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  1. #121
    Sep 2006
    1,528
    25-10-2014
    07:15 PM




    History
    The Prophet's family
    Muslims in their first century at first were relaxed about female dress. When the son of a prominent companion of the Prophet asked his wife Aisha bint Talha to veil her face, she answered, "Since the Almighty hath put on me the stamp of beauty, it is my wish that the public should view the beauty and thereby recognized His grace unto them. On no account, therefore, will I veil myself."
    Women in the Muslim World, ed. Lynn Reese, 1998
    As Islam reached other lands, regional practices, including the covering of the faces of women, were adopted by the early Muslims. Yet it was only in the second Islamic century that the face veil became common, first used among the powerful and rich as a status symbol.
    A screening curtain
    When the Qur'an first mentioned the concept of hijab, it was not as a veil or headscarf. Hijab was used in the con**** of a barrier or screen as in this Qur'anic verse:
    (...) And when ye ask (the Prophet's wives) for anything ye want, ask them from before a screen: that makes for greater purity for your hearts and for theirs.
    33:53
    Taken in historical con****, this verse seems to have been primarily intended to give the Prophet's wives some protection against nuisance visitors and people who were looking for gossip about them.
    Gossip and slander were a great concern at the time the verses relating to hijab were revealed. One set of verses (24:1 onwards) came immediately after the Prophet's wife Aisha was accused and acquitted of adultery.

    Awrah
    The Arabic word awrah refers to the parts of the body which must be covered with clothing. Awrah is any part of the body, for both men and women, which may not be visible to the public. Awrah is interpreted differently depending upon the sex of the company one is in.
    Men
    Most Muslims accept that for men everything between the navel and the knee is awrah and therefore should be covered at all times.
    Women
    Rules for women are more complicated. There are a number of scenarios for women:
    In front of unrelated men (Muslim or non-Muslim), women must cover everything except the hands and face
    In front of close male relatives, awrah is the navel to the knee and the stomach and the back
    In front of other Muslim females, awrah is from the navel down to, and including, the knees
    Awrah in front of non-Muslim women is a point of debate:
    Some scholars say that women should cover all but the hands and face. This is to prevent non-Muslim women (who may not understand the rules regarding hijab) from describing the appearance of the hijab wearer to other men
    Other scholars say that if a non-Muslim woman can be trusted not to describe a woman's appearance to other men, then she may reveal as much as she would in front of another Muslim woman in her presence.
    The Hanafi school of thought, which is followed by most Muslims in the world, agree that the feet are not part of the awrah and therefore may be revealed.
    Amongst other schools of thought a common opinion is that everything apart from a woman's face and hands is awrah. Scholars holding this opinion use this hadith to justify it:
    Narrated Aisha (the Prophet's wife): Asma, daughter of Abu Bakr, entered upon the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) wearing thin clothes. The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) turned his attention from her. He said: 'O Asma, when a woman reaches the age of menstruation, it does not suit her that she displays her parts of body except this and this, and he pointed to her face and hands.
    Abu Dawud, Book 32, Number 4092
    N.B.: This particular hadith is regarded as 'weak' (i.e. not reliably attributed) by some scholars, including the hadith's collector, Abu Dawud.
    Husband and wife
    There is no restriction on what a husband and wife may show to each other in private. The Qur'an encourages married couples to enjoy each other's bodies.
    Individuals in private
    Islam highly values modesty, so even when alone, men and women are recommended never to be completely naked and to cover from the navel to the knee. Exceptions do apply where necessary, for example taking a shower or going to the bathroom.


    Other hadith relating to dress
    A ban on silk clothes
    Narrated Al-Bara: The Prophet ordered us to observe seven things: To visit the sick; follow funeral processions; say 'May Allah bestow His Mercy on you', to the sneezer if he says, 'Praise be to Allah!'; He forbade us to wear silk, Dibaj, Qassiy and Istibarq (various kinds of silken clothes); or to use red Mayathir (silk-cushions).
    Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 72, Number 740
    The banning of silk is a rule that relates to men only, as it is seen as effeminate. Muslim men are also forbidden from wearing gold jewellery for the same reason.
    Some forbidden practices relating to clothing
    Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: Allah's Apostle forbade Ishtimal-As-Samma' (wrapping one's body with a garment so that one cannot raise its end or take one's hand out of it). He also forbade Al-Ihtiba' (sitting on buttocks with knees close to abdomen and feet apart with the hands circling the knees) while wrapping oneself with a single garment, without having a part of it over the private parts.
    Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 8, Number 363
    Garments that drag or hang low
    Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar: The Prophet said Allah will not look, on the Day of Resurrection at the person who drags his garment (behind him) out of conceit. On that Abu Bakr said, "O Allah's Apostle! One side of my Izar hangs low if I do not take care of it." The Prophet said, 'You are not one of those who do that out of conceit."
    Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 72, Number 675
    Some scholars say that this was said in the con**** of the time, where cloth was expensive. People would wear clothes that trailed to the ground to demonstrate their wealth, and it was a symbol of wealth and therefore pride. Some Muslim men prefer to wear clothes that end just above their ankles due to this hadith.
    Hijab and prayer
    Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Allah does not accept the prayer of a woman who has reached puberty unless she wears a veil.
    Abu Dawud, Book 2, Number 0641
    It is well accepted by most scholars that while praying, women must cover everything except the hands and face. It is forbidden to cover the face while praying.
    Men must cover from the navel to the knee.
    Cross dressing
    Men are forbidden from dressing or acting like women, and vice versa, in hadith such as this one:
    Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: Allah's Apostle cursed those men who are in the similitude (assume the manners) of women and those women who are in the similitude of men.
    Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 72, Number 773

    Veiling while on Hajj
    There is an Islamic tradition that women - and men - should not veil their faces while on the Hajj pilgrimage. Some hadith are used to support this view:
    Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar used to say that a man in ihram should not veil anything above his chin.
    Malik's Muwatta, Book 20, Number 20.5.13b
    Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar used to say that a woman in ihram should wear neither a veil nor gloves.
    Malik's Muwatta, Book 20, Number 20.5.15
    (Ihram is the state of dress and ritual purity adopted for the Hajj.)
    Some Muslims dispute this and cite hadith in which the Prophet's wives pulled their head coverings over their faces in the presence of unrelated men while on Hajj.
    A dress code for Hajj
    Narrated Ibn 'Umar: A person asked Allah's Apostle, "What should a Muhrim (pilgrim on Hajj) wear?" He replied, "He should not wear shirts, trousers, a burnus (a hooded cloak), or clothes which are stained with saffron or Wars (a kind of perfume). Whoever does not find a sandal to wear can wear Khuffs, but these should be cut short so as not to cover the ankles.
    Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 8, Number 362


    Revelation of the verses of veiling
    According to this hadith, one man (Umar ibn al-Khattab, later the second caliph) was able to bring about the commandment for the Prophet's wives to veil their faces.
    Narrated 'Aisha: The wives of the Prophet used to go to Al-Manasi, a vast open place (near Baqia at Medina) to answer the call of nature at night. 'Umar used to say to the Prophet "Let your wives be veiled," but Allah's Apostle did not do so. One night Sauda bint Zam'a the wife of the Prophet went out at 'Isha' time and she was a tall lady. 'Umar addressed her and said, "I have recognized you, O Sauda." He said so, as he desired eagerly that the verses of Al-Hijab (the observing of veils by the Muslim women) may be revealed. So Allah revealed the verses of "Al-Hijab".
    Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 4, Number 148
    Men who veil
    Men who wear the face veil




    While the issue of Muslim women and the veil attracts a lot of publicity, it is often forgotten that there is also a tradition of men covering their faces.
    There is enough evidence that the Prophet himself covered his face ... when warriors were on horses and camels they covered their faces ... so we were missing a half of the story here when we focused too much on women, and by doing so we may have misunderstood even the meaning of women veiling.
    Fadwa El Guindi, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology at the University of Qatar
    The veil-cum-turban of the Tuareg tribes of North Africa is a sign of maturity. When a boy becomes a man, the cloth is wound around his face and head until only his eyes are visible. Its significance is both religious and cultural.
    Sufi mystics in Cairo continue a long tradition of veiling when they go into retreat, to isolate themselves from the world. And in the ancient religion of Jainism, both men and women cover their faces when entering their temple's inner sanctum.
    In this audio programme, Navid Akhtar meets the singer Abdullah Ag Alhousseyni from the Tuareg band Tinariwen, talks to men of different faiths about what the veil means to them, and asks whether their stories change the way we perceive women who are veiled.
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/beliefs/hijab_1.shtml


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  2. #122
    Sep 2006
    1,528
    25-10-2014
    07:15 PM






    Part 11
    Head coverings (scarves)and face coverings (face veils)[And why do Muslim Men have beards]


