الدفاع عن السنة The defence of the Sunnah

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الدفاع عن السنة The defence of the Sunnah

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  1. #11
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    Episode 11: Refuting the calumny set by Goldziher and those who followed him (3-5)







    The third aspect: The claim of (Goldziher) that the following of the Muslims to the Sunnah is like the following of the pagans to the practices of their ancestors, is a premature corroboration; because he intended to emphasize that the Arab nature in following the practices of the ancestors, their ways and traditions have not changed in the early period of Islam. But it is a type of imprint in the Arab psyche, established within them over the ages, and stigmatized with fanaticism. They do not permit stepping aside away from it, whatever its nature may be.
    This statement has no basis in terms of realism; because when the Muslims obey the Sunnah, it is because they are commanded to do so, considering that it is a revelation expressed through the words of the Prophet, it establishes the legal laws and rules they must follow, and given that it is confirming, explaining and elucidating to the Holy Quran (1).
    The Almighty said: (O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Apostle, and those charged with authority among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Apostle, if you do believe in Allah and the Last Day) [An Nisa’: 59].
    And reference to Allah is the reference to the Holy Book, and reference to the Prophet is the reference to him in his life and to his Sunnah after his death (2).
    The Almighty said: (whoever obeys the Apostle, obeys Allah) [An Nisa’: 80]. And the Almighty said: (So take what the Apostle assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you) [Al Hashr: 7].
    Obedience of the Honourable Prophet is to observe his orders and to shun his prohibitions, and obedience of the Apostle is from the obedience to Allah, for He selected him and chose him as a conveyor on His behalf.
    Therefore - as Shaykh Ahmad Shakir says -: "Following the Sunnah of the Prophet - peace be upon him – for the Muslims was not in keeping with the tradition of following the fathers. Allah had deplored it severely for the infidels, threatened for it considerably, and commanded people to follow the truth wherever it may be, use their minds in reflection about the cosmos and its effects and critically discern the correct evidence from the false one. The eagerness of the Muslim about the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah, was but following the command of Allah in the Quran: (You have indeed in the Apostle of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct)) [Al Ahzab: 21] (then let those beware who withstand the Apostle's order, lest some trial befall them, or a grievous penalty be inflicted on them.) [An Nur: 63]. (And We have sent down unto you (also) the Message; that you may explain clearly to men what is sent for them) [An Nahl: 44], and other commands from Allah in his book, which any Muslim is not ignorant of, and following the command of the Messenger of Allah himself, in the numerous authentic Statements, and in what has been proven in practice through recurrence ...
    This topic has been researched at length by eminent scholars, in which they excelled, and did not even leave a single statement, or almost. The books of Sunnah, books of fundamentals and others are extensive in that, and the fair researcher is able to discern the aspect of truth. It suffices to refer to two books, in which there is conviction to those who wished to: the book "The Message" by Imam Ash-Shaafi’i and the book "Ar-Rawdh Al Baasim Fidh-dhabbi ‘An Sunnati Abil-Qaasim" by the arch-scholar Mohammed bin Ibrahim, the Yemeni Minister. I saw that the author of the article did not make reference in it, from beginning to end, to an Arab or Islamic source, he consulted in his research, and this is odd! (3).
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    (1) See: Ibid (1/407).
    (2) ‘Al Muwaafaqaat’: (4/14).
    (3) The Encyclopaedia of Islam (13/101- 402), abridged.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  2. #12
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    Episode 12: Refuting the calumny set by Goldziher and those who followed him (4-5)






    The fourth aspect: The conclusion of (Margolioth) that the meaning of the Sunnah in the beginning of Islam "was not a familiar custom": is a conclusion drawn according to inclination, with its contravention of all the texts he cited to prove what he sees as conclusion.

    Dr. Al A’dhami has cited his texts with which he made his inference and his commentary on it, saying: (we see the word (the Sunnah of the Prophet) - peace be upon him – more cited in the previous texts than any other expression. This expression has been used in texts that relate to the third Successor Othman, and perhaps there was in his noble conduct, in which he differs from his predecessors, an effect in that, even though the accusations directed at him were always vague. It seems clear that the second source of Islamic legislation up to that time was not anything specific, but it is that which was a familiar custom, supported by the authority until it became an element integrated in the persona of the Prophet, peace be upon him".

    He was pursued by Dr. Al A’dhami, when he said: "Although the previous texts focused wholly or mainly on: the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him -, the Sunnah of His Prophet, the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet, and pursuant to the Quran and the Sunnah, we see (Margolioth) trying hard to hide the truth and shifting it to what his whims dictated to him. He alleges that the second source of legislation in that time was not specified, and that the concept of Sunnah is that which was customarily followed in the environment, although there is not what may support his in any way.

    Whoever is looking for the truth and claims to follow the scientific method in his research, he would necessarily be assisted by texts combined for the sake of explaining some of them with the use of some others, so as not to fall into such confusion and contradiction.

    If we accept, for the sake of argument, that the word Sunnah used to be given initially to what was known and familiar in the Islamic community; and this is not possible except in very rare cases, where the word is stated in conjunction with Muslims, or the like. This does not mean that these things have been attributed thereafter to the Prophet - peace be upon him - or, called later on the Sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him.

    Then this research revolves around the expression of the word Sunnah and not around the idea of following the example of the Prophet, peace be upon him, for obedience of the Prophet - peace be upon him - and following his guidance is prescribed on the Muslims by Quranic text - as we have seen previously - and this obedience is the essence, and it does not affect that, if the word (Sunnah) was assigned to this or not, because what concerns us here is the prescription of his obedience – peace be upon him – by whatever designation it may take.

