation of an established practice. (See Al-Umm. by Ash-Shafi'i)

    Volume 4, Page 48: A Person Surviving a Battle but later Dying of Wounds
    If one is wounded in a battle, but survives, remains in a stable condition for a while, and then dies, he should be washed, and a funeral prayer should be offered for him, even though he may be a martyr. The Prophet, peace be upon him, washed Sa'd ibn Mu'azh, and offered a funeral prayer for him, after he died of his hand wounds. Sa'd was taken to the mosque, where he remained for a few days, and then he died as a martyr because of his infected wound.

    If on the other hand, a wounded fighter does not survive in a stable condition, or he just talked or drank water and thereafter died, he is not to be washed or offered a funeral prayer.

    The author of Al-Mughni states: "It is recorded in Futuh Al-Sham, that a man said: "I took some water to give a drink to my cousin if he were still alive after some injuries in the battle. On the way, I passed by Al-Harith ibn Hisham, who was also wounded in the same battle. I wanted to give him a drink, but he noticed that another wounded man was looking toward him for a drink. At this he pointed that I should first give this man a drink. I went toward him to give him a drink, but he also found another man looking to him. So he gestured that I should first give him the drink. Thus they all died. None of them was washed or offered a funeral prayer although they all died after the battle.

    Volume 4, Page 49: Funeral Prayer for a Person Sentenced to Death for a Crime
    Anyone sentenced to death by an Islamic court is to be washed and a funeral prayer should be offered for him. This is based on a report by Bukhari that Jabir said: "A man from the tribe of Aslam came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and confessed to fornication. The Prophet, peace be upon him, tried to avoid him four times, while the man repeated his testimony against himself. Then the Prophet, peace be upon him, asked the man: 'Are you mad?' The man said, 'No.' The Prophet, peace be upon him, asked him, 'Are you married?' He said, 'Yes.' Thereupon the Prophet, peace be upon him, ordered that the man be stoned to death. He was stoned to death at the place where ( 'Eid prayer) used to be offered. When the stones struck the man, he tried to run away, but was overtaken and killed. After his death, the Prophet, peace be upon him, spoke well of him, and offered funeral prayer for him. Ahmad said: "We know of no cases where the Prophet, peace be upon him, refused to offer funeral prayer for any one except in cases of one convicted of embezzlement (of zakat funds) and a person who committed suicide."

    Volume 4, Page 49a: Funeral Prayer for those Guilty of Embezzlement, Suicide, or Some Other Sins
    The majority of Muslim scholars are of the opinion that a funeral prayer may be offered for a person who is convicted of embezzlement of public funds, or commits suicide or some similarly sinful act.

    An-Nawawi said: "Al-Qadi said: 'All Muslim scholars hold that a funeral prayer be offered for all Muslims - those sentenced to death under Islamic law, or stoned to death, or those who committed suicide, or were born out of wedlock. The reports about the Prophet, peace be upon him, not praying for embezzlers and those guilty of suicide may be explained perhaps by considering such refusal to be a form of reprimand to these people. This is similar to his practice of refusing to pray for those who died in debt, though he asked other Muslims to offer the funeral prayer for them'."

    Ibn Hazm said: "Funeral prayer should be offered for all Muslims, whether good or bad, including those sentenced to death and those that die fighting or in revolt. The imam, or any one other than him, may lead the funeral prayers. Likewise funeral prayers should be said for an innovator, provided his innovation does not become blasphemy, and prayer may also be said for one who commits suicide or kills some one else. A funeral prayer may be offered in all such cases even though the deceased might have been the most evil person on the face of the earth, provided he dies as a Muslim. This is based on a hadith from the Prophet, peace be upon him, that has a general bearing. "Offer a funeral prayer for your friend (a fellow Muslim)," he is reported to have said on the death of a Muslim. All Muslims are friends to one another. The Qur'an says: "Verily! The believers are but a single brotherhood" Qur'an 49.10 and "The believers, men and women, are protectors, one of another." Qur'an 9.71

    To prevent others from offering funeral prayers over a Muslim is a most serious thing, for surely a sinful Muslim is more in need of prayers from his Muslim brothers than a pious and saintly person!

    An authentic hadith records that a man died in Khayber, and the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Offer a funeral prayer for your friend. He has stolen something of the war booty." The Muslims searched the deceased's personal effects and found less than two dirham worth of beads in them.

    In another sahih hadith 'Ata reported that a funeral prayer may be offered for an illegitimate child, and his mother, and for those who curse each other, (In cases of Lu'an, for instance, when in the absence of any evidence of a spouse's adultery both the man and wife are required to swear an oath that he/she is telling the truth or face being cursed by Allah if they were lying) as well as the person who is killed in requital, and the person stoned to death, and the person who flees from the battlefield and is put to death for it. ' Ata said: "I will never abstain from offering a funeral prayer for a person who says: 'I bear witness that there is no deity except Allah.' Allah says: 'It is not fitting for the Prophet and those who believe to pray for forgiveness for pagans, even though they be of kin, after it is clear that they are companions of the Fire'.'' Qur'an 9.113

    Another authentic hadith says that Ibrahim An-Nakh'i said: "Our predecessors never eschewed attending a funeral prayer for any Muslim. They offered the funeral prayer for those who had committed suicide, and it is a sunnah to offer funeral prayer for those who are stoned to death." In another sound hadith Qatadah reported: "I do not know of any scholar who refused to offer a funeral prayer for anyone witnessing that 'there is no god but Allah'." Ibn Sirin, according to a sahih hadith, said: "I do not know of any Muslim who considers it a sin to offer a funeral prayer for another Muslim."

    Abu Ghalib reported: "I asked Abu Amamah Al-Bahili: 'What if a man is known to drink liquor. Should a funeral prayer be offered for him? ' He said: 'Yes, for he might [at least] once in his life, while lying down for rest, have said: "There is no deity but Allah," and he might have been forgiven by Allah' ." In a sahih hadith Al-Hasan is reported to have said: "Funeral prayer will be offered for all those who declare 'There is no deity but Allah. ' It will be offered for all Muslims; for it is an act of intercession on behalf of the deceased."
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  9. #9
    الصورة الرمزية فداء الرسول
    فداء الرسول غير متواجد حالياً رحمك الله يا سمية
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Jun 2008
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    11,681
    الدين
    الإسلام
    الجنس
    أنثى
    آخر نشاط
    30-11-2017
    على الساعة
    11:44 AM

    افتراضي

    Funeral Prayers

    Volume 4, Page 37a: Its Legal Status
    There is a consensus among all the great Muslim jurists that a funeral prayer for a deceased person is a collective obligation or fard kifayah. The Prophet, peace be upon him, commanded the Muslims to offer it, and they have been doing so ever since they received this commandment.

    Abu Hurairah reported that when the Prophet, peace be upon him, was informed of the death of a person, he used to ask: Does he owe anything to anyone?' If the answer was in the affirmative, he would then ask: 'Has he (the deceased) left anything to settle his debt?' If he had left something to settle his debt, he would offer the funeral prayer for him. Otherwise, he would say to the Muslims: 'Offer a (funeral) prayer for your brother"' (Bukhari and Muslim).

    Volume 4, Page 37b: Reward for Offering Funeral Prayer
    Abu Hurairah narrates that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Whoever follows a funeral procession and offers the prayer for the deceased, will get one kerat 68 of reward. And whoever follows it and remains with it until the body is buried, will get two kerats of reward, the least of which is equal in weight to 'Mount Uhud' or he said 'one of them is like Uhud.' The narrator is not certain as to the exact words used by the Prophet, peace be upon him. This is reported by the group.

    Khabbab reported that he asked "O 'Abdullah Ibn 'Umar! Did you hear what Abu Hurairah says? He says that he heard Allah's Messenger, saying. 'Whoever leaves his house to attend a funeral prayer, offers funeral prayer, and then follows the funeral procession until the body is buried will receive two kerats of reward, each of which is like the mountain of Uhud. And whoever offers the funeral prayer and then leaves for home (This proves that a person does not need permission of the family of the deceased to leave after attending the funeral) will get a reward like the mountain of Uhud" (Muslim). Ibn 'Umar sent Khabbab to 'Aishah asking her about the statement of Abu Hurairah. She said, "Abu Hurairah has told the truth." When Ibn ' Umar was informed about this he said, "We have indeed lost many a kerat."