    Nobel Peace Prize winner Tawakkul Karman, The mother of Yemens revolution, when asked about her Hijab by journalists and how it is not proportionate with her level of intellect and education, replied:
    Man in early times was almost naked, and as his intellect evolved he started wearing clothes. What I am today and what Im wearing represents the highest level of thought and civilization that man has achieved, and is not regressive. Its the removal of clothes again that is a regression back to the ancient times.
    and Interesting article below on Veil:
    A veil is an article of clothing, which is intended to cover some part of the head or face. A veil is almost exclusively worn by women, although some instances exist where men also wear a veil. The first recorded instance of veiling for women is recorded in an Assyrian legal text from the 13th century BC which restricted its use to noble women and forbade prostitutes and common women from adopting it. Greek texts have also spoken of veiling and seclusion of women being practiced among the Persian elite and statues from Persepolis depict women both veiled and unveiled, and it seems to be regarded as an attribute of higher status.
    Purpose
    For many centuries, until around 1175, Anglo-Saxons and then Anglo-Norman women, with the exception of young unmarried girls, wore veils that entirely covered their hair, and often their necks up to their chins. Only in the Tudor period (1485), when hoods became increasingly popular, did veils of this type become less common. For centuries, women have worn sheer veils, but only under certain circumstances. Sometimes a veil of this type was draped over and pinned to the bonnet or hat of a woman in mourning, especially at the funeral and during the subsequent period of high mourning. They would also have been used, as an alternative to a mask, as a simple method of hiding the identity of a woman who was travelling to meet a lover, or doing anything she didnt want other people to find out about. More pragmatically, veils were also sometimes worn to protect the complexion from sun and wind damage (when un-tanned skin was fashionable), or to keep dust out of a womans face.
    Veils with religious significance
    In Judaism and Christianity the concept of covering the head was associated with propriety and can be witnessed in all depictions of Mary the mother of Christ, and was a common practice with Church-going women until the 1960s. A number of very traditional churches do retain the custom even to this day.
    Womens headcoverings
    Traditionally, in Christianity, women were enjoined to cover their heads in church, just as it was (and still is) customary for men to remove their hat as a sign of respect. This practice is based on the Bible (Corinthians: 11:4-16). In many traditional Eastern Orthodox Churches, and in some very conservative Protestant churches as well, the custom continues of women covering their heads in church (or even when praying privately at home). In the Roman Catholic Church, it was customary, before the 1960s for women in most places to wear a headcovering in the form of a scarf, cap, veil or hat when entering a church. The practice now continues where it is seen as a matter of etiquette, courtesy, tradition or fashionable elegance rather than strictly of religion. Traditionalist Catholics also maintain the practice.
    Muslim veils
    A variety of headdresses worn by Muslim women in accordance with khimar (the principle of dressing modestly) are sometimes referred to as veils or headscarves. Many of these garments cover the hair, ears and throat, but do not cover the face. The niqab and burqa are two kinds of veils that cover most of the face except for a slit or hole for the eyes. The Afghan burqa covers the entire body, obscuring the face completely, except for a grille or netting over the eyes to allow the wearer to see. The boushiya is a veil that may be worn over a headscarf, it covers the entire face and is made of a sheer fabric so the wearer is able to see through it. It has been suggested that the Byzantine practice of wearing a veil uncommon among the Arab tribes prior to the rise of Islam originated in the Byzantine Empire, and then spread among the Arabs.
    Other veils
    Veils with hats
    Veils pinned to hats have survived the changing fashions of the centuries and are still common today on occasions when women wear hats. However, these veils are generally made of netting or another material not actually designed to hide the face from view, even if the veil can be pulled down, which is not always the case.
    Wedding veils
    It is not altogether clear that the wedding veil is a non-religious use of this item, since weddings have almost always had religious underpinnings, especially in the West: in the Christian tradition this is expressed in the Gospel passage, What therefore God has joined together, let no man put asunder (Mt. 19:6), but veils had been used in the West for weddings long before this (Roman brides, for instance, wore an intensely flame-coloured and fulsome veil, called the flammeum, apparently intended to protect the bride from evil spirits on her wedding day).
    The lifting of the veil was often a part of ancient wedding ritual. In many cultures, the lifting of the wedding veil symbolized the groom taking possession of the wife, either as lover or as property, or the revelation of the bride to the groom by her parents for approval. In ancient Judaism the lifting of the veil took place just prior to the consummation of the marriage in sexual union. The uncovering or unveiling that takes place in the marriage ceremony is a symbol of what will take place in the marriage bed. Just as the two become one through their words spoken in wedding vows, so these words are a sign of the physical oneness that they will consummate later on. The lifting of the veil is a symbol and an anticipation of this. In the story of Jacob in the Old Testament (found in the Book of Genesis), his father-in-law, Laban, tricks Jacob into marrying the wrong woman. Because of the heavily masked veil that was not raised until after the union was complete, Jacob married the older and homelier Leah instead of the young and beautiful Rachel. Rachel was his one true love, and the deceit resulted in Jacob eventually having both as his wives. The story also resulted in the Jewish practice where a groom lowers the veil before the ceremony and lifts the veil before the kiss. This practice is known as Bedeken.
    Courtesans
    Conversely, veils are often part of the stereotypical image of the courtesan and harem woman. Here, rather than the virginity of the brides veil, modesty of the Muslim scarf or the piety of the nuns headdress, the mysterious veil hints at sensuality and the unknown. An example of the veils erotic potential is the dance of the seven veils. In this context, the term may refer to a piece of sheer cloth approximately 3 yards by 45 inches, sometimes trimmed with sequins or coins, which is used in various styles of belly dancing. A large repertoire of ways to wear and hold the veil exists, many of which are intended to frame the body from the perspective of the audience.
    In West Africa
    Among the Tuareg of West Africa, women do not traditionally wear the veil, while men do. The mens facial covering originates from the belief that such action wards off evil spirits, but most probably relates to protection against the harsh desert sands as well; in any event, it is a firmly established tradition. Men begin wearing a veil at age 25 which conceals their entire face excluding their eyes. This veil is never removed, even in front of family members.
    http://www.wikigender.org/index.php/Veil

    The head coverings, scarves and veils on the Muslim women
    The virtues of modesty and chastity are the main reasons for Muslim women to wear head coverings, scarves and veil. Another reason is for protection from the disturbing teasing, ogling, and advances which may lead to molestation and lewdness forwarded by those unscrupulous and criminal elements in society. Islam seeks to protect the family life of the society in general, and thus seeks to protect the chastity and moral purity of all members of the society from temptations. This is the main rational for women to wear modest clothing.
    If a man in western societies, for example, sees a Catholic Nun wearing her religious habit (like the famous pictures of Mother Teresa, etc), then he automatically thinks she is protecting her morality and chastity, and therefore sacrosanct and off limits. If an unscrupulous man is seeking something illegal in flirtation, fornication and adultery, he turns to see other women who flirt and wear provocative clothing and expose their feminine beauties. Thus the modest clothing of a faithful women acts as a warning flag to stay away from this women for she is chaste and protected.
    As this examples portrays, and by way of this analogy to bring the concept closer to comprehension, the rationale for modest clothing and covering in Muslim societies is the same. And yet Muslim women have the obligation to follow and observe specifically strict instruction in this regard as mentioned below.
    Observant female followers of Judaism always wear head coverings as obligatory, and many Christian women wear scarves and head coverings to church, and even face veils were common. At some Jewish and Christians weddings a face veil is traditional since this is the heritage of the symbol of faith in Gods teachings about morality, modesty and chastity before marriage, and the sign the sanctity chastity and faithfulness in marriage, of family life, and of motherhood .
    I always naturally thought about this I realize now upon reflection when as a child I looked at those bible pictures of the Holy Land, seeing the modestly dressed men always with beards, and women always with head coverings. That was a long time before I accepting Islam, and the praise is for Allah, the One God and Lord Sovereign of the Universe who guides whom He will.
    As my wife and I were strolling one day in the grocery store in the same Midwestern town, a little girl said to her mother commenting on my wife and her appearance: mommy mommy look! Mary!
    What this innocent little girl saw was exactly what I saw as a child: the images of middle eastern women in modest clothing, as a sign of their modesty, chastity, and faith in God.
    A Midwestern Christian preacher and missionary said to me that his grandmother would never go to church without her face veil, as was customary in those days. How much change in the USA have we seen in one generation after the so called sexual revolution of the 60s.
    In Christianity the covering of the head in church is obligatory according to the passage of the New Testament of the Bible of Corinthians 11:4-16 which includes:
    5And every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her headit is just as though her head were shaved. 6If a woman does not cover her head, she should have her hair cut off; and if it is a disgrace for a woman to have her hair cut or shaved off, she should cover her head.
    Reflection on Muslim womens dress with loose clothing, head covering and face veil:
    Some have tried to portray the modest clothing and head scarf of observant Muslim woman and especially the face veil of some Muslim women, as a sign of oppressive male dominance and the abject subjugation of women in Muslim societies. They seek to liberate Muslim women from this repression, and call them to take off their coverings, throw away their veils, and wear revealing modern clothes which expose their feminine beauties in fashionable manners, or so they claim.
    They portray this as an evil that must be countered with rigorous propaganda and even rules and laws which outlaw such expressions of so called humiliation and subjugation.