    Therefore, these allegations cannot be accepted as long as they are not based on reasonable arguments, whether in what Goldziher alleged in the explanation of the (Sunnah) that it is (a pagan term) that Islam used, or the view of Margolioth that its meaning in the early period was (customary), or what Schacht arrived at in his study that its meaning is (the traditions of the community), or (the prevailing customs); because those allegations fundamentally contravene what is indicated by peremptory texts, which explain each other.

    Ahmad narrated, with an authentic chain of narration, on the authority of Saalim, he said: Abdullah ibn Omar used to pass legal rulings according to what Allah Almighty revealed concerning the permit to do Tamattu’ (progressing from the lesser pilgrimage “Umrah” to the greater pilgrimage “Hajj” during the Hajj period), and what the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – initiated in this regard. People say to Ibn Omar: How can you go against your father while he had forbidden that?!

    Abdullah says to them: Woe to you! Do you not fear Allah?! If Omar had forbidden that aspiring to do good from it, seeking through it completion of the Umrah, you have not forbidden when Allah Had permitted it, and the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – acted according to it. Is the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – more worthy that you should follow his Sunnah, or is it the practice of Omar?! Omar did not tell you that Umrah during the months of Hajj pilgrimage is forbidden, but he said: "The most complete Umrah is the one you perform as Ifraad (individualisation: performing the greater pilgrimage first, followed by the lesser one) during the months of Hajj (1).

    This saying from Abdullah ibn Omar: " Is the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – more worthy that you should follow his Sunnah, or is it the practice of Omar?!” adjudicated in this issue, where it differentiated between two very different issues. It proved for the first one the right of following, and denied it to the other, in case of conflict, to show that the Sunnah which is followed in this case, is the Sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him.

    If the prevailing custom or the traditions of the community are the Sunnah, so how do we then explain this saying of Ibn Omar? (1).

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (1) The Musnad of Ahmad, together with the Tahqeeq (Ascertainment) of Ahmed Shaker (8/61, No. 5700).

    (2) Studies in the prophetic Hadith (1/9-11).
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  3. #13
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    Episode 13: Refuting the calumny set by Goldziher and those
    who followed him (5-5)



    The fifth aspect: The allegation that the word Sunnah was not specific about the way of the Prophet - peace be upon him - in the area of legal matters, except at the end of the second century AH, is a false allegation; because its specification had already been stabilized in the time of the Prophet, peace be upon him, the era of the Companions and the followers afterwards, which we have previously mentioned and protracted in citing examples for it. What overhauled the term Sunnah at the end of the second century was that Islamic scholars laid down concepts for the term Sunnah, consistent with the type of scientific research they intend in their study of the life of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him. Those concepts did not go beyond being scientific terms used to help each scholar clarify their desired objective from studying the life of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him.
    Jurists, for example, since their purpose from studying the life of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – was to learn about the evidence for legal provisions, and as they had subdivided the legal provisions relating to the acts of those charged with responsibility, into: duty, forbidden, recommended, disliked and permissible, they defined the term Sunnah according to what is consistent with their purpose, so they said : (the Sunnah is what has been proven after the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - without presumption or necessity).
    Since the purpose of the scholars of the principles of jurisprudence from studying the life of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – was to learn of the legal rules that support the independent interpreters of legal sources in deducing legal provisions, they defined the term Sunnah as: (It is that which has been transmitted from the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – from utterance, action or endorsement). While scholars of Hadith, their purpose from the study and research in the life of the Prophet - peace be upon him – was the absolute following and emulation of his example, even in his movements and stillness, and accordingly tended to collecting whatever has been transmitted from the Prophet - peace be upon him - and assimilating it, and all that which relates to his life, and defined the word Sunnah in light of that general purpose that it is (that which has been transmitted from the Prophet - peace be upon him - from utterance, action, endorsement, physical or moral attribute, before the mission – such as worshipping alone in the cave of Hira’ - or after it).

    Therefore, it becomes clear that the orientalists and their students neglected this fact and ignored, and claimed fallaciously that the term Sunnah did not particularize as the way of the Prophet - peace be upon him - except at the end of the second century AH.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  4. #14
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    Episode 14 Linguistic meanings on which the enemies of Islam focus (1-2)

    Secondly: Among the linguistic meanings the enemies of Islam focus on in their definition of the Sunnah, is its meaning contained in the sense way. They then define the prophetic Sunnah as the practical way or the practical process, while his sayings, accounts and attributes - peace be upon him - are not of the Sunnah. Setting the term Hadith or Sunnah on that is, in their opinion, a terminological novelty from the part of the orators, unbeknown to the language, and is not used in its literature; thus alleged Mahmoud Abu Rayah (1) in his book (Lights on the prophetic Sunnah) (2) in succession to Dr. Tawfeeq Sidqi (3).
    This, too, says Dr. Eng. Mohammed Shahrour (4) in his book (The book and the Quran: a contemporary reading): (What has been termed the Sunnah of the Prophet is but the life of the Prophet - peace be upon him - as a prophet and a human being who lived his life in reality, even at the heart of it, and not in the world of illusion).
    Elsewhere he says: (from here comes the wrong definition, in our view, of the Prophetic Sunnah that it is all of what is issued from the Prophet - peace be upon him – as saying, action, order, prohibition or endorsement. In the knowledge that this definition for the Sunnah is not that of the Prophet - peace be upon him - himself, and is therefore subject to discussion and give and take, and this definition was a reason in the mummification of Islam, knowing that the Prophet - peace be upon him - and his companions did not define the Sunnah this way, and the actions of Omar ibn Al-Khattab confirm this) (5).
    Niazi Izz Ad-Deen (6) says: (men of religion in the third century AH knew the Sunnah, and they added to it prescripts that are of their own assiduity. They said in its definition: "it is all that has been traced back to the Prophet - peace be upon him - as utterance, action, endorsement, moral or personal character, or comportment, whether that was before the mission - like his meditation in the cave of Hira’ - or after it". This expanded definition, which came in an era ulterior to that of the Prophet - peace be upon him - and his Companions, has brought calamity to Islam. In another placement, he says: (though most of those who introduced the sayings of the Prophet - peace be upon him -, his actions and comportments into the religion, they did it while knowing they are doing what is forbidden, and fall into sin. But, whims and Satan were stronger than belief in that period, so Satan did what he wanted) (7).