    Volume 4, Page 38: Requisite Conditions for Funeral Prayer
    The prerequisites for a funeral prayer are the same as for the obligatory prayers. Anyone intending to offer funeral prayer must be in a state of purity, be free from all minor and major impurities, must cover his or her "awrah," and stand facing the direction of the Ka'bah.

    Malik reported from Nafi' that Abdullah Ibn 'Umar used to say: "One should not offer a funeral prayer unless he is in a state of purity."

    The funeral prayer differs from the prescribed prayers in that there is no fixed time for offering it. It may be offered at any time, including the times when regular prayers may not be offered. This is the opinion of the Hanafi and Shafi'i schools. Ahmad, Ibn Al-Mubarak, and Ishaq dislike offering a funeral prayer at sunrise, at noon when the sun is at its zenith, and at dusk when the sun is about to set, except in cases when it is feared that if delayed, the body might decompose.

    Volume 4, Page 38a: Main Requirements of the Funeral Prayer
    Certain requirements must be met for a valid funeral prayer, and failure to meet any of these may invalidate the prayer. These requirements are given below:

    -1- Intention

    The real intention is what is in the heart, and its verbal utterance is not legally required. Allah says in the Qur'an: "And they have been commanded no more than this: To worship Allah, offering Him sincere devotion, being true in (faith)." Qur'an 98.5 And the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Verily, all deeds (of a person) will be judged in the light of the intentions behind them, and every person will attain what he intends."

    -2- Standing Prayer

    The majority of scholars regard it as an essential condition for a valid funeral prayer to stand while praying if one is physically able to do so. A funeral prayer offered while sitting or riding, without any valid excuse, is not valid.

    It is reported in Al-Mughni "It is not permissible for one to offer a funeral prayer while riding, as in this case an essential condition - standing while praying - would be missing." This is the opinion of Abu Hanifah, Ash-Shafi'i, and Abu Thaur. There is no difference on this point. It is preferable to put one's hands together, placing the right on the left, as is done in the prescribed regular prayer. Some disagree, but in our view it is better and preferable.

    -3- Loud Recitation of Four Takbirs

    This is based on a report transmitted by both Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Jabir who said: "Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him, offered funeral prayers for Najashi (Negus) and said four takbirs. (That is, he said Allahu akbar four times)

    Tirmizhi said: Most of the learned Companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them) and others followed and acted in accordance with the above example of the Prophet. They hold that four takbirs should be said in a funeral prayer. Among these scholars are Sufyan, Malik, Ibn Al-Mubarak, Ash-Shafi'i, Ahmad, and Ishaq.

    Volume 4, Page 39: Raising of One's Hands During the Takbirs
    It is sunnah to raise one's hands while uttering the first takbir. There is nothing related from the Prophet, peace be upon him, to show that he raised his hands in funeral prayer except for the first takbir. Ash-Shawkani mentions various opinions about takbirs and the arguments for them and says: "In short nothing except the first takhir is reported from the Prophet, peace be upon him. The acts and sayings of the Companions of the Prophet (may Allah bless them) by themselves do not constitute a conclusive argument. Therefore one should raise one's hands only on saying the first lakhir. For the rest of the (three) takbirs no such instruction is available, except when one changes from one posture to another as in the regular prayer. There is no such change of posture required in the funeral prayer, so there is no need for raising hands in other than the first "takbir".

    Volume 4, Page 39a: Reciting "Al-Fatihah" and Salutations to the Prophet
    (Abu Hanifah and Malik regard these as two essential requisites of funeral prayer)

    Ash-Shafi'i has in his Musnad narrated from Abu Umamah ibn Sahl that one of the Companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them) told him that when offering a (funeral) prayer it is sunnah for the imam to say aloud Allahu Akbar (first opening takbir), then to recite al-Fatihah silently in his heart, and then send salutations to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and then pray for forgiveness of the deceased. Nothing else is to be recited in between takbirs. Finally, he should end his prayer with salutations in his heart. (According to the majority of scholars, reciting al-fatihah, sending blessings upon the Prophet, supplicating for the deceased, and salutations are sunnah. In the case of the imam, however, it is sunnah to utter the takbir and salutations aloud in order to communicate with those praying with him) The author of Al-Fath says: "The chain of narrators of this hadith is sound."

    Bukhari reported from Talha ibn Abdullah that he said: "I offered a funeral prayer that was led by Ibn Abbas. He recited Al-Fatihah and said: 'This is a sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him."' Tirmizhi also reported this and remarked that this has been the practice of some of the learned among the Companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them). Others prefer to recite Al-Fatihah after the first takbir. This is the opinion of Ash-Shafi'i, Ahmad, and Ishaq. Some others hold that Al-Fatihah is not to be recited in a funeral prayer. The funeral prayer should consist of praise for Allah (thana), blessings (salawat) upon the Prophet, peace be upon him, and a prayer (du'a) for forgiveness of the deceased. This is the opinion of Al-Thawri and other scholars of Kufah. Those who hold the recitation of al-Fatihah in a funeral prayer obligatory argue that the Prophet, peace be upon him, called it a prayer (salat) when he said: "Offer prayer (sallu) for your deceased friend." And as no prayer can be complete without al-Fatihah, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, also told us "no prayer is valid unless al-Fatihall is recited in it."

    Volume 4, Page 40: Invoking Blessings Upon Allah's Prophet
    Prayer for peace and blessings upon the Prophet, peace be upon him, may be said in any form. If someone were to say: "O Allah, bless Muhammad," it should suffice. It is better, however, to use the prayers transmitted through tradition, like the following:: Extravagance in Shrouding is Disliked

    (Allahumma Salli 'ala-Muhammad wa'ala ali Muhammad kama sallayta 'ala Ibrahim wa 'ala ali Ibrahim wa barik 'ala Muhammad wa 'ala ali Muhammad kama barakta' ala Ibrahim wa 'ala ali Ibrahim innaka hamidun Majid)." "O Allah! Grant peace to Muhammad and his family as you did to Ibrahim and his family. O Allah! Bless Muhammad and his family as you blessed Ibrahim and his family. Truly You are Most Glorious and Most Praiseworthy.'

    This should be said after the second takbir, as is obvious, though there is nothing specifically reported in this regard as to its precise place in the funeral prayer.

    Volume 4, Page 40a: Supplication for the Deceased
    This is a basic element of funeral prayer according to the consensus of juristic opinion. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "When you offer a funeral prayer for a deceased person, pray sincerely for him to Allah." This is reported by Abu Daw'ud, Al-Baihaqi and Ibn Hibban, who said it is a sound hadith.

    For this purpose any supplication, even a brief one, may be used. It is recommended, however, to use one of the following supplications reported from the Prophet, peace be upon him:

    -1- Abu Hurairah said: The Prophet, peace be upon him, prayed in one of the funeral prayers: Allahumma anta Rubbuha wa ant khalaqtaha wa anta razaqtaha wa ant hadaytaha lil lslam wa anta qabadata ruha-ha wa anta alamu bisirriha wa 'alaniyatiha. Ji'nashuf'ala-hafaghfir laha zanbaha "Oh Allah ! You are her Sustainer, You are her Creator, You provided her with sustenance, guided her to Islam, caused her to die, and You best know her secret and public life. We plead to You on her behalf to forgive her sins."

    -2- Wa'ilah ibn al-Asqa reported: "The Prophet, peace be upon him, led us in a funeral prayer for a man from among the Muslims. I heard him saying: Allahumma inna fulana ibna fulan fi zhimatika wa habla jawaraka, fa-qihu min fitnatal qabri wa azhabin nar wa anta ahlal wafa' wal haq, allahumma faghfirlahu war-rahmhufa innaka antal ghafurur Raheem. 'O Allah! So-and-so, son of so-and-so, is under Your protection and mercy, so protect him from the trial of the grave and the torture of Hell Fire. You are the guardian of the truthful and the faithful. OAllah! Forgive him and be merciful to him, as You are the Most Merciful, Most Forgiving'." Narrated by Ahmad and Abu Daw'ud.