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  3. #123
    Sep 2006
    1,528
    25-10-2014
    07:15 PM




    Some Muslim men and women have been affected by the propaganda and heeded this call.
    The reality is that the modest dress of a observant Muslim woman, covering her feminine beauty, is liberation from the sex slavery that many modern women have fallen into. We say slavery because they have fallen into the degradation of their dignity and humanity by exposing their nakedness publicly, by subjugating themselves to the crass exploitation and commercialization of their precious bodies, by making themselves an object of unlawful desire by their manners and their dress, by and submitting themselves to the propaganda calling to extramarital sexual relationships.
    All of this slavery is an attack upon morality and the preservation of the purity of family life. Extramarital sexual relationships are seen by Islam, Judaism and Christianity, in unanimity, as immoral, unlawful, and sinful, deserving of punishment in this life and the Hereafter.
    The commands of Islamic texts concerning womens modest dress and coverings are unequivocal in the in the Quran and the Sunnah.
    Note that there is some difference of scholarly Muslim jurist opinion in interpreting the commands in the sources of Islamic law the Quran and the Sunnah concerning the obligation of the face veil, and yet the controversy is only about is the face veil whether it is obligatory or not. All competent Muslim scholars and jurist say that the head and body covering of a mature Muslim woman is obligatory. All say that the face veil of a mature Muslim woman is recommended as voluntary and supererogatory, and some say it becomes obligatory if temptation is feared. Thus the controversy is mainly only concerning this question of Islamic law: is the face veil obligatory or only supererogatory?
    Just a few Evidences from the Qurán:
    And Allah the most Exalted said:
    : ( ). :59.
    The saying of Allah, Most Exalted: O Prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the believing women to spread over themselves from their outer garments. That is more suitable that they will be known and will not be abused (or molested). And Allah is most Forgiving and most Merciful [al-Ahzab 59]
    Abdullah Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them, said: Allah commanded the believing women that when they go out of their homes for some need of theirs, they cover their faces starting from their heads with their Jalabeeb (outer garments) and they are allowed to have one eye appear (to see).
    When this verse was revealed, Um Salamah, may Allah be pleased with her (the wife of the Prophet peace be upon him), said: The women of the Ansar came out (of their homes) as if they had (black) crows on their heads from their serenity, and they wore black clothes. Ibadah as-Salmani and others (who witness and testify) said that the believing women would let their outer garments cover down from the top of their heads such that nothing will show except their eyes for the sake of seeing the way.
    And Allah the most Exalted said:
    ) (. 31:
    And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and guard their private parts and not to display their adornment (and beauty), except that which appears thereof (ordinarily) and to draw their coverings over their chests and not to display their adornments except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands fathers, their sons, their husbands sons, their brothers, their brothers sons, their sisters sons, their women, and those whom their right hands possess (their slaves) or those male attendants having no physical desire, or children who are not yet aware of the private aspects of women. And let them not stamp their feet to make known what they conceal of their adornments. And turn to Allah in repentance, all of you, O believers, that you might succeed. [Nur 31]
    And so on and so forth in the various evidences from the Quran and the Sunnah concerning the obligation of Muslim women to cover their feminine beauties for their own protection, and as a sign of their faith in God Almighty and His wise commands for their salvation in this world and the Hereafter
    Part III
    1 Evidence from the Quraan
    ========================
    (i) Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
    And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts) and not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent (like both eyes for necessity to see the way, or outer palms of hands or one eye or dress like veil, gloves, headcover, apron), and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms) and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husbands fathers, or their sons, or their husbands sons, or their brothers or their brothers sons, or their sisters sons, or their (Muslim) women (i.e. their sisters in Islam), or the (female) slaves whom their right hands possess, or old male servants who lack vigour, or small children who have no sense of feminine sex. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And all of you beg Allaah to forgive you all, O believers, that you may be successful
    [al-Noor 24:31]

    The evidence from this verse that hijab is obligatory for women is as follows:
    (a) Allaah commands the believing women to guard their chastity, and the command to guard their chastity also a command to follow all the means of doing that. No rational person would doubt that one of the means of doing so is covering the face, because uncovering it causes people to look at it and enjoy its beauty, and thence to initiate contact.
    The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: The eyes commit zina and their zina is by looking then he said, and the private part confirms that or denies it. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 6612; Muslim, 2657.
    If covering the face is one of the means of guarding ones chastity, then it is enjoined, because the means come under the same ruling as the ends.
    (b) Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
    and to draw their veils all over Juyoobihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms) . The jayb (pl. juyoob) is the neck opening of a garment and the khimaar (veil) is that with which a woman covers her head. If a woman is commanded to draw her veil over the neck opening of her garment then she is commanded to cover her face, either because that is implied or by analogy. If it is obligatory to cover the throat and chest, then it is more appropriate to cover the face because it is the site of beauty and attraction.
    (c) Allaah has forbidden showing all adornment except that which is apparent, which is that which one cannot help showing, such as the outside of ones garment. Hence Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): except only that which is apparent and He did not say, except that which they show of it. Some of the salaf, such as Ibn Masood, al-Hasan, Ibn Sireen and others interpreted the phrase except only that which is apparent as meaning the outer garment and clothes, and what shows from beneath the outer garment (i.e., the hem of ones dress etc.). Then He again forbids showing ones adornment except to those for whom He makes an exception. This indicates that the second adornment mentioned is something other than the first adornment. The first adornment is the external adornment which appears to everyone and cannot be hidden. The second adornment is the inward adornment (including the face). If it were permissible for this adornment to be seen by everyone, there would be no point to the general wording in the first instance and this exception made in the second.
    (d) Allaah grants a concession allowing a woman to show her inward adornments to old male servants who lack vigour, i.e. servants who are men who have no desire, and to small children who have not reached the age of desire and have not seen the awrahs of women.
    This indicates two things:
    1 That showing inward adornments to non-mahrams is not permissible except to these two types of people.
    2 That the reason for this ruling is the fear that men may be tempted by the woman and fall in love with her. Undoubtedly the face is the site of beauty and attraction, so concealing it is obligatory lest men who do feel desire be attracted and tempted by her.
    (e) The words (interpretation of the meaning): And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment mean that a woman should not stamp her feet so as to make known hidden adornments such as anklets and the like. If a woman is forbidden to stamp her feet lest men be tempted by what they hear of the sound of her anklets etc., then what about uncovering the face?
    Which is the greater source of temptation a man hearing the anklets of a woman whom he does not know who she is or whether she is beautiful, or whether she is young or old, or ugly or pretty? Or his looking at a beautiful youthful face that attracts him and invites him to look at it?
    Every man who has any desire for women will know which of the two temptations is greater and which deserves to be hidden and concealed.
    (ii) Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
    And as for women past childbearing who do not expect wedlock, it is no sin on them if they discard their (outer) clothing in such a way as not to show their adornment. But to refrain (i.e. not to discard their outer clothing) is better for them. And Allaah is All‑Hearer, All‑Knower
    [al-Noor 24:60]
    The evidence from this verse is that Allaah states that there is no sin on old women who have no hope of marriage because men have no desire for them, due to their old age (if they discard their outer clothing), subject to the condition that their intention in doing so is not to make a wanton display of themselves. The fact that this ruling applies only to old women indicates that the ruling is different for young women who still hope to get married. If the ruling on discarding the outer clothing applied to all, there would be no point in singling out old women here.
    The phrase in such a way as not to show their adornment offers further proof that hijab is obligatory for young women who hope to marry, because usually when they uncover their faces the intention is to make a wanton display (tabarruj) and to show off their beauty and make men look at them and admire them etc. Those who do otherwise are rare, and the ruling does not apply to rare cases.
    (iii) Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
    O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies (i.e. screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way). That will be better, that they should be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. And Allaah is Ever Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful
    [al-Ahzaab 33:59]
    Ibn Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: Allaah commanded the believing women, if they go out of their houses for some need, to cover their faces from the top of their heads with their jilbaabs, and to leave one eye showing.
    The tafseer of the Sahaabah is evidence, indeed some of the scholars said that it comes under the same ruling as marfoo reports that go back to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
    The comment and leave one eye showing is a concession because of the need to see the way; if there is no need for that then the eye should not be uncovered.
    The jilbaab is the upper garment that comes above the khimaar; it is like the abaya.
    (iv) Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
    It is no sin on them (the Prophets wives, if they appear unveiled) before their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their brothers sons, or the sons of their sisters, or their own (believing) women, or their (female) slaves. And (O ladies), fear (keep your duty to) Allaah. Verily, Allaah is Ever All‑Witness over everything
    [al-Ahzaab 33:55]
    Ibn Katheer (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: When Allaah commanded the women to observe hijab in front of non-mahram men, he explained that they did not have to observe hijab in front of these relatives, as He explained that they are exempted in Soorat al-Noor where He said (interpretation of the meaning): and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands

    2 Evidence from the Sunnah that it is obligatory to cover the face
    ========================
    (i) The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: When any one of you proposes marriage to a woman, there is no sin on him if he looks at her, rather he should look at her for the purpose of proposing marriage even if she is unaware. Narrated by Ahmad. The author of Majma al-Zawaaid said: its men are the men of saheeh.
    The evidence here is the fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said there is no sin on the man who is proposing marriage, subject to the condition that his looking be for the purpose of proposing marriage. This indicates that the one who is not proposing marriage is sinning if he looks at a non-mahram woman in ordinary circumstances, as is the one who is proposing marriage if he looks for any purpose other than proposing marriage, such as for the purpose of enjoyment etc.
    If it is said that the hadeeth does not clearly state what is being looked at, and it may mean looking at the chest etc, the response is that the man who is proposing marriage looks at the face because it is the focus for the one who is seeking beauty, without a doubt.
    (ii) When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded that women should be brought out to the Eid prayer place, they said, O Messenger of Allaah, some of us do not have jilbaabs. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, Let her sister give her one of her jilbaabs to wear. Narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim.
    This hadeeth indicates that the usual practice among the women of the Sahaabah was that a woman would not go out without a jilbaab, and that if she did not have a jilbaab she would not go out. The command to wear a jilbaab indicates that it is essential to cover. And Allaah knows best.
    (iii) It was narrated in al-Saheehayn that Aaishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to pray Fajr and the believing women would attend the prayer with him, wrapped in their veils, then they would go back to their homes and no one would recognize them because of the darkness. She said: If the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saw from the women what we have seen, he would have prevented them from coming to the mosques as the Children of Israel prevented their women.
    A similar report was also narrated by Abd-Allaah ibn Masood (may Allaah be pleased with him).
    The evidence from this hadeeth covers two issues:
    1 Hijaab and covering were the practice of the women of the Sahaabah who were the best of generations and the most honourable before Allaah.
    2 Aaishah the Mother of the Believers and Abd-Allaah ibn Masood (may Allaah be pleased with them both), who were both known as scholars with deep insight, said that if the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had seen from women what they had seen, he would have prevented them from coming to the mosques. This was during the best generations, so what about nowadays?!
    (iv) It was narrated that Ibn Umar said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: Whoever lets his garment drag out of pride, Allaah will not look at him on the Day of Resurrection. Umm Salamah said, What should women do with their hems? He said, Let it hang down a handspan. She said, What if that shows her feet? He said, Let it hang down a cubit, but no more than that. Narrated by al-Tirmidhi; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi.
    This hadeeth indicates that it is obligatory for women to cover their feet, and that this was something that was well known among the women of the Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them). The feet are undoubtedly a lesser source of temptation than the face and hands, so a warning concerning something that is less serious is a warning about something that is more serious and to which the ruling applies more. The wisdom of shareeah means that it would not enjoin covering something that is a lesser source of temptation and allow uncovering something that is a greater source of temptation. This is an impossible contradiction that cannot be attributed to the wisdom and laws of Allaah.
    (v) It was narrated that Aaishah said: The riders used to pass by us when we were with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in ihraam. When they came near us we would lower our jilbaabs from our heads over our faces, and when they had passed by we would uncover our faces. Narrated by Abu Dawood, 1562.


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  4. #124
    Sep 2006
    1,528
    25-10-2014
    07:15 PM




    The words When they came near us we would lower our jilbaabs from our heads over our faces indicate that it is obligatory to cover the face, because what is prescribed in ihraam is to uncover it. If there was no strong reason to prevent uncovering it, it would be obligatory to leave it uncovered even when the riders were passing by. In other words, women are obliged to uncover their faces during ihraam according to the majority of scholars, and nothing can override something that is obligatory except something else that is also obligatory. If it were not obligatory to observe hijab and cover the face in the presence of non-mahram men, there would be no reason not to uncover it in ihraam. It was proven in al-Saheehayn and elsewhere that a woman in ihraam is forbidden to wear the niqaab (face veil) and gloves.
    Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said: This is one of the things which indicate that the niqaab and gloves were known among women who were not in ihraam, which implies that they covered their faces and hands.
    ================================================
    These are nine points of evidence from the Quraan and Sunnah.
    ================================================

    The tenth is:
    Rational examination and analogy which form the basis of this perfect shareeah, which aims to help people achieve what is in their best interests and encourages the means that lead to that, and to denounce evil and block the means that lead to it.
    If we think about unveiling and women showing their faces to non-mahram men, we will see that it involves many bad consequences. Even if we assume that there are some benefits in it, they are very few in comparison with its negative consequences. Those negative consequences include:
    1 Fitnah (temptation). By unveiling her face, a woman may be tempted to do things to make her face look more beautiful. This is one of the greatest causes of evil and corruption.
    2 Taking away haya (modesty, shyness) from women, which is part of faith and of a womans nature (fitrah). Women are examples of modesty, as it was said, more shy than a virgin in her seclusion. Taking away a womans modesty detracts from her faith and the natural inclination with which she was created.
    3 Men may be tempted by her, especially if she is beautiful and she flirts, laughs and jokes, as happens in the case of many of those who are unveiled. The Shaytaan flows through the son of Adam like blood.
    4 Mixing of men and women. If a woman thinks that she is equal with men in uncovering her face and going around unveiled, she will not be modest and will not feel too shy to mix with men. This leads to a great deal of fitnah (temptation) and widespread corruption. Al-Tirmidhi narrated (5272) from Hamzah ibn Abi Usayd from his father that he heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say, when he was coming out of the mosque and he saw men mingling with women in the street; the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to the women, Draw back, and do not walk in the middle of the road; keep to the sides of the road. Then the women used to keep so close to the walls that their garments would catch on the walls because they kept so close to them.
    Classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami, 929
    Adapted from the words of Shaykh Muhammad ibn Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) in Risaalat al-Hijaab.
    And Allaah knows best.
    http://www.turntoislam.com/forum/showthread.php?t=3322

    View that the Niqab is Obligatory Niqaab According to Quran and SunnahRevelation of Al-Hijab Hadith Bukhari 1:148


    The wives of the Prophet used to go to Al-Manasi, a vast open place (near Baqia at Medina) to answer the call of nature at night.
    Umar radhian Allaahu anhu used to say to the Prophet Let your wives be veiled, but Allaahs Apostle did not do so.
    One night Sauda bint Zama radhian Allahu anha the wife of the Prophet went out at Isha time and she was a tall lady. Umar radhian Allahu anhu addressed her and said, I have recognized you, O Sauda. He said so, as he desired eagerly that the verses of Al-Hijab (the observing of veils by the Muslim women) may be revealed. So Allaah revealed the verses of Al-Hijab
    The Noble Quran Al-Ahzab 33:59
    O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (veils)** all over their bodies (i.e. screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way). That will be better, that they should be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. And Allaah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
    **the arabic word here is Jalabeeb (plural of Jalbaab), which is the loose outer garment that covers all a womans body. It says here to use the Jalabeeb to cover all, and scholars say this means to use it to cover her head (agree upon by all scholars) and her face (agreed by many scholars, not all) and one or both eyes, in order for it to be known that she is a free woman and so not to be exposed to any harm.
    Hadith Bukhari 6:282
    Aisha radhian Allaha anha used to say: When (the Verse): They should draw their veils over their necks and bosoms, was revealed, (the ladies) cut their waist sheets at the edges and covered their faces with the cut pieces.
    Hadith Abu Dawud, Narrated Umm Salamah, Ummul Muminin
    When the verse That they should cast their outer garments over their persons was revealed, the women of Ansar came out as if they had crows over their heads by wearing outer garments.
    The lower half of the hijab is a garment that does not show the womans figure. Jeans and certain obvious garments do not meet this requirement.
    Hadith Abu Dawud, Narrated Dihyah ibn Khalifah al-Kalbi
    The Apostle of Allah was brought some pieces of fine Egyptian linen and he gave me one and said:
    Divide it into two; cut one of the pieces into a shirt and give the other to your wife for veil. Then when he turned away, he said: And order your wife to wear a garment below it and not show her figure.
    Prescribed Methods of Covering
    Tafseer Ibn Katheer
    Allaah commanded the muslim women to cover this sheet on top of them to cover their bodies except one eye, when it is necessary for them to come out of their homes.

    Tafseer Commentary by Ibn Jarir and Ahkam-ul-Quran, Vol.III, p.457
    Imam Muhammad bin Sirin said: When I asked Ubaida bin Sufyan bin al-Harith radhian Allahu anhu the meaning of this verse and how the jalbaab was to worn, he demonstrated it to me by pulling a sheet of cloth over his head to cover his entire body, leaving the left eye uncovered. This was also the explanation of the word Alaihinna in this verse
    Tafseer Alusi, Rul-ul-Maani, Vol. 22, p. 89
    Ibn Jarir Tabari and Ibn Al-Mundhir described the method of wearing the jalbaab according to Ibn Abbas and Qatadah radhian Allahu anhuma. The sheet should be wrapped around from the top, covering the forehead, then bringing one side of the sheet to cover the face below the eyes so that most of the face and the upper body is covered. This will leave both eyes uncovered (which is allowed in necessity).
    Colour of Garment
    The female companions were known to wear black and dark colors (such as the hadith above, crows on their heads), but other colors are also permissible for a woman to wear. She must not wear any color, however, in vanity.

    Hadith Sahih Al-Bukhari 7.715
    Aisha radhian Allaahu anha said that the lady (came), wearing a green veil
    Hadith Sahih Al-Bukhari 7.733
    ..that he had seen Um Kulthum radhian Allaahu anha, the daughter of Allaahs Apostle , wearing a red silk garment.
    Hadith Sahih Al-Bukhari 7.713
    The Prophet was given some clothes including a black Khamisa. The Prophet said,
    To whom shall we give this to wear? The people kept silent whereupon the Prophet said, Fetch Um Khalid for me. I (Um Khalid) was brought carried (as I was small girl at that time).
    The Prophet took the Khamisa in his hands and made me wear it and said, May you live so long that your dress will wear out and you will mend it many times.
    On the Khamisa there were some green or pale designs (The Prophet these designs) and said, O Um Khalid! This is Sanah. (Sanah in a Ethiopian word meaning beautiful).
    Hadith Sunan of Abu Dawood #4055,
    Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-As radhian Allaahu anhu,
    We came down with the Apostle of Allaah from a turning of a valley. He turned his attention to me and I was wearing a garment dyed with a reddish yellow dye. He asked: What is this garment over you?
    I recognised what he disliked. I then came to my family who were burning their oven. I threw it (the garment) in it and came to him the next day. He asked: Abdullah, what have you done with the garment?

    I informed him about it. He said: Why did you not give it to one of your family to wear, for there is no harm in it for women.