    _________________________________________________________

    (1) Mahmoud Abu-Rayah: an Egyptian writer, who was affiliated to Al Azhar in his early youth. When he moved to the secondary Azhar stage, he failed to pass more than once. He worked as corrector of typographic errors at a newspaper in his hometown, then a clerk at the Municipality until he was made to retire. Among his collections, in which he slandered the Sunnah and the Companions: ‘Lights on the Sunnah’ and ‘The Tale of the Mohammedan Discourse’, and ‘Sheikh Almudheirah (Abu Hurayrah)’. See: ‘The Sunnah and its Stance in Legislation’ by Dr. As-Sibaa’i p. 466.
    (2) Lights on the prophetic Sunnah, p. 39.
    (3) Dr Tawfeeq Sidqi: He is Dr Mohamed Tawfeeq Sidqi; a physician at the Prison Services in Cairo. He wrote articles in the magazine Al-Manar, entitled "Islam is the Quran alone". He died in 1920. Sheikh Mohammed Rashid Ridha interpreted his work in the magazine Al-Manar, volume 483/21 and subsequent ones. See: the magazine Al-Manar, volume 11/774.
    (4) Mohammed Shahrour: A contemporary Syrian writer. He holds a doctorate in engineering from the National University of Ireland in Dublin. His works include: ‘The Book and the Quran: A Contemporary Reading’, and ‘Islam and Belief: A System of Values’, and ‘The State and the Society’.
    (5) The Book and the Quran: A Contemporary Reading. p. 546-548.
    (6) Niazi Izz Ad-Deen: A contemporary Syrian writer, emigrated to America, from his writings: ‘A Warning from the Sky’, and ‘The Religion of the Sultan’, in which he claimed that the hallowed Sunnah has been put by the Imams of the Muslims among the Jurists and orators in order to establish the sovereignty of the Sultan Mu’awiyah - may Allah be pleased with him - and Muslims’ scholars stridden on their path to this day.
    (7) A warning from the heaven, p. 40 111.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  5. #15
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    Episode (15) Linguistic meanings on which the enemies of Islam focus (2-2)