    -3- ' Awf ibn Malik reported: "I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, while offering a funeral prayer, say: Allahumma-ghfir lahu war-rhamhu wa'fu anhu wa 'afahu wa akrim nuzulahu wa wassi' mudkhalahu waghsilhu bi-ma' ind wa thalj wa barad wa naqi minal khataya kama yunaqi athaubu danis minad danas wa abdilhu daran khairan min darihi wa ahlan khairan min ahlihi wa zaujan khairan min zaujihi wa qih fitnatal qabr wa azhaban nar. 'O Allah! Forgive him, have mercy on him, pardon him, heal him, be generous to him, cause his entrance to be wide and comfortable, wash him with the most pure and clean water, and purify him from sins as a white garment is washed clean of dirt. Give him in exchange a home better than his home (on earth) and a family better than his family, and a wife better than his wife, and protect him from the trial of the grave and the torture of Hell Fire'." This is narrated by Muslim.

    -4- It is reported from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet, peace be upon him, offered a funeral prayer and said: Allahummaghfir lihayatina wa mayatina wa saghirina wa kahirina wa zhakirina wa unthana. Allahumma man ahyatahu minna fa-ahyahu 'alal Islam wa man tawafthu minna fa-tawafthu 'ala iman. Allahumma la tahrimna ajrahu wa la tudalana ba'dahu. "O Allah! Forgive our living, our dead, our young, our old, our males and our females, those of us who are present, and those who are absent. O Allah! Whomsoever among us You keep to live, make him to live in Islam, and whomsoever You cause to die, let him die in faith. O Allah! Do not deprive us of our reward for (supplicating for) him, and cause us not to go astray after him." This is narrated by Ahmad and the other Sunan books. (Authentic canonical collections of hadith)

    If the deceased is a child, then it is desirable to pray: Allahumma 'ij'alhu lana salafan wa zhukhran. "O Allah! Make him our forerunner and make him (a means of) reward for us and a treasure." Bukhari and Al-Baihaqi report it from Al-Hasan. Nawawi said: "If the deceased is a child, a boy or a girl, one should say what is reported in the hadith, namely, "O Allah! Forgive our living, our dead, . . . ," and add the words: Allahumma 'ij'alhu faratan li-abwaihi wa salafan wa zhukhran wa izatan wa i'tibaran wa shafi'an wa thaqil bihi mawazlnahumma wa afrlghas sabra 'ala qulubihima wa la taftinhumma ba'dahu wa la tuharim-humma ajrahu. "O Allah, make him (or her) for hisparents a forerunner, a treasure and an admonition, an honor, an intercessor, and cause him (or her) to make their scales of good deeds heavier (on the Day of Judgement). O Allah! Grant them patience, and O Allah! Do not put them to trial after him (or her) nor deprive them of his (or her) reward."

    Volume 4, Page 43: Timing of Supplications
    Ash-Shawkani said: There are no fixed times for these prayers. One may use any of these after all the takbirs, or after the first or second or third takbir, or divide it between each two takbirs, or say any of these prayers in between each two takbirs in the light of the practice of the Prophet, peace be upon him. It is also said that supplications should be done in the words given in the above reported hadith for both male or female dead persons.

    Volume 4, Page 43a: Supplications after the fourth takbir
    It is preferred to supplicate for the deceased after the fourth takbir, even though the supplicant rnay have done so after the third takbir. This is based on a narration by Ahmad on the authority of ' Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa who said that when his daughter died, at his funeral prayer for her he made four takbirs. After the fourth takbir, he stood supplicating for as much as he did in between the other takbirs. Then he said: "The Prophet, peace be upon him, used to do the same in a funeral prayer."

    Ash-Shafi'i said: "After the fourth takbir one may say, Allahumma la tuharimna ajrahu wa la taftinna ba'dahu. 'O Allah! Do not deprive us of reward for (supplicating for) him/her, nor put us to trial after him (or her)'."

    Ibn Abu Hurairah said: "After the fourth takbir the elders used to say: Allahumma Rabbana atina fi ad-Dunya hasanatan wafi al-Akhirati hasanatan wa qina 'azhab an-Nar. 'O Allah! Grant us good in this life and good in the life to come, and save us from the torment of Hell Fire."

    Volume 4, Page 43b: Salutations
    All jurists with the exception of Abu Hanifah are in agreement that the two salutations (saying assalamu 'alaikum wa rahmatullah), one to the right and the other to the left, are obligatory. Abu Hanifah, however is of the view that they are required, but not obligatory as a condition. Those who hold it to be obligatory argue that the funeral prayer is a prayer (salah), and as such it cannot be terminated except by salutations (to the right and left).

    Ibn Mas'ud said: "Salutations at the end of a funeral prayer are similar to those said at the end of any formal prayer. The minimum that would suffice in this respect is to say: "As-Salamu 'Alaikum" or "salamun 'alaikum" (the peace be with you or peace be with you)."

    Ahmad is of the opinion that one salutation - the salutation to the right - is sunnah, and there is no harm if one says it while looking straight ahead. This is based on the practice of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and his Companions who ended their funeral prayer with one salutation. No difference of opinion among them is on record on this issue.

    Ash-Shafi'i holds that two salutations, turning one's face first to the right and then to the left, are commendable. Ibn Hazm said: "The second salutation is remembrance of Allah, and an act of virtue."

    Volume 4, Page 44: Summary for Funeral Prayer
    -1- Make sure that you meet all the requirements for a formal prayer (salah);

    -2- Stand up with the intention of supplicating for the deceased;

    -3- Raise both hands with a takbir (takbirat al ihram);

    -4- Fold your right hand over your left hand;

    -5- Commence the funeral prayer with the (silent) recitation of Al-Fatihah.

    -6- After Al-Fatihah say another takbir,

    -7- Offer salutations to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and end with a takbir.

    -8- Now supplicate for the deceased, and end with a takbir.

    -9- Make a general supplication.

    -10- End the prayer with salutations (to the right and to the left side).

    Volume 4, Page 44a: Imam's Position in Funeral Prayer for a Male or a Female
    It is sunnah for the imam to stand opposite the head of a male body, and opposite the middle of a female body. This is based on a hadith reported from Anas that he offered a funeral prayer for a male standing opposite his head. As soon as the body of the man was removed, a female body was brought in for funeral prayer. He led the prayer standing opposite the middle of her body. Thereupon he was asked, "Did the Prophet, peace be upon him, stand where you stood in the cases of a man and a woman?" He answered: "Yes." This is narrated by Ahmad, Abu Daw'ud, Ibn Majah and Tirmizhi, who regards it as a sound hadith. Al-Tahawi said: This is the most preferred position, because it is supported by other reports from Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him.

    Volume 4, Page 44b: Funeral Prayer for a Number of Dead Persons
    If there are a number of bodies, including both male and female, they should be placed in separate rows, between the imam and the direction of the Ka'abah, with the best among them nearer to the imam, and a single funeral prayer may be offered for all of them.

    If the deceased include both male and female, a separate prayer for each may be offered. But it is also permissible to offer one prayer for all of them at once. In such a case the male should be placed immediately before the Imam and then the female in the direction of the Qiblah.

    It is reported by Nafi' from Ibn 'Umar that he offered a funeral prayer for nine of the deceased, males and females. He placed the males closest to the imam and then the females in the direction of the Qiblah. He placed all of them in one row. The funeral of Umm Kulthum, daughter of 'Ali and the wife of 'Umar, and her son called Zaid, was led by Sa'id ibn al-'As, and among the people attending this funeral were Ibn Abbas, Abu Hurairah, Abu Sa'id and Abu Qatadah. The little boy was placed before the imam. A man said: "I do not like this arrangement, and looked towards Ibn 'Abbas, Abu Hurairah, Abu Sa'id and Abu Qatadah, and said to them: "What is this?" They replied: "This is the sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him,. This was narrated by Nasa'i and Al-Baihaqi, and Al-Hafiz says its chain of authorities is sound.

    Another hadith says that if a funeral prayer is offered for a child together with a woman, the boy should be placed nearer the imam and the woman next to it in the direction of the Qiblah. And if there are men, women and children, then the children should be placed next to the men.