    Must a Woman Wear Niqaab (Veil)?
    The general understanding in Islam regarding Sunnah, is that if the Prophet or any of his wivesradhian Allaahu anhuna or companions radhian Allaahu anhum are recorded in authentic hadith to have engaged in an act that is not haram (prohibited) as defined by Quraan or Sunnah, then the act is declared halal (permissible). If the companions engaged in an act that the Prophet was aware of and did not speak out against, it is halal.
    It is well-known that the wives of the Prophet covered their faces any time non-mahram men were near. A woman named Asma, who was not a wife of the Prophet , was also recorded as covering her face. Easily, one can conclude that wearing veil is halal (permissible).
    However, Muslims and Muslimahs across the world have been in hot debate for centuries, over the issue of whether or not covering the face is obligatory upon a Muslimah. Those who argue that it is not required, point to the use of the word khimar in the Quraan, and explain that todays modern khimar does not cover the face, and argue that khimar has never referred to the covering of the face, but only to that of the hair, neck, and bosoms. While one cannot deny the support of Hadith that indicate that the Prophets wives wore khimar, one must realize that they also covered their faces at all times in the presence of non-mahram men.
    The group of scholars agree that it is a highly recommended act to cover the face. The scholars also agree that a woman must cover her adornment, yet some scholars argue that this does not include the face.
    BASING ON CULTURE VS. QURAAN AND SUNNAH. Most Muslim men, even in America, would be pleased if their wives veil, but some state that a veil draws too much attention, causing men to look upon her more than normal. However, one must realize that when men look, they have nothing of her to see! Regardless, this issue must stick to understanding and implementing Quraan and Sunnah, and not making excuses based on the current culture. Muslims are ordered not to imitate the dress of any non-Muslim culture, so, surely, we cannot make the choice to wear Niqab based on the pressures of modern day society; instead, we choose, insha^Allaah, to fear Allaahu Taala, and not mankind!
    When in a state of ihram, the muslimah cannot wear niqaab. However, according to several scholars, such as Sheikh ibn Baz, even when in a state of ihram, she should lower her headcovering or outer cloak over her face when she is in the presence of non-mahram men. So, it is to say that she should not cover her face around the other women during ihram, but that she should cover it if a non-mahram man approaches. He bases this on the hadith below, narrated by Aisha radhian Allaahu anha.
    In Fathul Bari, chapter Hajj, a tradition reported on the authority of Aisha (RA) says:
    A woman in a state of Ihram (during Hajj and Umrah) should stretch her head cloth over to her face to hide it.
    Hadith Recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and ibn Majah,
    Narrated Aisha radhian Allaahu anha. [In his work Jilbab al-Marah al-Muslimah, al-Albani states (p. 108) that it is hasan due to corroborating evidence. Also, in a narration from Asma radhian Allaahu anha, Asma also covered her face at all times in front of men.]
    Narrated Aisha radhian Allaahu anha who said, The riders would pass us while we were with the Messenger of Allah ). When they got close to us, we would draw our outer cloak from our heads over our faces. When they passed by, we would uncover our faces.
    According to Shaikh ibn Uthaiymin, she is not required to cover her face during the prayer unless there are non-related men around her. She must then cover her face from them, as it is not allowed for a woman to uncover her face except to her husband and her male relatives i.e., mahram.
    If a woman is not around any non-mahram men and does not fear that any will enter her area of salah, she may reveal her face and hands. This is agreed upon by the group of scholars.
    So, whether agreeing that niqab is required or not, one must surely acknowledge that it is a desirous sign of piety. What better example of sunnah to follow for a muslimah than that of the Prophet and his wives RA. Every Muslimah is encouraged to cover to the fullest, showing only one or both eyes.
    A woman does not have to wear a niqab (affixed veil), but she should emulate the female companions by using her hijab or other items, to lift and cover her face when a non-mahram man approaches, even during ihram (hajj), as this is in accordance with sunnah.
    Hadith Muwatta 20.16
    Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa that Fatima bint al-Mundhir said,
    We used to veil our faces when we were in ihram in the company of Asma bint Abi Bakr as-Siddiq radhian Allaahu anha.
    The following Fatawa is from Sheikh Ibn Uthaiymin:
    The Islamic hijab is for the women to cover everything that is forbidden for her to expose. That is, she covers everything that she must cover.
    The first of those bodily parts that she must cover is her face. It is the source of temptation and the source of people desiring her. Therefore, the woman must cover her face in front of those men that are not Mahram (i.e. father, husband, etc.).
    As for those who claim that Islamic hijab is to cover the head, shoulders, back, feet, shin and forearms while allowing her to uncover her face and hands, this is a very amazing claim. This is because it is well-known that the source of temptation and looking is the face. How can one say that the Shariah does no allow the exposure of the foot of the woman while it allows her to uncover her face?
    It is not possible that there could be in the Esteemed, Wise and Noble Shariah a contradiction. Yet everyone knows that the temptation from uncovering the face is much greater than the temptation that results from the uncovering of the feet. Everyone also knows that the most sought after aspect of the woman for men is the face. If you told a prospective groom that a womans face is ugly but her feet are beautiful, he would not propose to such a woman.
    However, if you told him that her face was beautiful but her hands, palms, or shins were less than beautiful, he would still propose to her. From this one can conclude that the face is the first thing that must be covered.
    There are also evidences from the Book of Allaah Taala and the Sunnah of our Prophet . There are also statements from the Companions radhian Allaahu anhum , the leading Imams and the great scholars of Islam that indicate that it is obligatory for the woman to cover all of her body in the presence of non-Mahram men. This obviously indicates that it is obligatory upon the woman to cover her face in front of such men.
    Refutation For those who claim niqaab is not wajib and the face and hands of a woman can be seen by (ghairMahrrum) strange men.

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  5. #125
    Sep 2006
    1,528
    25-10-2014
    07:15 PM




    Refutation from Shaikh Ibn Uthaymeen
    This is taken from the book Hijaab by Shaikh Ibn Uthaymeen from Saudi Arabia. Printed by Madrasah Arabia Islamia Azaadville- South Africa.
    Translated by Hafedh Zaheer Essack, Rajab 1416 (December 1995)
    The Ulamah who are of the opinion that it is permissible to look at the face and hands of a strange woman (who is not mahrrum) say so mainly for the following reasons.
    The hadeeth of Ayeshah radhian Allaahu anha when Asmaa radhian Allaahu anha the daughter of Abu Bakr radhian Allaahu anhu came to the Rasulullaah while wearing thin clothing.
    He approached her and said: O Asmaa! When a girl reaches the menstrual age, it is not proper that anything should remain exposed except this and this. He pointed to the face and hands. But this hadeeth is WEAK because of 2 main weaknesses.
    There is no link between Ayeshah (Radhiallaahu Ánha) and Khalid bin Dareek, who narrated the hadith from her. And in every chain of narrators Khalid bin Dareek is mentioned.
    In the chain of narrators Saeed bin Basheer appears, who is known by most of the Muhaditheen as being a weak narrator.
    This has been mentioned by Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal (Rahimahullah), An-Nasai (Rahimahullah), Ibn Madeeni (Rahimahullah) and Ibn Maeen (Rahimahullah). This is also why Imaam Bukhari (Rahimahullah) and Muslim (Rahimahullah) did not except this hadeeth to be in their books. (From Shaikh Ibn Uthaymeen in the book Hijaab pages # 17 and 18.)
    We also have to see that the Muhadith Abu Dawood when he quoted this hadeeth put with it that it is Mursal (with a broken chain that does not lead up to the Sahabah).
    (From The Book Hijaab wa Safur under the fatwaa of Shaikh Abdul Aziz Bin Bazz on Page #61. Also stated as being weak by Shaikh Nasiruddeen Al-Albaani in his Daeef Sunan Abu Dawud in Kitab-ul-Libas under hadeeth number 4092 (which is the original hadeeth number.)
    An other thing that shows the weakness of this hadith is that after the ayah for hijab (Surah Al-Ahzaab Verse #59) was revealed then the women of Sahaba wore a complete veil and covered the faces and hands. This includes Asmaa (Radhiallaahu Ánha) the daughter of Abu Bakr, who is supposed to have narrated this hadeeth. Asmaa (Radhiallaahu Ánha) covered herself completely including the face, this has been narrated in authentic hadeeth in Imaam Maliks MUWATTA Book 20 Hadeeth # 20.5.16.
    What Age Must a Female Wear Niqaab?
    It is unquestionable that a female must begin covering by the age of puberty. In all situations, Muslims are to use the Prophets example for guidance. The Prophet married Aisha radhian Allaahu anha before she had reached puberty and consummated the marriage when she was approximately 9 years old. Getting married at such an age was not uncommon until recent times.
    Puberty begins two weeks before the onset of the first menstrual period, i.e. this is the time in which she is capable of becoming pregnant.
    May Allaah Taala guide each parent to adequately prepare the daughter for hijaab and their other responsibilities, in time for puberty. Amiyn.
    If a mother or father recently converts to Islam and has a daughter who has reached puberty, s/he should immediately begin covering the daughter. The parents should educate the daughter to understand and appreciate the reasons and advantages for covering as a Muslimah is instructed to.
    The new revert to Islam should not feel apologetic for covering a daughter who was not previously covering. It is as much of an advantage to her as to the new adult muslimah revert, and children do not always know what is best for them, so, like other decisions you make daily for your children, do not leave the issue of wearing hijab up to your children. Make the transition as a family, not you first, then just hoping the children follow suit on their own.
    Some guidelines for preparing a child for hijab. [/center]
    It is encouraged that as soon as the child is able to walk, she does not wear clothes that resemble the kafr, and that she should always have her knees and as much as possible of the arms and legs covered when leaving the house or having guests over.
    She should be taught modesty in behavior and dress from the cradle.
    It is ideal to sew small jilbabs (light overcoats) and khimaar (head/neck/chest covering) for the young muslimah, properly preparing her for full coverage at puberty. It is actually less fitnah on the parent to dress her in the simple attire of a muslim, as compared to looking for fashionable clothes in a shopping mall.
    At the age of 7, the parent should order her to pray salaah, and of course, she must be wearing hijaab (the entire head and body covering) for the salaah.
    By the age of 10, her parents may and should punish her for missing fard (obligatory) salaah, and once again, she must be wearing hijaab to perform salaah.
    When she reaches puberty, insha^Allaah, she will wear niqaab (literally: draw the khimaar over her face).
    By the age of puberty, she should already be used to wearing hijaab (which is in her fitrah [natural state] to be covered).
    She may have already chosen to veil prior to reaching puberty, and with the proper instruction, she will look forward to and embrace this step in becoming a young woman.
    Hijaab is not something a muslim parent gives as an option to a child. The muslim parent is responsible for seeing that the young muslimah is properly covered according to Quraan and Sunnah.
    Parents will have to determine when their daughter has reached puberty, not the child, unless of course, she is a muslim revert with non-Muslim parents, in which case she should seek the counsel of a Muslim wali.
    Depending on a womans environment, she may simply keep her face uncovered and then draw the khimaar up over her face on the rare occasion of a non-mahrams presence; or, if this is too much fitnah to constantly draw it over her face, such as circumstances when men are frequently present, she may choose to affix a screen (i.e. the Niqaab) that does this for her without her needing to use a hand to hold it over her face.
    Hadith Bukhari, Narrated Hishams father
    Khadija radhian Allaahu anha died three years before the Prophet departed to Medina. He stayed there for two years or so and then he married Aisha radhian Allaahu anha when she was a girl of six years of age, and he consumated that marriage when she was nine years old.
    Hadith Abu Dawud, narrated Aisha, Ummul Muminin
    [Also recorded al-Tirmidhi, Ahmad, and ibn Majah. Al-Albani says it is sahih. Al-Albani, Sahih al-Jami, vol. 2, p. 1280.]