    Thirdly: Among the linguistic meanings they focus on in their scepticism towards the hallowed Sunnah, its meaning revealed in the Quran in the sense of command of Allah – the Almighty –, His prohibitions and all other provisions, and His way, and they say: there is no Sunnah apart from the Way of Allah – the Almighty – which is mentioned in His Mighty Book, and that it is impossible for the Messenger of Allah to have a Way, and for Allah – the Almighty – to have a Way, then the Apostle would associate himself with Almighty Allah.
    Concerning this, Mohammed Najib (1) says in his book (The Prayer): The Quran and the verses contained therein is the Way of Allah, which He instigated and prescribed as a framework for existence, and Allah Himself followed; for it is the Way of Allah...
    It is not plausible for the Messenger to have a way, and for Allah to have a Way, then the Apostle would associate himself with Allah, and both of them would have a special Way, which is impossible to happen from a believer and from a Messenger in particular. It is not plausible for a person, to whom Allah Has given the book, the wisdom and the prophecy that he leaves the rule of Allah and His Way, and requests of people that they follow what he instigates as provisions. That, if it ever happens, is but arrogance in the land and transcendence over Allah. Allah Almighty says: (It is not (possible) that a man, to whom Allah Has given the Book, and Wisdom, and the prophetic office, should say to people: "Be my worshippers rather than Allah's": on the contrary (He would say) "Be worshippers of Him Who is truly the Cherisher of all: For you have taught the Book and you have studied it earnestly) (Al ‘Imran: 79), (But when a warner came to them, it has only increased their flight (from righteousness). On account of their arrogance in the land and their plotting of Evil, but the plotting of Evil will hem in only the authors thereof. Now are they but looking for the way the ancients were dealt with? But no change will you find in Allah's way (of dealing), and no turning off will you find in Allah's way (of dealing). (Fatir: 42, 43). This underlines the need to return to the Book of Allah, for it is alone the collection of the way of Allah (2).
    In that, too, Ahmed Subhi Mansour (3) says in his book (The Class of Punishment for Apostasy), defining the real Sunnah, by saying: (The Way of Allah the Almighty is the Sunnah of His Messenger, peace be upon him...). Almighty Allah sends down the Law as revelation and the Messenger conveys it and implements it, and the Prophet would be the first of people in obedience and following to the commands of Allah. Almighty Allah commanded the Prophet to say: (I follow but that which is revealed to me) (Al Ahqaf: 9). Belief in the Messenger means belief in all that which descended on him of the Quran, and belief that he followed that revelation and applied it, and he was the first of people to believe it and implement it thereof (4).
    Qaasim Ahmad (5) says in his book (Re-evaluation of the Hadith): It is by looking at the use of the words Sunnah and Hadith in the Quran, which gives us interesting information, that we find that the word (Sunnah) refers in the Quran to the order, or the divine law, and to the paradigm of the previous nations which met their fate. The Quran did not indicate that the Sunnah is the comportment of the Prophet, and these two uses are inferred to by the following two verses:
    (Such has been the practice (approved) of Allah already in the past: no change will you find in the practice (approved) of Allah) (Al Fath: 23). (Say to the Unbelievers, if (now) they desist (from Unbelief), their past would be forgiven them; but if they persist, the punishment of those before them is already (a matter of warning for them)) (Al Anfal: 38).
    The term "Hadith" has been used in the Quran with the meaning "news", "narratives", "message" and "thing". It has been mentioned thirty-six times in different linguistic placements, none of which refers to what is known as the prophetic Hadith. In contrast, it has been mentioned in ten placements from manifest verses referring to the Quran and strongly excluding any discourse besides the Quran, of which these verses: (Allah has revealed the most beautiful Message in the form of a Book, consistent with itself) (Az Zumar: 23), (But there are, among men, those who purchase idle tales, without knowledge (or meaning), to mislead (men) from the Path of Allah and throw ridicule (on the Path): for such there will be a Humiliating Penalty) (Luqman: 6) (6).
    The answer to that is in many ways:
    The first: the allegation of the enemies of the Sunnah in their definition of the prophetic Sunnah that it is the practical process, or the practical Sunnah, or that it is the Way of Allah Almighty. And that the definition of the Sunnah is that it is: (all that which is issued by the Prophet - peace be upon him – from utterance, action, endorsement, or character ....), a terminology introduced by the orators and was not known to the Prophet - peace be upon him - or his Companions – may Allah be pleased with them – even though this definition has been a reason in the mummification of Islam. This false assertion is indicative of what I have already mentioned, that these enemies are mingling meanings in the language, with those in the terminology, and neither care about its cognition nor its clarification, either out of ignorance, or knowingly with the intention to deceive the reader and mislead him, and cause him to call in question the probativeness of the Sunnah, and its scholars.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    (1) Mohamed Najib: A contemporary writer. Among his works (The Prayer), in which he denied the hallowed Sunnah, and claimed that prayer details have been mentioned in the Holy Quran. The book has been issued by the supporters of the Quran following a symposium, published by the Encyclopaedia of Islamic Scientific Knowledge.
    (2) The Prayer, p. 276, 277.
    (3) Ahmed Sobhi Mansour: graduated from Al Azhar and got an international award in history from the University. He repudiated the Sunnah, so the University cleared itself of him. He travelled to America and worked with the divinator Rashad Khalifa, lecturing at the American University in Cairo, Director of the gallery Ibn Khaldun at Moqattam. Among his compilations: ‘Prophets in the Quran’, ‘The Disobedient Muslim’, ‘The Torment of the Grave and the Bald Snake’ and ‘Why the Quran?’, under the pseudonym Abdullah Al-Khalifa. See his story with Rashad Khalifa in the two books: ‘Musaylimah at the Tucson Mosque’, and ‘Defence of the Sunnah’, the first part of the series "Islam and the Continuation of the Plot" both of which are by the honourable Professor. Dr. Taha Hbaishi.
    (4) The Class of Punishment for Apostasy, p. 40.
    (5) Qaasim Ahmad: a contemporary Malaysian writer and President of the Malaysian Socialist Party - formerly - author of: ‘Re-evaluation of the Hadith’, in which he denied the probativeness of the Sunnah.
    (6) See: ‘Re-evaluation of the Hadith’, p. 77, 78, and his inference to this verse that the term Hadith is the Quran is an obsolete and void inference. This (idle talk) here is the fairytales and myths, see: ‘Interpretation of the Holy Quran’ by Ibn Katheer 3/441.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  6. #16
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    Episode 16: The answer to the definitions of the enemies of Islam (of the Sunnah)