    Volume 4, Page 45: Three Rows for a Funeral Prayer are Commended
    It is recommended that the people should make three rows ( The minimum number of people for a row is two persons) while offering a funeral prayer, and that these rows should be straight. This is based on a report from Malik ibn Habairah who said: "The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: 'Every believer who dies is forgiven by Allah if a group of Muslims comprising three rows prays for him'." That is why, if there were not many people attending a funeral prayer, Malik ibn Habayrah would make them stand in three rows. This is narrated by Ahmad, Abu Daw'ud, Ibn Majah, Tirmizhi, and Al-Hakim, who considers it a sound hadith.

    Ahmad said: "If the number of people present at the funeral prayer is very small I would still prefer that they make three rows." He was asked: "What if there are only four people present?" He replied: "They may make two rows, with two persons in each line." He did not like three rows with each of them consisting of only one person.

    Volume 4, Page 45a: A Larger Number is Much Preferred
    A larger gathering of people for the funeral prayer is preferable, as is reported by 'Aishah who said: "The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, 'If a Muslim dies and his funeral prayer is attended by a group of a hundred Muslims, and they all sincerely pray for his forgiveness, he is forgiven'." This is narrated by Ahmad, Muslim, and Tirmizhi.

    Ibn 'Abbas reported: "I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, saying: 'If a Muslim dies and a group of forty people, who do not associate any one with Allah, pray for him, their prayer is accepted and he is forgiven' ." This has been narrated by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Daw'ud.

    Volume 4, Page 46: Arriving Late for Funeral Prayer
    A person who misses a part of a funeral prayer should make up the missed takbirs--making them consecutively. This is preferable, but if he cannot do it there is no harm. Ibn 'Umar, Al-Hasan, Ayyub Al-Sukhtiani, and Al-Awza'i are of the opinion that such a person is not required to repeat the missed takbirs, and he should finish his prayer with the salutations led by the imam.

    Ahmad said: "If he cannot make the missed takbirs, there is no harm." The author of Al-Mughni prefers this opinion and remarks: "It is supported by a saying of Ibn ' Umar and there is nothing on record from the Companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them) to contradict it. It is reported by 'Aishah that she said to the Prophet, peace be upon him, "O Allah's Messenger, sometimes when I offer a funeral prayer, I cannot hear some of the takbirs by the imam?" He replied: "Say the takbir that you hear and do not worry about the ones that you miss. You do not have to repeat these later on." This statement is quite explicit. These are consecutive--uninterrupted--takbirs and, if missed, they need not be repeated like the ones in the 'Eid prayer.

    Volume 4, Page 46a: Persons for Whom Funeral Prayer is to be Offered
    There is a consensus among the jurists that funeral prayer is offered for all Muslims, male or female, and young or old. Ibn Al-Munzhir said: "The scholars are in agreement that if it is established that an infant is born alive, that is, by his crying, sneezing, or moving etc., then, if it dies, a funeral prayer should be offered for it."

    Al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah reports that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "One may ride one's mount behind the funeral, and walk on foot a little ahead of it or to its right or left. A funeral prayer should be offered for an aborted baby, seeking for his parents the mercy and forgiveness of Allah." This is reported by Ahmad and Abu Daw'ud. Another narration reads: "A person on foot may walk behind a funeral, or ahead of it, or on its left side or right side or still nearer to it." According to another report, "A rider should ride behind the funeral, whereas one on foot may walk anywhere. And a funeral prayer should be offered for a child." This is reported by Ahmad, Nasa'i, and Tirmizhi, who consider it a sound hadith.

    Volume 4, Page 46b: Funeral Prayer for an Aborted Child
    A miscarried fetus, less than four months old, may not be washed, nor may a funeral prayer be offered for it. It should be wrapped in a piece of cloth and buried. The majority of jurists are in agreement on this point.

    On the other hand, if a miscarried fetus is four months old or older, and the existence of life in it is established, then there is a consensus that it should be washed and a funeral prayer offered for it. But if its life is not established by its movements or other evidence, then according to Malik, Al-Awza'i, AlHasan, and the Hanafi school, funeral prayer may not be offered for it. They base their opinion on a hadith transmitted by Tirmizhi, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and Al-Baihaqi on the authority of Jabir that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "If in a miscarried fetus life is established by its movements, a funeral prayer should be offered for it, and it is entitled to its share of inheritance." According to this hadith offering a funeral prayer for a miscarried fetus is conditioned upon proof of its life evident in signs of life, such as its movement, etc.

    Ahmad, Sa' id, Ibn Sirin, and Ishaq are of the opinion that in the light of the above hadith, a miscarried fetus may be washed and a funeral prayer may be offered for it. The words used in this hadith are "a funeral prayer should be offered for a miscarried fetus" because it has a soul and is alive. The Prophet, peace be upon him, informed us that a fetus receives a soul when it is four months old. Others refute this argument with the assertion that there is confusion in the chain of narrators of this hadith, and besides, a stronger hadith contradicts it. But this alone does not constitute a valid argument.

    Volume 4, Page 47: Funeral Prayer for a Martyr
    A martyr is one who is killed in a battlefield fighting the enemies of Islam. All the hadith on this subject are quite explicit that no funeral prayer may be offered for a martyr.

    Bukhari has narrated from Jabir that the Prophet, peace be upon him, ordered that the martyrs of the battle of Uhud be buried while they were still bleeding. He neither washed them nor offered a funeral prayer for them.

    Ahmad, Ahu Daw 'ud and Tirmizhi reported that Anas said: "The martyrs of Uhud were not washed. They were buried with their wounds unwashed, and no funeral prayer was offered for them."

    There are, however, some hadith that are equally explicit and state that a funeral prayer should be offered for martyrs. Bukhari reported from 'Uqbah ibn 'Amir that one day the Prophet, peace be upon him, went out and offered a funeral prayer for the martyrs of Uhud, eight years after their death, as if he were bidding farewell to both the living and the dead.

    Abu Malik Al-Ghafari reported: "The bodies of the martyrs of Uhud were brought in batches of nine and placed with the body of Hamzah, who served as the tenth. Then the Prophet, peace be upon him, offered a funeral prayer for them. After that the nine bodies were removed leaving Hamzah undisturbed. Then a batch of another nine martyrs was brought and placed beside Hamzah. The Prophet, peace be upon him, offered a funeral prayer for them as well. This way the Prophet offered funeral prayer for all of them. This hadith has been narrated by Al-Baihaqi, who says: "This is the most sound hadith on this subject. It is, however, a mursal hadith. (Mursal: A hadith that rests on a chain of authonties going no further back than the second generation after the Prophet (peace be upon him))

    The difference in the narrations in these various hadith has led jurists to differ on this matter. Some take all of them together, while others prefer some narrations over others. Ibn Hazm holds that either--offering or not offering (funeral prayer for the martyrs)--is permissible. It is alright whether or not a funeral prayer is offered for the martyrs. In one of his statements Ahmad has also expressed a similar view. Ibn al-Qayyim approves of this view and says: "The correct position in this regard is that one is given a choice whether or not to offer a funeral prayer (for a martyr), because there are reports in favor of both positions." This is the opinion also of Ahmad, and he is the proper person to describe the principles of his school. He says: "What is apparent from this is that no funeral prayer was offered for the martyrs of Uhud before burying them. There were seventy people who fell martyrs in that battle, and any funeral prayer for them could not have taken place in secret."

    The hadith reported by Jabir ibn 'Abd Allah that the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not offer funeral prayer for these martyrs is sound and very explicit. Jabir' s father was among those who were killed that day, and he knew what few besides him knew.