    The Prophet said: Allaah does not accept the prayer of a woman who has reached puberty unless she wears a khimaar.
    Hadith Dawud, Narrated As-Saburah
    [Also recorded by Ahmand and al-Hakim. Al-Syuti has give in a notation signifying that it is authentic. Al-Albani has graded it hasan. Al-Albani, Sahih al-Jami, vol. 2, p. 1021.]
    The Prophet said:Order your children to pray at the age of seven. And beat them [lightly] if they do not do so by the age of ten. And separate them in their bedding.
    Who Can She Uncover in front of?
    A Muslimah should not uncover her adornment in front of any non-Mahrahm male. Muslimahs should especially be careful and remain covered, modest, and quiet around in-laws.
    If a gay male is aware of female body parts, he should not be allowed to view a woman uncovered. And, of course, a bi-sexual male should not be allowed to view a woman without proper covering.
    In addition, a Muslimah should not uncover that which she normally uncovers, in front of any non-Muslim female whom she fears may describe her to others. She may also choose to remain covered around any Muslim female whom she fears may describe her physical attributes to their husband or others.
    The Noble Quran An-Nur 24:30-31
    Tell the believing men to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts, etc.). That is purer for them. Verily, Allah is All-Aware of what they do.
    And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts, etc.) and not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent (like palms of hands or one eye or both eyes for necessity to see the way, or outer dress like veil, gloves, head-cover, apron, etc.), and to draw their veils* all over Juyubihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms, etc.) and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands fathers, their sons, their husbands sons, their brothers or their brothers sons, or their sisters sons, or their (Muslim) women (i.e. their sisters in Islm), or the (female) slaves whom their right hands possess, or old male servants who lack vigour, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And all of you beg Allh to forgive you all, O believers, that you may be successful.
    * the arabic word here is Khumaar, which is the plural form of Khimaar.
    Hadith Bukhari 7:167
    The Prophet said,A woman should not look at or touch another woman to describe her to her husband in such a way as if he was actually looking at her.
    Hadith Muslim, narrated Aisha
    A eunuch used to come to the wives of Allaahs Apostle and they did not find anything objectionable in his visit considering him to be a male without any sexual desire.
    Allaahs Apostle one day came as he was sitting with some of his wives and he was busy in describing the bodily characteristics of a lady and saying: As she comes in front four folds appear on her front side and as she turns her back eight folds appear on the back side. Thereupon Allahs Apostle said: I see that he knows these things; do not, therefore, allow him to enter. She (Aisha) radhian Allaahu anha said: Then they began to observe veil from him.
    Hadith Al-Tirmidhi #3109, narrated Abdullah ibn Masud [Tirmidhi transmitted it.]
    The Prophet said,A woman should be concealed, for when she goes out the devil looks at her.
    Muslimahs should not socialize with non-mahram men, and should only speak out of necessity to non-mahram men. Allah swt knew that mankind would be tempted to let their guard down and their hijab down, around in-laws. Surely Allah swt is all merciful to provide us the guidance we need in every aspect of our lives. In reference to socializing with in-laws, such close relations can easily lead to adultery which has the death penalty.
    Hadith Bukhari and Muslim
    The Prophet said, The in-laws are death.
    Ridiculing a Woman in Niqaab
    The Noble Quran At-Taubah 9:64-67
    The hypocrites fear lest a Swrah (chapter of the Qur^an) should be revealed about them, showing them what is in their hearts. Say: (Go ahead and) mock! But certainly Allh will bring to light all that you fear.
    If you ask them (about this), they declare: We were only talking idly and joking. Say: Was it at Allh (swt), and His Ayt (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and His Messenger that you were mocking?
    Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after you had believed. If We pardon some of you, We will punish others amongst you because they were Mujrimn (disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, criminals, etc.).
    The hypocrites, men and women, are from one another, they enjoin (on the people) Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief and polytheism of all kinds and all that Islm has forbidden), and forbid (people) from Al-Marf (i.e. Islmic Monotheism and all that Islm orders one to do), and they close their hands [from giving (spending in Allah's Cause) alms, etc.]. They have forgotten Allah, so He has forgotten them. Verily, the hypocrites are the Fsiqn (rebellious, disobedient to Allah).
    __________________
    Hasbuna^Allaah wa nigma[t] wa kiyl


    -




  6. #126
    Sep 2006
    1,528
    25-10-2014
    07:15 PM


    Chapter V

    From the Book Jilbaab al-Marah al-Muslimah
    Shaykh Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee

    The main errors of those who make the face veil obligatory
    1. The interpretation of al-idnaa in the verse of the Jilbaab to mean covering the face.
    This misinterpretation is contrary to the basic meaning of the word in Arabic which is to come close, as is mentioned in authoritative dictionaries like al-Mufradaat by the well-known scholar, ar-Raaghib al-Asbahaanee. However, there is sufficient evidence in the interpretation of the leading commentator on the Quran, Ibn Abbaas, who explained the verse saying, She should bring the jilbaab close to her face without covering it. It should be noted that none of the narrations used as evidence to contradict this interpretation are authentic.
    2. The interpretation of jilbaab as a garment which covers the face.
    Like the previous misinterpretation, this interpretation has no basis linguistically. It is contrary to the interpretation of the leading scholars, past and present, who define the jilbaab as a garment which women drape over their head scarves (khimaar). Even Shaykh at-Tuwaijree himself narrated this interpretation from Ibn Masood and other Salafee scholars. Al-Baghawee mentioned it as the correct interpretation in his Tafseer (vol. 3, p. 518) saying, It is the garment which a woman covers herself with worn above the dress (dir ) and the headscarf. Ibn Hazm also said, The jilbaab in the Arabic language in which the Messenger of Allaah () spoke to us is what covers the whole body and not just a part of it. (vol. 3, p. 217). Al-Qurtubee declared this correct in his Tafseer and Ibn Katheer said, It is the cloak worn above the headscarf. (vol. 3, p. 518)

    3. The claim that the khimaar (headscarf) covers the head and the face.

    In doing so the face has been arbitrarily added to its meaning in order to make the verse: Let them drape their headscarves over their busoms
    appear to be in their favor, when, in fact it is not. The word khimaar linguistically means only a head covering. Whenever it is mentioned in general terms, this is what is intended. For example in the hadeeths on wiping (mas-h) on the khimaar and the prophetic statement, The salaah of a woman past puberty will not be accepted without a khimaar. This hadeeth confirms the invalidity of their misinterpretation, because not even the extremists themselves much less the scholars use it as evidence that the covering of a womans face in salaah is a condition for its validity. They only use it as proof for covering the head. Furthermore, their interpretation of the verse of the Qawaa to remove their clothing
    to mean jilbaab further confirms it. They hold that it is permissible for old women to appear before marriagealbe males in her headscarf with her face exposed. One of their noteable scholars openly stated that. As for Shaykh at-Tuwaijree, he implied it without actually saying it.
    After checking the opinions of the early and later scholars in all the specializations, I found that they unanimously hold that the khimaar is a head covering. I have mentioned the names of more than twenty scholars, among them some of the great Imaams and hadeeth scholars. For example, Abul-Waleed al-Baajee (d. 474 AH) who further added in his explanation, Nothing should be seen of her besides the circle of her face.