    The second: that the term Sunnah has specialized in the era of the Prophet - peace be upon him - as the way – his way - peace be upon him - in conveying what has been revealed to him in terms of the elucidation of the Quran in his own words and style (Statement), action (deed) or endorsement (permission), which are in their indication in lieu of the utterance- which Muslims must follow, they should obey him and comply to him in all what he commands them, forbids them and delegated to them, as Allah the Exalted said: (So take what the Apostle assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you) [Al Hashr, 7], and as He said: (O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Apostle, and those charged with authority among you.)
    [An Nisaa, 59].
    The verses of the Quran in the obligation to follow the Prophet are many - peace be upon him – in what he commanded and prohibited, and the attestations abounds that the term Sunnah has been added to the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - and has specialized as the way. Among such attestations is his saying in the Statement of the three folk: (... such is my tradition. So he who does not follow my Tradition, is not from me) (1), and his saying: (keep to my Tradition) (2).
    If we go beyond the time of the Prophet - peace be upon him - to the era of the Companions - may Allah be pleased with them - and those who followed them in truth, we would have found that the matter had settled with them that the term Sunnah means the way of the Prophet - peace be upon him – and no other’s, and that if it was mentioned defined by (Al) and not constrained, it does but go for the way of the Prophet - peace be upon him -.
    From the attestations which indicated that:
    What Ibn Shihab Az-Zuhari narrated from Salem, according to his father Abdullah ibn Omar - may Allah be pleased with both of them - in his story with Al Hajjaj Ath-Thaqafi concerning the time of Friday prayers, Abdullah says to Al Hajjaj:" If you intended to follow the Sunnah, then forward the prayer, "ie: hold the prayer at the time of Hajeer, which is around the middle of the day ". Ibn Shihab said:" I said to Salem: did the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him –do it? Salem said: were they meaning by that but the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him -?" (3).
    The quotation of Salem, who is a follower of great trust and one of the scholars of Medina, from the Companions that if they used the term Sunnah outright, they only intend by it the way the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – and none other. With this clear and seemly testimony, the allegation of those enemies streams, which says that the term Sunnah did only specialize at the end the third century AH.
    The third: the statement that the Sunnah is only the continuous Practical Process has no truth to it. It is rather a novel terminology whose nullity is not hidden (4), because we have previously shown that the Sunnah includes the sayings of the Prophet - peace be upon him -, his actions and his endorsements, and this is what the scholars past and present agree upon (5).
    If the Sunnah is confined to the continuous Practical Process, many of verbal Statements transmitted from him- peace be upon him - would have been neglected, in all aspects of religion, in the provisions, morals and instructions (6).
    And even the Practical Processes the Prophet - peace be upon him - did not persist doing or it has not been proven that he continued doing them would have been neglected, such as fasting the day of Ashura’ (7), the prayers he led people in for three nights of Ramadan only (8) and the different modalities to the opening supplication ( 9).
    And setting the (term) Sunnah on the verbal Statements is not a novel terminology as they claim, but is rather a matter that is habitual from the very beginning (10).
    The fourth: that the word Sunnah in all the uses - as is clear from the examples we have given – has been specializing by whom it is added to or by what it is described by, or the context in which it appears. One should observe that in all its uses, whether in language, in the Quran, or in the Statements and exploits, and neglecting that leads - as we have seen - to a big confusion.
    The fifth: that the terms Sunnah and Hadith were synonymous in the time of the blessed prophecy, and the time of the Companions - may Allah be pleased with them - and the time of the followers and their followers - may Allah be pleased with all of them - and the scholars of the true law (of Allah) are greed on it – this has been previously elucidated - in contrast to the claiming enemies of Islam: that the term Sunnah is other than the term Hadith, and that they should be distinct from each other.

    (1) Already documented.
    (2) Already documented.
    (3) Sahih of Bukhari, the book of Hajj, the chapter pertaining to the combination of two prayers, N (1662).
    (4) See: Al Anwaar Al Kaashifah, p. 57.
    (5) See: the position of the Islamic group from the prophetic Hadith, p. 68-70. Its author quoted in it seventeen of the scholarly statements, which indicates setting the appellation Sunnah over his words, peace be upon him, his actions and endorsements.
    (6) See: A defence over the Sunnah p. 291.
    (7) Hadith narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad (1, 241) with the wording: (Fast the day of Ashura’ and differ from the Jews in it ...).
    (8) See the Hadith in in Sahih Bukhari, the book of prayer at night, the chapter pertaining to the incitement of the Prophet peace be upon him to the night prayer, No. (1129).
    (9) See: the position of the Islamic group from the prophetic Hadith, p. 57.


    (10) See: A defence over the Sunnah, p. 291.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  7. #17
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    Episode 17: The Sunnah terminologically


    The definition of the Sunnah in terminology differs according to the difference in the purposes of the scholars from their research, depending their different specialties, and the following is its definition with orators, the fundamentalists and the jurists.

    The Sunnah in the terminology of the orators:
    Orators have multiple definitions for the Sunnah; among these definitions:

    1 – It is his sayings - peace be upon him -, his actions, his endorsements, his physical and moral qualities, and all his accounts, whether before or after the mission. This is what is widely known to the majority of orators, as though the Sunnah for them is concerned with the Marfu’ (elevated) Hadith only. As to the Mawquf (stopped) and Maqtu’ (severed), it is not.

    Perhaps the supporting basis of these for the adoption of this definition is: the appellation of the Prophet - peace be upon him – of all that which he came up with, in reciprocity of the Quran with the Sunnah, such as saying in his Sermon during the Farewell Pilgrimage: (O people, I have left among you that which if you hold fast to, you shall never go astray: the Book of Allah and my Tradition) (1).
    Based on this statement, many of the orators attribute, in the appellation of their books in Hadith, the name Sunnah, such as: Sunan Abu ‘Isa At-Tirmidhi, deceased in the year 279 AH, and the Sunan of Imam Abu Dawood Al-Sedgestani, deceased in the year 275 AH, and Sunan An Nisa’ee, deceased in the year 303 AH, and Sunan Ibn Majah Al Qazweeni, deceased in the year 373 AH or in the year 275 AH.

    2 - It was said: it is – ie: the Sunnah - his statements - peace be upon him - his actions, his endorsements, his physical and moral attributes, and all of his accounts, whether that is before or after the mission, as well as the statements of the Companions and their actions.

    Among those who adopted this statement is Imam Abu Hanifa An-Nu'man ibn Thaabit - may Allah be pleased with him - deceased in the year 150 AH, it has been reported that he said: "What came to us from the side of the companions, we followed them, and what came to us from the side of the followers, we looked to converging them."

    He said: "If I do not find in the Book of Allah or the Sunnah of His Messenger, I consider the statement of his companions, whomever I wished; and I leave the statement of whomever I wished, then again, I do not step beyond their word to that of others" (1).

    As if the Sunnah for Abu Hanifa is specific to the Marfu’ (narration attributed to the Prophet specifically) and Mawquf (narration attributed to a companion) only, while other than that, among the Maqtu’ (narration attributed to a successor), is not. Perhaps his basis in adopting this definition is his saying- peace and blessings of Allah be upon him -: (You ought to follow my Tradition and that of the rightly-guided, upright successors; bite upon it with your back teeth) (1).