    Abu Hanifah, Al-Thawri, Al-Hasan, and Ibn Al-Musayiyaib, however, are inclined to the reports stating that the Prophet, peace be upon him, did offer funeral prayer for the martyrs. They hold that a funeral prayer must be offered for martyrs. However, Malik, Ash-Shafi'i, Ishaq, and, according to one report, Ahmad, prefer the reports that say no funeral prayer is to be offered for martyrs. Ash-Shafi'i in his Kitab al-Umm writes: "All reports received concerning this subject are sound and show that the Prophet, peace be upon him, did not offer funeral prayer for the martyrs of Uhud. Those who report that he offered funeral prayer for them and said seventy takbirs for Hamzah are not correct. Those who turn away from these sound hadith should be ashamed of themselves. The hadith reported by 'Uqbah ibn 'Amir also states that the Prophet, peace be upon him, did so eight years after their death, as if he were bidding them farewell. This does not constitute abrogation of an established practice. (See Al-Umm. by Ash-Shafi'i)

    Volume 4, Page 48: A Person Surviving a Battle but later Dying of Wounds
    If one is wounded in a battle, but survives, remains in a stable condition for a while, and then dies, he should be washed, and a funeral prayer should be offered for him, even though he may be a martyr. The Prophet, peace be upon him, washed Sa'd ibn Mu'azh, and offered a funeral prayer for him, after he died of his hand wounds. Sa'd was taken to the mosque, where he remained for a few days, and then he died as a martyr because of his infected wound.

    If on the other hand, a wounded fighter does not survive in a stable condition, or he just talked or drank water and thereafter died, he is not to be washed or offered a funeral prayer.

    The author of Al-Mughni states: "It is recorded in Futuh Al-Sham, that a man said: "I took some water to give a drink to my cousin if he were still alive after some injuries in the battle. On the way, I passed by Al-Harith ibn Hisham, who was also wounded in the same battle. I wanted to give him a drink, but he noticed that another wounded man was looking toward him for a drink. At this he pointed that I should first give this man a drink. I went toward him to give him a drink, but he also found another man looking to him. So he gestured that I should first give him the drink. Thus they all died. None of them was washed or offered a funeral prayer although they all died after the battle.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  10. #10
    الصورة الرمزية فداء الرسول
    فداء الرسول غير متواجد حالياً رحمك الله يا سمية
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Jun 2008
    المشاركات
    11,681
    الدين
    الإسلام
    الجنس
    أنثى
    آخر نشاط
    30-11-2017
    على الساعة
    11:44 AM

    افتراضي

    Volume 4, Page 49: Funeral Prayer for a Person Sentenced to Death for a Crime
    Anyone sentenced to death by an Islamic court is to be washed and a funeral prayer should be offered for him. This is based on a report by Bukhari that Jabir said: "A man from the tribe of Aslam came to the Prophet, peace be upon him, and confessed to fornication. The Prophet, peace be upon him, tried to avoid him four times, while the man repeated his testimony against himself. Then the Prophet, peace be upon him, asked the man: 'Are you mad?' The man said, 'No.' The Prophet, peace be upon him, asked him, 'Are you married?' He said, 'Yes.' Thereupon the Prophet, peace be upon him, ordered that the man be stoned to death. He was stoned to death at the place where ( 'Eid prayer) used to be offered. When the stones struck the man, he tried to run away, but was overtaken and killed. After his death, the Prophet, peace be upon him, spoke well of him, and offered funeral prayer for him. Ahmad said: "We know of no cases where the Prophet, peace be upon him, refused to offer funeral prayer for any one except in cases of one convicted of embezzlement (of zakat funds) and a person who committed suicide."

    Volume 4, Page 49a: Funeral Prayer for those Guilty of Embezzlement, Suicide, or Some Other Sins
    The majority of Muslim scholars are of the opinion that a funeral prayer may be offered for a person who is convicted of embezzlement of public funds, or commits suicide or some similarly sinful act.

    An-Nawawi said: "Al-Qadi said: 'All Muslim scholars hold that a funeral prayer be offered for all Muslims - those sentenced to death under Islamic law, or stoned to death, or those who committed suicide, or were born out of wedlock. The reports about the Prophet, peace be upon him, not praying for embezzlers and those guilty of suicide may be explained perhaps by considering such refusal to be a form of reprimand to these people. This is similar to his practice of refusing to pray for those who died in debt, though he asked other Muslims to offer the funeral prayer for them'."

    Ibn Hazm said: "Funeral prayer should be offered for all Muslims, whether good or bad, including those sentenced to death and those that die fighting or in revolt. The imam, or any one other than him, may lead the funeral prayers. Likewise funeral prayers should be said for an innovator, provided his innovation does not become blasphemy, and prayer may also be said for one who commits suicide or kills some one else. A funeral prayer may be offered in all such cases even though the deceased might have been the most evil person on the face of the earth, provided he dies as a Muslim. This is based on a hadith from the Prophet, peace be upon him, that has a general bearing. "Offer a funeral prayer for your friend (a fellow Muslim)," he is reported to have said on the death of a Muslim. All Muslims are friends to one another. The Qur'an says: "Verily! The believers are but a single brotherhood" Qur'an 49.10 and "The believers, men and women, are protectors, one of another." Qur'an 9.71

    To prevent others from offering funeral prayers over a Muslim is a most serious thing, for surely a sinful Muslim is more in need of prayers from his Muslim brothers than a pious and saintly person!

    An authentic hadith records that a man died in Khayber, and the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Offer a funeral prayer for your friend. He has stolen something of the war booty." The Muslims searched the deceased's personal effects and found less than two dirham worth of beads in them.

    In another sahih hadith 'Ata reported that a funeral prayer may be offered for an illegitimate child, and his mother, and for those who curse each other, (In cases of Lu'an, for instance, when in the absence of any evidence of a spouse's adultery both the man and wife are required to swear an oath that he/she is telling the truth or face being cursed by Allah if they were lying) as well as the person who is killed in requital, and the person stoned to death, and the person who flees from the battlefield and is put to death for it. ' Ata said: "I will never abstain from offering a funeral prayer for a person who says: 'I bear witness that there is no deity except Allah.' Allah says: 'It is not fitting for the Prophet and those who believe to pray for forgiveness for pagans, even though they be of kin, after it is clear that they are companions of the Fire'.'' Qur'an 9.113

    Another authentic hadith says that Ibrahim An-Nakh'i said: "Our predecessors never eschewed attending a funeral prayer for any Muslim. They offered the funeral prayer for those who had committed suicide, and it is a sunnah to offer funeral prayer for those who are stoned to death." In another sound hadith Qatadah reported: "I do not know of any scholar who refused to offer a funeral prayer for anyone witnessing that 'there is no god but Allah'." Ibn Sirin, according to a sahih hadith, said: "I do not know of any Muslim who considers it a sin to offer a funeral prayer for another Muslim."

    Abu Ghalib reported: "I asked Abu Amamah Al-Bahili: 'What if a man is known to drink liquor. Should a funeral prayer be offered for him? ' He said: 'Yes, for he might [at least] once in his life, while lying down for rest, have said: "There is no deity but Allah," and he might have been forgiven by Allah' ." In a sahih hadith Al-Hasan is reported to have said: "Funeral prayer will be offered for all those who declare 'There is no deity but Allah. ' It will be offered for all Muslims; for it is an act of intercession on behalf of the deceased."

    Volume 4, Page 51: Funeral Prayer for a Non-believer
    A Muslim may not pray for a non-believer, for Allah says: "Nor do you ever pray for any of them that dies, nor stand at his grave, for they rejected Allah and His Messenger," Qur'an 9.84 "It is not fitting for the Prophet and those who believe to pray for forgiveness for pagans, even though they be of kin, after it is clear to them that they are companions of the Fire. And Ibrahim prayed for his father's forgiveness only because of a promise he had made to him. But when it became clear to him that he (his father) was an enemy to Allah, he dissociated himself from him." Qur'an 9.113-114

    Likewise no prayer may be offered for their children, for what applies to their parents applies to them as well, except for children who accept Islam, because one of their parents was a Muslim or they die or are taken prisoner separately from either or both of their parents, then a funeral prayer may be offered for the children.