    4. The claim of a consensus (Ijmaa) on the face being considered awrah.
    Shaykh at-Tuwaijree claimed that scholars unanimously held that the womans face was awrah and many who have no knowledge, including some Ph.D. holders, have blindly followed him. In fact, it is a false claim, which no one before him has claimed. The books of Hambalite scholars which he learned from, not to mention those of others, contain sufficient proof of its falsehood. I have mentioned many of their statements in Ar-Radd. For example, Ibn Hubayrah al-Hambalee stated in his book, al-Ifsaah, that the face is not considered awrah in the three main schools of Islaamic law and he added, It is also a narrated position of Imaam Ahmad. Many Hambalite scholars preferred this narration in their books, like Ibn Qudaamah and others. Ibn Qudaamah in al-Mughnee explained the reason for his preference saying, Because necessity demands that the face be uncovered for buying and selling, and the hands be uncovered for taking and giving.
    Among the Hambalite scholars, is the great Ibn Muflih al-Hambalee about whom Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah said, There is no one under the dome of the sky more knowledgeable about the school of Imaam Ahmad than Ibn Muflih. And his teacher, Ibn Taymiyyah, once told him, You arent Ibn Muflih, you are Muflih!
    It is incumbent on me to convey Ibn Muflihs statements for the readers because of the knowledge and many benefits contained in them. Included in them is further confirmation of the falsehood of Shaykh at-Tuwaijrees claim and support for the correctness of my position on the issue of uncovering the face. Ibn Muflih stated the following in his valuable work al-Aadaab ash-Shariyyah which is among the references cited by Shaykh at-Tuwaijree (something which indicates that he is aware of it, but has deliberately hidden these crucial facts from his readers while claiming the contrary):

    Is it correct to chastise marriageable women if they uncover their faces in the street?
    The answer depends on whether it is compulsory for women to cover their faces or whether it is compulsory for men to lower their gaze from her. There are two positions on this issue.

    1. Regarding the hadeeth of Jareer in which he said, I asked Allaahs Messenger about the sudden inadvertent glance and he instructed me to look away. Al-Qaadee Iyaad commented, The scholars, May Allaah Most High have mercy on them, have said that there is proof in this hadeeth that it is not compulsory for a woman to cover her face in the street. Instead, it is a recommended sunnah for her to do so and it is compulsory for the man to lower his gaze from her at all times, except for a legislated purpose. Shaykh Muhyud-deen an-Nawawee mentioned that without further explanation.
    2. Then al-Muflih mentioned Ibn Taymiyyahs statement which at-Tuwaijree relies on in his book (page 170), while feigning ignorance of the statements of the majority of scholars. Statements like those of al-Qaadee Iyaad and an-Nawawees agreement with it.
    Then al-Muflih said, On the basis of that, is chastisement legal? Chastisement is not allowed in issues in where there is a difference of opinion, and the difference has already been mentioned. As regards our opinion and that of a group of Shaafiite scholars and others, looking at a marriageable woman without desire or in a secluded circumstance is permissible. Therefore, chastisement is not proper.
    This answer is in complete agreement with Imaam Ahmads statement, It is not proper that a jurist oblige people to follow his opinion (math-hab). And this is if the truth were on his side. What of the case where the jurist proudly, dishonestly misleads people and declares other Muslims to be disbelievers as at-Tuwaijree did on page 249 of his book saying,

    Whoever permits women to expose their faces and uses the proofs of al-Albaanee has flung open the door for women to publicly flaunt their beauty and emboldened them to commit the reprehensible acts done by women who uncover their faces today. And on page 233 he said, and to disbelief in the verses of Allaah.
    Those are his words May Allaah reform him and guide him. What would he say about Ibn Muflih, an-Nawawee, al-Qaadee Iyaad and other Palestinian scholars, as well as the majority of scholars who preceded them and who are my salaf regarding my opinion on this matter?

    5. The agreement of at-Tuwaijree and the extremists with him to explain away the authentic hadeeths which contradict their opinion.
    At-Tuwaijree did this with the Khathamiyyah hadeeth. They developed a number of comical methods to nullify its implications. I have refuted them all in ar-Radd and one of them in Jilbaab al-Marah al-Muslimah. Some reputable scholars have said that the hadeeth doesnt contain a clear statement that her face was exposed. This is among the farthest opinions from the truth. For, if her face wasnt exposed, where did the narrator or the viewer get the idea that she was beautiful? And what was al-Fadl repeatedly looking at? The truth is that this is among the strongest and most clear proofs that a womans face is not awrah. In spite of that, there remains a group that insists that she was in ihraam while knowing that her ihraam does not prevent her from draping some of her clothing over her face. At-Tuwaijree does accept sometimes that her face was uncovered but he cancels its implication by saying, There is no evidence in it that she continuously exposed her face! He means that the wind must have exposed her face and at that instant al-Fadl ibn Abbaas saw it. Is it possible for an Arab to say that after reading in the hadeeth al-Fadl began to stare while turning towards her, and in another narration so he began to look at her and her beauty amazed him. Isnt this pride with two protruding horns? At other times at-Tuwaijree interprets it as al-Fadl looking at her size and stature.


    6. The frequent use of inauthentic hadeeths and unreliable narrations.
    For example, the hadeeth of Ibn Abbaas about exposing only one eye is commonly used by those who insist that women are obliged to cover their faces in spite of their knowledge of its inauthenticity. In fact, one among them also declared it inauthentic. Perhaps the most important of these unreliable hadeeth commonly used as evidence is the one in which the Prophet is reported to have said, Are you both blind? They blindly followed at-Tuwaijree and the others in claiming that this inauthentic narration was strengthened by other supportive narrations and that it was evidence for the prohibition of women from looking at men, even if they are blind. They took this position in spite of the fact that the narration was classified inauthentic by the leading verification experts among the hadeeth scholars like, Imaam Ahmad, al-Bayhaqee and Ibn Abdil-Barr. Al-Qurtubee related that the narration was not considered authentic among the scholars of hadeeth. Consequently, many Palestinian hambalite scholars made their rulings on that basis. Furthermore, that is what the science of hadeeth and its methodology requires as was clearly stated in al-Irwaa. However, in spite of all that evidence to the contrary, Shaykh Abdul-Qaadir as-Sindee had the nerve to go along with Shaykh at-Tuwaijree and others and claim that its chain of narration was authentic. By doing that he exposed himself and his ignorance or feigned ignorance. It is unfortunate that he took this position, because the hadeeths chain contains an unknown narrator from whom only one person narrated along with its contradiction to what leading scholars have narrated. Contrary to the level of scholarship that we are used to from Shaykh as-Sindee, he has brought in support of his claim the most amazing things. He arguments unexpectedly contain deception, misguidance, blind following, hiding knowledge and turning away from his own fundamental principles. Among the amazing positions is Shaykh as-Sindees feigned ignorance that the narration contradicts the hadeeth of Faatimah bint Qays which contains the Prophets permission for her to stay at the home of the blind companion, Ibn Umm al-Maktoom, whom she would be able see. The Prophet gave the reason for that instruction in his statement to her, For if you take off your head scarf, he wont see you. In at-Tabaraanees narration from Faatimah, she said, He instructed me to be at Ibn Umm Maktooms home because he couldnt see me whenever I took my head scarf off.
    There are also a number of other unreliable hadeeths gathered by at-Tuwaijree in his book. I mentioned ten of them in my response, and among them are some fabricated traditions.


    7. The classification of some authentic hadeeths and confirmed narrations from the Companions as inauthentic.
    The extremists have declared well-established reliable narrations as unreliable and feigned ignorance of strengthening narrations. They have further declared some narrations extremely inauthentic, like the hadeeth of Aaishah concerning the woman who reaches puberty, Nothing should be seen of her besides her face and hands. They have persistently declared it inauthentic the ignorant among them blindly following others devoid of knowledge. In so doing, they contradict those among the leading scholars of hadeeth who strengthen it like al-Bayhaqee and ath-Thahabee. Most of them, including some prominent scholars, feign ignorance of its various chains of narration. In fact, at-Tuwaijree openly stated on page 236 of his book that this statement was only narrated in Aaishahs hadeeth. Even though he has seen with his own eyes on pages 57-9 of my book two other chains: one of which is from Asmaa bint Umays and the other from Qataadah in the abbreviated (mursal) format with an authentic chain of narration. Many of the blind followers followed him, including some female authors as in Hijaabuki ukhtee al-muslimah [Your veil, my sister Muslim], page 33.
    They also pretend to be ignorant of the leading hadeeth scholars and others who strengthened it, like al-Munthiree, az-Zaylaee, al-Asqlaanee and ash-Shawkaanee. Some of those who promote themselves as being among the well versed in this noble science in their forefront Shaykh as-Sindee claim that some of its narrations are extremely weak and unreliable in order to escape from the hadeeth science rule that unreliable narrations are strengthened by narrations similar to them. In doing that, they delude their readers into thinking that no one ruled the weak narrators, like Abdullaah ibn Laheeah, trustworthy and that they cannot be used as supportive evidence. In doing that, they contradict the methodology of the hadeeth scholars in using supportive evidence. Among them is Imaam Ahmad and Ibn Taymiyyah may Allaah have mercy on them. Likewise, they all feign ignorance that the scholars among them Imaam ash-Shaafiee confirm the hadeeth mursal if most scholars use it as evidence, as is the case of Aaishahs hadeeth.
    Other strengthening factors may be added to the above.

    (a) The hadeeth has been narrated by Qataadah from Aaishah.
    (b) It has been narrated in another chain from Asmaa.
    (c) All three narrators of the hadeeth ruled according to it.