    3 - It was said: it is – ie: the Sunnah - his statements - peace be upon him -, his actions, his endorsements, his physical and moral attributes, and all of his accounts, whether before or after the mission, as well as the statements of the companions and the followers, and their actions.
    Among those who adopted this definition; Al-Haafidh Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Al-Hussein, known as Al-Bayhaqi, deceased in the year 458 AH, where he called his book – in which he collected what came from the Prophet - peace be upon him - the edicts of the companions and the followers and their actions: As-Sunan Al-Kubraa, as though the Sunnah for him includes: the Marfu’ (narration attributed to the Prophet specifically), Mawquf (narration attributed to a companion) and Maqtu’ (narration attributed to a successor).
    He might have based his adoption of this definition on: the fact that the companions were in contact with the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - and witnessed the revelation and descent, and that the followers intermingled with the companions, mixed with them and heard from them, so much so that their words and actions were worthy of acceptance than others, and became part of the concept of Sunnah.

    _________________________________________________________

    (1) This Statement was narrated by Maalik in Al Muwatta’ Communication, Kitab Al-Qadar (Book of Destiny), p.: 561, ed.: Ash-Sha’b, Zarqaani said in his interpretation of the Muwatta’ (4 / 246): "His communication is authentic, as Ibn Uyaynah said" and has been documented by Ibn Abd Al-Barr in At-Tamheed according to the Statement of Abu Hurayrah and that of Amr ibn Awf, and said: "This is a reputed Statement of the Prophet - peace be upon him –the scholars dispose of a reputation, which would almost obviate the chain of narration", refer to: (Fatḥ Al-Maalik with the arrangement of At-Tamheed of Ibn Abd Al-Barr on Malik’s Muwatta’ (9/282- 283), and narrated by Al-Haakim in Al-Mustadrak (No. 931), and authenticated and converged by Adh-Dhahabi".
    (2) The Principles of As-Sarkhasi (1 / 313).
    (3) This Statement was narrated by Al-Tirmidhi in his Sunan, Kital Al-‘Ilm (Book of Knowledge), section of what came on following the Sunnah and avoiding innovations. No (2676), and said: a sound, authentic Statement, and narrated by Abu Dawood in his Sunan, Kitab As-Sunnah (Book of Tradition of the Prophet), the section on the adherence to the Sunnah. No (4607), and Ibn Majah in As-Sunan, the Introduction: section on following the Tradition of the rightly-guided, upright successors. No (42, 43), and Imam Ahmad in his Musnad (4 / 126, 127), all are according to the Statement of Al-‘Arbadh bin Saariyah - may Allah be pleased with him.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  8. #18
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    Episode 18 The Sunnah terminologically (The Outweighing)

    The outweighing of these definitions is the second one, which includes the statements of the companions and their actions in the Sunnah, but taking into account that when the Sunnah is designated and defined, diverted to his Sunnah - peace be upon him -, while assigning it to that which emanated from the companions, comes rather constrained. Thus, it is said (the Sunnah of the upright successors) or (the upright Sunnah) and the reason for this shift in weight is the following:
    1 – That Allah – the Almighty and Majestic – endorsed the companions and the followers in the Holy Quran, so He said: (The vanguard (of Islam)- the first of those who forsook (their homes) and of those who gave them aid, and (also) those who follow them in (all) good deeds,- well- pleased is Allah with them, as are they with Him: for them has He prepared gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein for ever: that is the supreme felicity.) (1).
    Ash-Shaatibi says: "the Sunnah of the companions - may Allah be pleased with them – is one to rely and refer to, in evidence for this: Allah’s tribute to them without exception (2), and their compliment with justice and what is due to it, such as His saying, Almighty: (you are the best of peoples, evolved for mankind) ( 3), and His saying: (Thus, have We made of you a nation justly balanced, that you might be witnesses over the nations, and the Messenger a witness over yourselves). (4).
    2 - That the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - urged to take after them, he said: (You ought to follow my Tradition and that of the rightly-guided, upright successors; bite upon it with your back teeth ...) (5).
    He also said: (The Children of Israel split following seventy-two sects, and my nation diverged to seventy-three, all of them in the fire except one, they said: which one is it, O Messenger of Allah? He said: that which my companions and I follow).
    Our predecessors have realized the value of this Prophetic guidance, therefore decided to embrace as Sunnah, the words of the companions and their actions:
    Ibn Abd Al-Barr narrated, based on his reliance on Maalik ibn Anas, he said: Omar bin Abdul Aziz said: “The Messenger of Allah- peace be upon him – and the guardians after him, instigated a set of examples to follow; adopting them amounts to trust in the Book of Allah, refinement of obedience to Allah and strength in the way of the religion of Allah. Whoever followed them, is surely guided, and whoever called upon them, is surely triumphant, and whoever violated them; has surely followed a path other than that becoming to people of faith, and Allah left him in the path he has chosen, and cast him in the Hell Fire; and what an awful refuge! "(6).
    Ad- Daarimi related, based on his reliance on ‘Awn bin Abdullah bin ‘Utbah bin Mas’oud - may Allah be pleased with him – that he said: "I would not have liked that the companions of Mohammed - peace be upon him - did not disagree; if they agreed on something then one man left it, he forsook the Sunnah, and if they disagreed then one man followed the opinion of someone, he followed the Sunnah. "(7).
    Ibn Abd Al-Barr narrated, based on his reliance on Saleh bin Kisan, who said: "I met with Az-Zuhari, while we were seeking knowledge, we said: let us compile the Sunnahs (precedents): so, we did write down what came from the Prophet - peace be upon him - then he said: let us write down what came from his companions for it is Sunnah. I said: It is not of the Sunnah, therefore we do not write it down, and he wrote and I did not, therefore he saved while I wasted."(8).
    This is what prompted Imam Al-Bayhaqi to combine in his book "As-Sunan Al-Kubra" that which came from the Prophet - peace be upon him - and that which came from his companions and followers as their words and deeds, as if the Sunnah for him encompasses: the Mrfu’(narration attributed directly to the Prophet), Mawquf (narration attributed to the companions) and Maqtu’ (narration attributed to the followers).