    Volume 4, Page 51a: Funeral Prayer on a Grave
    It is permissible to offer funeral prayer for a deceased anytime after his burial, even if a prayer was offered prior to his burial. As mentioned above, the Prophet, peace be upon him, offered funeral prayer for the martyrs of Uhud after eight years. Zaid ibn Thabit reported: "Once we went out with the Prophet, peace be upon him . When we reached al-Baqi ' (Famous cemetery in Madinah, where a large number of the Prophet's companions are buried) we noticed a newly dug grave. The Prophet, peace be upon him, asked about it and was told that was the grave of such and such a woman. At this he said: 'Why did you not inform me of her death?' They replied, 'O Prophet of Allah! You were fasting and were resting at the time and we did not want to bother you. ' He said: 'Do not do that again. So long as I am with you, make sure you inform me when any one among you dies, for my prayers for the deceased is a mercy for them.' Then the Prophet, peace be upon him, went to the grave. We stood in rows behind him and he offered a funeral prayer for her with four takbirs." This hadith has been reported by Ahmad, Nasa'i, Al-Baihaqi, Al-Hakim and Ibn Hibban. The last two reporters regard it as a sound hadith.

    Tirmizhi said: This has been the practice of most of the scholars, the Companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them), as well as others. Ash-Shafi'i, Ahmad, and Ishaq hold the same view. This hadith also shows that the Prophet, peace be upon him, offered funeral prayer at a grave when a funeral prayer had already been offered by his Companions for the deceased before her burial, for they could not bury her without a funeral prayer. From this hadith it is also obvious that praying for the dead (before the burial) was a common practice of the Companions, and was not limited only to the Prophet, peace be upon him.

    Ibn Al-Qayyim said: "These proven traditions of the Prophet, peace be upon him, do not contradict the sound hadith that reports the statement of the Prophet, peace be upon him: 'Do not sit by the graves, or offer prayer facing them.' This is a sound hadith that bids us not to sit or pray at the graves. What is forbidden is to offer formal prayer (salah) facing a grave. Offering a funeral prayer at the grave is not forbidden, for funeral prayer does not have to be offered at any specific place. It is rather better offered outside a mosque than inside it. The funeral prayer at the grave is similar to offering it beside the coffin. In either case the prayer is offered for the deceased, and his body, whether it is in the coffin or in the grave, remains in the same position. Offering prayers other than funeral prayers are forbidden at graves, for there is a risk that this may tum these graveyards into mosques, against which the Prophet, peace be upon him, wamed us. He cursed those who tum graves into places of worship, saying: 'Some evil people will be overtaken by the Day of Judgement, including those (evil people) who tum graves into mosques.' This warning has no bearing on an act that the Prophet, peace be upon him, repeatedly perfommed. "

    Volume 4, Page 52: Funeral Prayer for an Absentee and for a Person who has Disappeared
    Offering a funeral prayer for an absent person in another city is pennissible, whether the city is near or far. In such a case those offering funeral prayer should stand facing the qiblah, even if the city where the absentee is located is not in the direction of the qiblah. After making an intention to pray for the absentee, takbirs should be said as they are nommally said in funeral prayer over a deceased who is present. This is based on a hadith reported by the group on the authority of Abu Hurairah that the Prophet, peace be upon him, infomned people about the death of Negus the day he died, and then took them out to offer funeral prayer for him. There he arranged his Companions in rows and said four takbirs.

    Ibn Hazm said: "The funeral prayer for an absentee may be perfommed by a group of people under an imam. The Prophet, peace be upon him, offered a funeral prayer for Negus, who had died in Ethiopia, with his Companions standing in rows behind him. There is consensus among the Companions regarding this issue, and it should not be overlooked. Abu Hanifah and Malik, however, disagree with this view, but they have no ground for this disagreement."

    Volume 4, Page 53: Offering Funeral Prayer in a Mosque
    There is no harm in offering funeral prayer in a mosque, if there is no danger of it becoming unclean. This is based on a narration of Muslim from 'Aishah who said: "The Prophet, peace be upon him, offered a funeral prayer for Suhail ibn Baida in the mosque, and the Companions likewise offered funeral prayer for Abu Bakr and 'Umar in the mosque, and no one objected to it, because the funeral prayer is similar to other (formal) prayer. '

    Abu Hanifah and Malik do not approve of it, citing a hadith of the Prophet, peace be upon him, to the effect that whoever offers a funeral prayer in the mosque would have nothing (i .e. no reward) . This statement not only contradicts the practice of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and his Companions, but is also a weak hadith due to other reasons. Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: "This is a weak hadith, and is reported through a single transmitter, Salih, the freed slave of Al-Tawamah, and he is an unreliable narrator. Some scholars, however, hold that this hadith of the Prophet, peace be upon him, is sound, and the words, reported by Abu Daw'ud, "Whoever offers a funeral prayer in a mosque would have nothing," mean such a person would not incur any burden (of sin). Ibn AlQayyim said: 'It was not the usual practice of the Prophet, peace be upon him, to offer a funeral prayer in the mosque. Rather he would usually offer funeral prayers outside the mosque except when for some reason he had to offer it in the mosque. In certain cases he did offer funeral prayer in the mosque, as in the case of Ibn Baida, which shows that funeral prayer may be offered either inside or outside the mosque, but to do so outside the mosque is preferable."

    Volume 4, Page 53a: Funeral Prayer in the Graveyard
    A majority of jurists disapprove of offering funeral prayer in a graveyard. This is the view of 'Ali, Abd-Allah ibn 'Amr, and Ibn 'Abbas, and also of 'Ata, An-Nakh'i, Ash-Shafi'i, Ishaq, and Ibn Al- Munzhir, and they cite the Prophet's hadith: "The entire earth is a mosque except for a graveyard and a bathroom."

    In a report from Ahmad it is said: "There is no harm in offering a funeral prayer (as distinct from formal salah) in a graveyard as the Prophet, peace be upon him, himself offered a funeral prayer over a deceased while he was buried in his grave. Abu Hurairah also offered a funeral prayer over the grave of 'Aishah in the middle of the cemetery of Al-Baqi', which was attended by Ibn 'Umar. And 'Umar ibn Abd al-'Aziz did likewise."

    Volume 4, Page 53b: Women are Permitted to Offer Funeral Prayers
    A woman, like a man, may offer a funeral prayer, singly or in a congregation. In fact, once when Umm 'Abdallah offered funeral prayer for 'Utbah, 'Umar waited until she finished. 'Aishah ordered the body of Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas to be brought to her so that she could offer a funeral prayer over him.

    An-Nawawi said: "Women may offer (funeral) prayer in congregation just as they are permitted to perform other sunnah prayers. Al-Hasan ibn Saleh, Sufiyan Al-Thawri, Ahmad, and the Hanafi school also hold the same view. Malik, however, is of the opinion that women should offer the funeral prayer individually.

    Volume 4, Page 54: The Most Worthy Person to Lead a Funeral Prayer
    Jurists differ as to the most worthy person to lead a funeral prayer. Some said: "The most appropriate person is the legal guardian of the deceased, then the (Muslim) ruler, then the father of the deceased, grandfather, or great grandfather, then the son or the grandson, then the one closest in relationship. This is the opinion of the Maliki and Hanbali schools. Others said: The best person is the father, then the grandfather, then the son, then the grandson, then the brother, then the nephew, then the paternal uncle, and then his son in accordance with their blood ties with the deceased. This is the opinion of AshShafi'i and Abu Yusaf. Abu Hanifah and Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan, however, are of the opinion that the preferred order is the (Muslim) ruler if present at the funeral, then the judge, then the imam of the locality, then the guardian of a deceased woman, then the nearest blood relative. Of the blood relatives, if both father and his son are present, the father should be given precedence.

    Volume 4, Page 54a: Joining the Funeral Procession and Carrying the Coffin
    A certain etiquette is recommended while walking in a funeral procession or carrying a coffin:

    -1- Carrying a coffin and accompanying it to the graveyard is recommended. According to the sunnah it is preferable to go all around the coffin while carrying it. Ibn Majah, Al-Baihaqi, and Abu Daw'ud At-Tayalisi report that Ibn Mas'ud said: "If one walks in a funeral procession and carries the coffin, one should do so from all the sides of the coffin, for this is a sunnah of Prophet, peace be upon him." But this is optional. Abu Sa'id reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Visit the sick, and follow the funeral procession, for it will (help) remind you of the Hereafter." This was narrated by Ahmad with a sound chain of narrators.