    3 – The training they received in matters of religious jurisprudence, so that they became better placed than others to formulate legal opinions and independent interpretation, as if what came from these as statement, formulated legal opinion or action, does not go beyond guidance by a precedent (Sunnah), or analogical reasoning about a precedent (Sunnah), so it was befitting to be within the concept of Sunnah.
    As-Shaatibi said: "The majority of scholars favoured the companions when it came to weighting statements, a party among them has made statements by Abu Bakr and Omar into argument and evidence, and some of them counted the declarations of the four Successors as evidence, while some took the statements of the companions as overall argument and evidence, and each of them has a particular declaration relating to the Sunnah... It is sufficient above all: what came in the Statements regarding the duty to esteem them (the companions and the followers), to reprehend those who loathe them, and that he who loves them loves the Prophet - peace be upon him -, and he who loathes them loathes the Prophet - peace be upon him -, not owing to the fact that they saw him, or were seen in his proximity, or dialogued with him only, as there is no privilege in that, but it is due to the intensity of their devotion to him, endeavouring themselves to enact his Tradition, together with protecting and supporting him. Whoever achieved such a status, is surely well worthy to be taken as an example to follow, and his precedent be made a focal point to turn to."(9).

    _________________________________________________________

    (1) Chapter At-Taubah / 100.
    (2) ie: without exception.
    (3) Chapter Al-‘Imran / 110.
    (4) Chapter Al-Baqarah / 143.
    (5) Narrated by Abu Dawood in his Sunan, Kitab As-Sunnah, the chapter pertaining to the necessity of the Sunnah, No (4607), and Al-Tirmidhi in his Sunan, Kitab Al-‘Ilm, the chapter pertaining to what came in the adoption of the Prophetic Sunnah and avoidance of innovations, No (2676), and he said: sound and authentic. Ibn Majah in his Sunan; Al Muqaddimah: the chapter pertaining to following the Sunnah of the rightly-guided, upright Successors, No (42, 43).
    (6) Jaami’ Bayan Al-‘Ilm (2 / 1176 No. 2326), and narrated by Al-Khatib in Al-Faqeeh wal-Mutafaqqih (1 / 435 No. 455).
    (7) Sunan Ad-Daarimi, Introduction, the chapter pertaining to the differences among jurists (1 / 151).
    (8) Jaami’ Bayan Al-‘Ilm (1 / 333 No (442), with an authentic chain of narration, and narrated by Abdul Razzaq in his Musannaf (11/258-259).
    (9) Al-Muwaafaqaat (4 / 456, 462, 463).
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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    Episode 19: Attack on the Sunnah: His upbringing and development (1-4)


    The Arabs had been, before the advent of Islam and its noble Prophet, tribes in dispute and enemies inter-fighting, no purpose assembles them and no goal unites them. Allah has bestowed his favor upon them with this religion, so He joined by it between their hearts, united the ranks and made them brothers who love one another, collaborating and helping one another; if any of them went absent they enquired after him, and if he became impoverished they comforted him. If he were in need they aided him, and if he fell ill they visited him, and if he passed away they held a funeral for him. Their religion is advice, and their ethics are the promotion of virtue and prevention of vice. Allah the Exalted says, in gratefulness and reminding of this fact and that reality: (And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah's favour on you; for you were enemies and He joined your hearts in love, so that by His Grace, you became brethren; and you were on the brink of the pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus does Allah make His Signs clear to you: That you may be guided) (1), and the Almighty also says (Call to mind when you were a small (band), despised through the land, and afraid that men might despoil and kidnap you; But He provided a safe asylum for you, strengthened you with His aid, and gave you Good things for sustenance: that you might be grateful.) (2).
    Ibn Katheer said: (The Almighty exhilarates His faithful servants about His favors upon them, kindness to them, where they were a few so he made them many, vulnerable and afraid so He strengthened them and supported them, poor with dependents so He sustained them with the good things, He asked them for gratitude so they obeyed him and complied with all that which He commanded them ...
    Qatada said: This Arab neighborhood used to be the most humiliated among people, and the most miser in living, and hungriest of bellies, and most nude of skins, and most clearly astray. Whoever lived among them, he lived in misery, and whoever died among them, he was damned to the hell fire, they are eaten and do not eat. By Allah, we knew not a group of the present inhabitants of the earth then who were of worst status than them, until Allah brought Islam and established by it in the land, and expanded by it the provisions, and made them by it kings over the necks of people, and with Islam Allah has given what you have seen, so thank Allah for his favors, for your Lord is favor-giver who loves thanks, and the worthy of thanks are in more (favors) from Allah) (3).
    Allah the Almighty did not take His prophet to His side only after Allah completed for him and his nation this religion. He sent down on him months before his death during the Farewell Pilgrimage: (Today I have perfected your religion for you and completed My favor upon you and chosen for you Islam as your religion) (4).
    The completion of the religion was among the great favors of Allah upon this nation, and therefore the Jews used to envy the Muslims over this verse. The two Sheikhs narrated, according to Omar bin Al-Khattab - may Allah be pleased with him -, that a Jewish man said to him: "O leader of the faithful! A verse in your book you read, if upon us the assembly of Jews it descended, we would have taken that day a festival. He said: Which verse? He said: (Today I have perfected your religion for you and completed My favor upon you and chosen for you Islam as your religion) (5).
    Ibn Abbas - may Allah be pleased with them – said in the interpretation of this verse: (Allah informed His Prophet - peace be upon him - and the believers that He completed the faith for them, so they would never need an increase ever. Allah has accomplished it, so He would never diminish it, and He has chosen it, so He would never rage His wrath on it) (6).
    The Prophet - peace be upon him – told that he has left this nation on a clear path, no one deviates away from it but he is doomed.
    According to Abu Ad-Darda’ - may Allah be pleased with him – according to the Prophet - peace be upon him – He said: (...and by Allah, I have left you such as the white path (its night and day are alike) (7), and in the statement of Al-‘Arbadh (...no one deviates from it, after me, but he is doomed) (8).