    -2- A funeral procession must proceed at a fast pace. The group reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Walk briskly while carrying a coffin, for if the deceased is righteous, you would be taking it to something better, and if he or she is an evil person, then you will be getting him or her off your necks." Ahmad, Nasa'i, and others reported that Abu Bakrah said: "If you had seen us following a funeral procession along with the Prophet, peace be upon him, you would have thought that we were jogging." Bukhari reported in his book on History that, when Sa'd ibn Mua'zh died, the Prophet, peace be upon him, walked at such a fast pace behind his funeral that our shoes came apart."

    The author of Al-Fath said: "In short, it is preferable to walk fast in a funeral, but this should not harm or affect the coffin or put to hardship those carrying the coffin or following it, because that would defeat the Islamic goal of promoting hygiene and avoiding placing undue hardship on other Muslims." Al-Qurtubi said: "This hadith means that people should not delay the burial, because such a delay is often the result of arrogance and vanity.

    -3- One may walk in front of the funeral, behind it, to its right side, or left side, or close to it. There is a difference of opinion among the scholars on this point. The majority of the scholars hold that walking in front of the funeral is preferable, for the Prophet, peace be upon him, Abu Bakr, and 'Umar used to walk in front of it, as narrated by Ahmad, and compilers of Sunan.

    The Hanafi school holds that walking behind a funeral is preferable, as is indicated from the words of the Prophet, peace be upon him, concerning following a funeral.

    Anas ibn Malik is of the opinion that one may walk anywhere in a funeral procession, as mentioned above in the hadith of the Prophet, peace be upon him: "A rider should ride behind the funeral, whereas one on foot may walk behind it, or in front of it, or to its right side or left side, or close to it." Apparently there is no hard or fast rule in this regard, and the difference of opinion in this regard is quite legitimate.

    Abdur Rahman ibn Abza reported that Abu Bakr and 'Umar used to walk in front of a funeral, while 'Ali walked behind it. When told that Abu Bakr and 'Umar were walking in front of the funeral, 'Ali remarked: "They both know that walking behind a funeral is better than walking in front of it, just as the prayer of a person in congregation (jama'ah) is better than the prayer of one offering it alone. But Abu Bakr and 'Umar did so in order to make it easy for others." This was narrated by Al-Baihaqi and Ibn Abu Shaibah. Al-Hafiz said its chain of authorities is sound.

    Riding behind the funeral, without a valid excuse, is disliked in the opinion of the majority of scholars. Doing so after the burial, is not disliked, however, and is quite acceptable, as indicated by a hadith narrated by Thawban, which says that the Prophet, peace be upon him, was brought a mount to ride during a funeral, but he declined. But, when he returned after the burial and was offered a mount, he rode on it. They asked him about this (why he declined to mount during the funeral procession) and he replied: "Verily, the angels were walking with the funeral, so I did not like to ride while the angels were walking. But, when the angels left, I rode the mount." This was narrated by Abu Daw'ud, Al-Baihaqi, and Al-Hakim, who said this hadith is sound according to the criterion of Muslim and Bukhari. Tirmizhi narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, walked with the funeral of Ibn Ad-Dahdah, but on his way back he rode on horseback. According to Tirmizhi this is a sound hadith.

    This hadith does not contradict the other hadith in which the Prophet, peace be upon him, is reported to have said: "A rider must stay behind a funeral," since this may imp!y that such an act is disliked, though permissible. The Hanafi school holds that there is no harm in riding, although it is better to walk unless for some valid reason one is unable to do so. And in light of the above hadith a rider should stay behind the funeral procession. Al-Khattabi said: "I know of no difference of opinion amongst scholars on the point that a rider should stay behind a funeral procession."

    Volume 4, Page 56: Actions to be Discouraged in a Funeral Procession
    While accompanying a funeral procession, it is disliked to:

    -1- Recite or raise one's voice or any similar activity.

    -2- Carrying torches of fire in a funeral procession.

    -3- Sitting down, when one is following a funeral before those carrying the coffin put it down.

    -4- Remain seated when a funeral procession passes by.

    -5- Permit women to accompany a funeral procession.

    Volume 4, Page 56a:
    Recite or raise one's voice or any similar activity. Ibn Al-Munzhir related that Qais ibn 'Abbad said: "The Companions of the Prophet, peace be upon him, disliked raising one's voice on three occasions, namely, funeral processions, when remembering Allah, and on the battlefield."

    Sa'id ibn Al-Musaib, Sa'id ibn Jubair, Al-Hasan, An-Nakh'i, Ahmad, and Ishaq did not like it when anyone from the rear of the funeral procession exhorted others to pray for forgiveness of the deceased. Al-Awza'i said: This is a bid'a (innovation in religion). Fuzhail ibn 'Amr said: "Once, while Ibn 'Umar was present at a funeral, he heard someone from behind saying: 'Pray for Allah's forgiveness for the deceased. May Allah forgive him.' Ibn 'Umar said: 'May Allah not forgive you'."

    An-Nawawi said: "You should know that the right manner of accompanying a funeral procession is to remain quiet, as the pious among the previous generations of Muslims did. One should not raise one's voice for recitation or for the remembrance of Allah, or for anything else. Keeping quiet is better and is helpful in concentrating one's attention on the funeral rites, which is needed at that time. This is the correct position, and the fact that a large number of people do otherwise does not change it. There is a consensus among scholars that the way ignorant people recite in the funeral processions, artificially prolonging sounds of various words and mixing them up, is forbidden.

    Mohammad 'Abduh issued a verdict concerning raising one ' s voice for the remembrance of Allah while following the funeral procession, in which he said: "In reference to the raising of one's voice in a funeral procession for remembrance of Allah, we find in Al-Fath, under the chapter on "Funerals," that it is disliked for a person walking in front of a funeral procession to make such remembrance loudly. If one wants to make any remembrance, one may do it in one's heart. Loud remembrance is something quite new, and there is no precedent for it from the days of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and his Companions, or from the generation following them or their Successors. Such a practice must be discouraged and stopped."

    Volume 4, Page 56b: Carrying torches or fire in a funeral procession
    These are forbidden as they are vestiges of the Days of Ignorance. Ibn Al-Munzhir said: "This practice is disliked by all men of knowledge and scholars on record. Al-Baihaqi said: 'Aishah, 'Ubadah ibn Al-Samit, Abu Hurairah, Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri, and Asma, the daughter of Abu Bakr, all stated in their respective wills that their funeral processions should not include anyone carrying fire (or torches). According to Ibn Majah, Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari, on his deathbed, directed his heirs, saying: "Do not follow my funeral procession carrying any censers (with fires in them to burn frankincense for its aromatic smoke and fragrance)." The people asked him: "Did you hear anything from the Prophet concerning this?" He said: "Yes, I heard the Prophet, peace be upon him, saying so. (Among the narrators of this hadith is a man called Abu Huraiz, the freed slave of Mu'awiyah, who is "unknown" amongst the narrators of hadith)

    If the burial takes place at night, however, fire or torches may be used for light. Tirmizhi has reported on the authority of Ibn Abbas that once at night the Prophet, peace be upon him, entered a grave to bury a dead person, and a lantern was given to him and he took it." Tirmizhi said: This hadith from Ibn 'Abbas is sound.

    Volume 4, Page 57: Sitting down, when one is following a funeral, before those carrying the coffin put it down
    Bukhari said: "A person accompanying a funeral procession should not sit down until the coffin is placed on the ground, and if he sits he should be asked to stand up." He reports from Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Stand up when you see a funeral procession, and he who accompanies it should not sit down until the coffin is placed on the ground." Bukhari also reports from Sa'id Al-Maqabari who narrated that his father said: "We were attending a funeral, and Abu Hurairah was holding Marwan's hand, and they both sat down before the coffin was placed on the ground. At this Abu Sa'id approached them, and taking Marwan by his hand said to him: 'Stand up! By Allah, this man (ie, Abu Hurairah) knows that the Prophet, peace be upon him, has forbidden us (to sit).' Upon hearing this Abu Hurairah said: 'He is right.'' This has also been reported by Al-Hakim, with the following addition: "When Abu Sa'id told Marwan to stand up, he stood up and then asked him: 'Why have you made me stand up?' At this Abu Sa' id related this hadith to him. Then Marwan asked Abu Hurairah why he had not informed him about that hadith. Abu Hurairah replied: 'You were walking ahead of me, so when you sat down I too sat down." Most of the Companions, their successors, the Hanafi and Hanbali schools, Al-Awza'i and Ishaq hold this vlew.

    The followers of Ash-Shafi'i, however, hold that a person walking in front of a funeral procession may sit down before the coffin is placed on the ground. There is agreement among scholars that for those walking ahead of the funeral precession there is no harm if they arrive early at the place of burial and sit down before its arrival.

    Tirmizhi said: "It is related from some knowledgeable Companions of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and others that they would walk ahead of a funeral procession, and would sit down if they reached the place of burial before the coffin. This is the opinion of Ash-Shafi'i, who holds that, if a funeral arrives while one is seated, one need not stand upon its arrival. Ahmad said: "There is no harm whether one stands up or remains seated upon its arrival."

    Volume 4, Page 58: Remain Seated When a Funeral Procession Passes by
    Ahmad has reported that Waqid ibn 'Amr ibn Sa'd ibn Mu'azh said: -I attended a funeral procession in the tribe of Banu Salimah. I stood up on seeing the funeral procession. Thereupon Naf'i ibn Jubair said to me: 'Sit down. I will give you the reason for this. Mas'ud ibn Al-Hakim Az-Zurrqi told me that he heard 'Ali ibn Abi Talib saying: -The Prophet, peace be upon him, commanded us to stand up upon seeing a funeral procession, but later on he would remain seated, and bade us to do the same.' ' - Muslim has reported it in these words: "We saw the Prophet, peace be upon him, standing, so we stood. Then he sat down, and we too sat. Tirmizhi said: 'This hadith from 'Ali is sound, and it includes four of the successors of the Companions who related it successively. According to some people of knowledge this is the common practice.''

    Ash-Shafi'i said: -This is the most authentic report on the subject. This hadith abrogates the one cited previously which says: 'Stand up when you see a funeral procession.' - Ahmad said: -One may or may not stand up for a funeral procession, depending on one's preference. He argues that the Prophet, peace be upon him, used to stand up for a funeral, but later on he would remain seated.' This is also the opinion of Ishaq ibn Ibrahim. Ahmad, Ishaq ibn Hubaib, and Ibn Al-Majishun of the Maliki school.

    An-Nawawi said: "Considering all these opinions, standing up upon seeing a funeral procession is desirable." Al-Mutawalli and Ahmad also hold this view.

    Ibn Hazm said: "Standing up upon seeing a funeral procession is recommended, even if it is a funeral of a disbeliever or a pagan, until the coffin is placed on the ground or disappears from sight. But if someone remains seated there is no harm. Those who hold it as a desirable act cite what is related by the group on the authority of Ibn 'Umar who reported from 'Amir ibn Rabi'ah that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "When you see a funeral procession stand up for it, and remain standing until it disappears from sight or (the coffin) is placed down on the ground." Ahmad said: "Whenever Ibn 'Umar saw a funeral procession he would stand up for it and would remain standing until it passed by."

    Sahl ibn Hanif and Qais ibn Sa'd reported that they were sitting in Qadisiyyah (A town in Syria) and a funeral procession passed by them. On seeing it both of them stood up for it. They were told it was the funeral of a non-Muslim. They said: -Once when a funeral procession was passing by, the Prophet, peace be upon him, stood up for it. And when told that it was funeral procession of a Jew, he exclaimed: 'Does he (a Jew) not possess a soul?'' (Bukhari and Muslim) Ibn Mas'ud and Qais used to stand up for a funeral procession.

    The wisdom behind standing, according to Ahmad, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim, as stated in a hadith related from the Prophet, peace be upon him, is "to show respect to Him Who seizes the souls" or in the words of Ibn Hibban "as a mark of respect to Allah Who seizes the souls."

    In short, there is disagreement on this issue among the scholars. Some disapprove of standing for a funeral procession, while others prefer it. Some leave it to the individual's discretion. Each of these scholars supports his stand with specific arguments, and one may follow any of these opinions.

    Volume 4, Page 59: Permit Women to Accompany a Funeral Procession
    Umm 'Atiyah reported: "We were forbidden to accompany funeral processions, but this prohibition was not mandatory for us." (Reported by Ahmad, Bukhari, Muslim & Ibn Majah) Abdullah ibn 'Amr reported: "Once while we were with the Prophet, peace be upon him, he saw a woman - whom we thought he did not recognize - so he waited until she reached him. It was Fatimah, his daughter. He asked her: 'What caused you to leave your house?' She said: 'I came to visit the family living in this house in order to offer my condolences and to comfort them in their grief.' He said: 'Did you accompany them to the graveyard?' She said: 'God forbid! How could I do that, when I know what you have said in this respect.' The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: 'Had you accompanied the funeral procession to the graveyard, you would never have seen Paradise, not until your grandfather's father had seen it! (Reported by Ahmad, Al-Hakim, Nasa'i, and Baihaqi. The scholars, however, question the validity of this hadith, claiming it is not a sound hadith, because among its narrators is Rabi'ah ibn Saif, who is not trustworthy)

    Muhammad ibn Al-Hanafiyyah reported that 'Ali said: "The Prophet, peace be upon him, went out and saw a group of women sitting outside. When he asked them why they were sitting there, they told him that they were waiting for the funeral procession. He asked them: 'Are you going to wash the body?' They said: 'No.' The Prophet, peace be upon him, asked them: 'Are you going to carry the coffin?' They said: 'No.' He asked them: 'Will you place the body in the grave?' They said: 'No.' At this he said to them: 'Then go back to your homes with your sins and without gaining any reward." (Reported by Ibn Majah and Al-Hakim. But one of its narrators is Dinar ibn 'Omar, who is not reliable. Abu Hatim says he is not well known, Azdi describes him as matruk (unacceptable), and Al-Khalili in his Al-Irshad calls him "a liar.") Ibn Mas'ud, Ibn 'Umar, Abu Amamah, 'Aishah, Masruq, Al-Hasan, An-Nakh'i, Awza'i, Ishaq, and the Hanafi, Shafi'i and Hanbali schools hold this view. They all disapprove the participation of women in funeral processions. According to Malik, it is not disliked for an old woman to leave her home to attend a funeral. In his opinion, a young woman afflicted by the death of a dear one may also accompany a funeral procession without any disapproval, provided she is well covered and her presence does not cause any temptation.

    Ibn Hazm contends that the argument put forth by the majority of scholars is not sound, and that it is permissible for women to accompany funeral processions. He said: "We do not disapprove of women attending a funeral procession, nor do we prevent them from doing so. Among the traditions reported on this subject there is no authentic hadith. There are either mursal (Mursal: Report of a successor (tab'i) directly from the Prophet without mentioning the Companion who might have heard it directly) or majhul (unknown) or such as cannot be presented as an argument." Then he mentions the hadith by Umm 'Atiyyah and says: "Even if it were a sound hadith it does not prove prohibition, but merely shows that it is disliked. In fact the reverse is true if we take into account the hadith narrated by Shu'bah on the authority of Waki', who in turn narrated it from Hisham ibn 'Urwah, who heard it from Wahab ibn Kaysan, who heard it from Muhammad ibn 'Amr ibn 'Ata who reported it from Abu Hurairah that once when the Prophet, peace be upon him, attended a funeral, 'Umar saw a woman there and yelled at her. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "Leave her, O 'Umar! Verily her eyes shed tears, the soul feels the pangs, and the promised hour is near." (The chain of authorities of this hadith is sound) In a sound hadith it is reported from Ibn 'Abbas that he did not regard it as a disliked act.

    Volume 4, Page 60: Not Attending a Funeral due to Some Forbidden Acts
    The author of Al-Mughni said: "If one sees or hears something that is forbidden while attending a funeral, and one is capable of countering and rectifying it, one should do so. If not, then one may do one of two things: voice his disapproval of it, and continue with the funeral which will free one from any responsibility of any such disapproved acts, without abandoning the good for the bad. The second course open to a person in such a case is to leave the funeral procession, especially when one is able to leave it, so that one's continued participation will not lead one to hear or see a forbidden thing."
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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