    _________________________________________________________

    (1) Surah Al-‘Imran , 103.
    (2) Surah Al-Anfal, 26.
    (3) ‘Umdatut-Tafseer (2, 115-116).
    (4) Surah Al-Ma’idah, 3.
    (5) Saheeh Bukhari, Book of Faith, the chapter pertaining to the increase and decrease of faith (45) and Saheeh Muslim, Book of Interpretation (3017).
    (6) The Interpretation of Ibn Katheer (2, 12).
    (7) Narrated by Ibn Majah, Introduction, the chapter pertaining to following the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- (5).
    (8) Narrated by Ahmad (4, 126) and authenticated by Al Albani and his predecessor with the ensemble of his ways in “the Shadows of Paradise”. See: The Shadows of Paradise with the Book of Sunnah by Ibn Abi ‘Asim, p. 26 (47, 48, 49).
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

  10. #20
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    Episode 20: Attack on the Sunnah: His upbringing and development (2-4)



    He also confirmed to them - peace be upon him - that he had conveyed to them the message of his Lord in full, and whatever good there was but he had showed it to them, and whatever evil there was, but he had warned them about. In the statement of Abdullah bin ‘Amr he said: The Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - said: (There was no Prophet that has gone before me but had the duty to designate to his nation to what he knew was good for them and warn them against what he knew was bad for them ...)(1).
    The ultimate good which he committed to the nation and recommended was holding fast to the Book and the Sunnah, for there is therein guidance and salvation. He - peace be upon him - said: (I have left among you that which if you hold fast to, you will never go astray: the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet, peace be upon him) (2).
    The noble Companions have responded to this testament. They were the greatest of people in holding fast to the law (of Allah), and observing the provisions, because they perceived these meanings. They realized that religion is fulfilled and was not in need of additions, and that the Law has been shown up and became clear, and therefore was not in need for elucidation. The matter was rather in terms of compliance and following. They were such as Ibn Mas'ud - may Allah be pleased with him – described them (the best of this nation: the most righteous of hearts, the deepest of knowledge and the least in formality) (3).
    People remained this way until the passions blew them away, the opinions manipulated them, the paths led them to deviation and the evil, which Allah warned from, occurred. The Almighty said: (As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, you have no part in them in the least) (4).
    Ibn Katheer said: (It seems that the verse is general concerning all those who parted with the religion of Allah and contravened him, for Allah sent His Messenger with Guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim it over all religion, and His Law is one; no disagreement in it and no separation. Those who disagree in it (and they were into sects), ie: teams, such as religious sects and creeds – which are whims and delusions - Allah has exculpated His messenger from what they are into, and this verse such as the saying of the Almighty: (The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah – and that which We have sent by inspiration to you - and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: Namely, that you should remain steadfast in religion, and make no divisions therein) the verse ...

    This is the straight path, which the Apostles came with: from the worship of Allah alone with no partner and the adherence to the law of the late Prophet, and other than that is but delusions and ignorance, and opinions and whims, from which the Apostles are innocent) (5).

    _________________________________________________________

    (1) Narrated by Muslim, the Book on Government, the chapter pertaining to keeping loyal to the pledge of oath to the successor in succession (1844).
    (2) Narrated by Al Haakim, the Book of Science, the chapter pertaining to his Sermon - peace be upon him - in the Farewell Pilgrimage (318), and said: in its chain of narration is ‘Ikrimah and Bukhari remonstrated by it, and Ibn Abi Awys, and Muslim remonstrated by it, and all its narrators are agreed upon, and then said: He has got a witness from the statement of Abu Hurayrah, and documented in a previous instance, and Adh-Dhahabi agreed with him and said: it has an origin in the authentic.
    (3) A part of a trailer narrated by Baghawi according to Ibn Mas'ud in the exegesis of the Sunnah (1, 214).
    (4) Surah Al An’am, 159.
    (5) ‘Umdatut-Tafseer (1, 845).
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي

    تحمَّلتُ وحديَ مـا لا أُطيـقْ من الإغترابِ وهَـمِّ الطريـقْ
    اللهم اني اسالك في هذه الساعة ان كانت جوليان في سرور فزدها في سرورها ومن نعيمك عليها . وان كانت جوليان في عذاب فنجها من عذابك وانت الغني الحميد برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

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الدفاع عن السنة The defence of the Sunnah

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الدفاع عن السنة The defence of the Sunnah

الدفاع عن السنة The defence of the Sunnah