    1. Qataadah stated in his interpretation of the verse on draping, Allaah has placed on them the requirement to cover the eyebrows, That is, and not on their faces as stated by at-Tabaree.
    2. Aaishah said, regarding the female in ihraam, She may drape the garment on her face, if she wishes. This was narrated by al-Bayhaqee in an authentic chain of narrators. There is clear evidence in Aaishahs giving the female pilgrim a choice in draping that in her opinion the face was not awrah. Otherwise she would have made it obligatory on them as those who contradict it do. Because of their position, most of the extremist authors, with at-Tuwaijree in the forefront, hid this statement of Umm al-Mumineen, Aaishah from their readers. The author of Faslul-khitaab [The Definitive Statement] deliberately deleted this portion of al-Bayhaqees narration in his book. This being only one of a number of similar disreputable acts which I have exposed in my book. The supportive evidence is that this authentic narration from her strengthens her hadeeth from the Prophet. This is among the facts that people are unaware of or they pretend ignorance of, either choice is bitter to swallow.
    3. As for Asmaa, it has been authentically reported from Qays ibn Abee Haazim that he saw her as a woman of white complexion with tatoos on her hands.
    (d) The narration of Ibn Abbaas earlier mentioned, She should pull the jilbaab (cloak) close to her face without putting it on her face. His interpretation of the verse of adornment except what appears from it
    as referring tothe face and hands was similar. There is also a similar narration from Ibn Umar to the same effect.
    At this point, a bitter reality must be noted due to the lessons which may be gained from it, the knowledge which it contains and is service as a reminder of the wise saying: The truth is not know by people, know the truth and you will know people.
    At the same time that Shaykh at-Tuwaijree insists on rejecting the hadeeth of Aaishah and its supporting evidences, among them Qaatadahs mursal narration, he willingly accepts another inauthentic hadeeth from her with mursal support. In that hadeeth it is mentioned that she wore a niqaab (face veil) and that she was supposed to have described the Prophets wife Safiyyah and the Ansaar women as a jewess among jewesses which is considered by scholars to be a very erroneous statement (munkar jiddan). The Shaykh argues on page 181, It has mursal supportive evidence, and quotes one of the mursal hadeeths of Ataa containing a known liar in its chain of narration.
    One should reflect on the great difference between this fabricated supportive evidence and the authentic supportive evidence of Qataadah further supported by other evidences, then ask, Why did at-Tuwaijree accept the second hadeeth of Aaishah and not the first? The obvious answer is that the accepted one contains reference to wearing the niqaab even though it does not indicate obligation while the rejected one denies it. Thus, in this regard, the Shaykh did not base his position on Islaamic legal principles, but on something similar to the Jewish principle: The ends justify the means. May Allaah help us.


    8. Placing unreasonable conditions

    Among the amazing practices of some latter day blind following hanafite scholars and others is that on one hand they agree with us regarding the permissibility of women exposing their faces, because that was the position of their Imaams, but on the other hand they agree with the extremists in opposition to their Imaams. They make ijtihaad (while claiming taqleed) by adding the condition that the society be safe from fitnah to the position of the Imaams. This refers to the fitnah caused by women to men. Then one of the ignorant contemporary blind followers went to the extreme of actually attributing this condition to the Imaams themselves. Among some of those having no knowledge, this resulted in their concluding that there is essentially no difference between the position of the Imaams and the extremists.
    It is obvious to jurists that this condition is invalid because it implies that humans know something which the Lord missed knowing. That is, the temptation of women did not exist during the time of the Prophet () thus we had to create a special ruling for it which did not exist previously. In fact, the fitnah did exist during the era of divine legislation and the story of al-Fadl ibn Abbaas trial with the Khathamiyyah woman and his repeated looking at her is not far from the readers memories.

    It is well known that when Allaah Most High instructed men and women to lower their gazes and instructed women to veil themselves in front of men, He did that to block the road to corruption and prevent temptation. In spite of that, He Most Great and Glorious did not command that they cover their faces and hands in front of them. The Prophet () further emphasized that in the story of al-Fadl by not commanding the woman to cover her face. And Allaah was truthful when He said, And your Lord is not forgetful
    </B>The reality is that the condition of there not being fitnah was only mentioned by scholars regarding the mans looking at the womans face, as in al-Fiqh alaa al-mathaahib al-arbaah, page 12. They said, That [the womans face may be uncovered] is permissible on condition that there is safety from temptation, and that is true, contrary to what the blind followers practice. They conclude from it that the woman is obliged to cover her face, when in fact it is not a necessary consequence. They know that the condition of safety from temptation also applies to women. For it is not permissible for them to stare at a mans face except where there is safety from temptation. Is it then a necessary consequence that men also veil their faces from women to prevent temptation as some tribes called the Tawareg do.
    They would have a basis in fiqh of the Quraan and Sunnah if they said that a woman veiled in correct jilbaab who fears being harmed by some corrupt individuals due to her face being exposed is obliged to cover her face to prevent harm and temptation. In fact, it could even be said that it is obligatory on her not to leave her home if she feared that some evil authorities supported by a leader who does not rule by what Allaah revealed, as exists in some Arab countries since a few years ago, would pull her jilbaab from her head. As to making this obligation a compulsory law for all women everywhere and in all eras, even if there did not exist any harm for veiled women, No. Absolutely not. Allaah was truthful when He said, Do they have partners who legislated for them in the religion what Allaah did not permit??
    These are the most significant of the extremist oppositions mistakes which I thought needed brief mention due their strong link to the contents of this book. I then closed ar-Radd al-Mufhim with a reminder that extremism in the religion considering that the Wise Legislator forbade it will not bring any good. And it is not possible for it to produce a generation of young Muslim women carrying Islaamic knowledge and practice moderately balanced, with neither excesses nor deficiencies. Not like what I have heard about some young female adherents in Arab countries when they heard the Prophets statement, The woman in ihraam should neither wear a niqaab nor gloves, they did not accept it saying instead, We will wear our niqaabs and gloves! No doubt, this was a direct result of the extremist views which they heard regarding the obligation of covering their faces.
    I certainly cannot imagine that this type of extremism and this is only one example from many which I have can possibly produce for us salafee women able to do everything their religiously guided social life demands of them in a way similar to the righteous women of the Salaf

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  7. #127
    Sep 2006
    1,528
    25-10-2014
    07:15 PM




    CHAPTER VI
    Tips for Beginning to Wear Hijab
    This is a good article from al Muhajabahs Islamic Blog:

    Introduction

    One of the most difficult decisions many Muslim sisters face is the decision to start wearing hijab. This is certainly true for reverts, but may also be true for sisters whose families or even whose cultures are not particularly observant. As a revert myself, I have been through the whole thing. I would like to offer some advice that I hope inshallah will be helpful to sisters who are considering wearing hijab but find that something is holding them back.
    Learning About Hijab

    The first step is to learn about hijab. There is so much information out there and unfortunately much of it seems to be conflicting. Although most of what you see agrees that the sister must cover everything but her face and hands, some groups say that it is fard to cover everything but the eyes. Meanwhile, certain other groups are dedicated to claiming that covering the hair is not obligatory. It is very easy to get confused. And there are other questions. What is a jilbab? Is it fard to wear one? What do all the names mean?

    I have spent about two years researching these issues for myself and I have written several articles that set out what to the best of my knowledge are the correct rules of hijab. Each of these is linked below for you to look at.
    Special Focus on Hijab This is a section in a larger article. It explains where the ruling on covering everything but the face and hands comes from, and the conditions of the headscarf. It also refutes the claims of those who say that covering the hair is not fard.
    Evidences for Jilbab The jilbab seems to be the forgotten obligation of hijab. This article presents dalils from Quran and Sunna, and opinions of many scholars, to show that wearing a jilbab is fard, and it also discusses the conditions and rules of the jilbab.

    Examining the Dalils for Niqab In this article I examine the dalils that are presented by those who claim that niqab is fard and I show that these are not as compelling as they seem at first. I am actually a strong supporter of the opinion that niqab is mustahabb and sunna but I do not believe that it is fard and I believe that saying that it is fard is to introduce into the religion an obligation that Allah SWT and the Prophet (sAas) did not.
    Bonus: See my
    Glossary of Hijab Styles.

    For your convenience, I present a brief guide to the rules of dress for the Muslim sister for different situations.
    1) Around her husband, a sister may dress however she chooses. There are no restrictions on what the husband can see or touch.
    2) Around the mahram relatives, women, and children (a complete list of exemptions is given in Surah an-Nur ayah 31), a sister should cover her awra. There are different opinions on the extent of this. The most sensible that I have seen is from the upper chest to the knee. This includes the region that is also awra in men (navel to knee) and extends upwards to cover the womans bosom, which is a special concern for her. Display of the hair, arms, lower legs and feet, is universally agreed to be halal for this category.
    3) Around non-mahram men, a sister must cover all of her body except her face and her hands. The face is the circle of the face only and does not include the ears or any of the hair. Just think about what you wash in wudu. The covering of the hair, neck, shoulders, and upper chest must specifically be accomplished by the khimar (headscarf). The arms, torso, and legs should be covered by loose, opaque clothing that obscures the shape of the figure. A long-sleeved blouse and a jumper, a long loose tunic and a long skirt, or shalwar kameez are all examples of what is acceptable. As well, most scholars say that the feet must be covered with socks and shoes although a few scholars allow the wearing of sandals.
    4) Outdoors and in open public places (such as the market or the masjid), a sister must wear a jilbab as an outergarment, that is, over her other clothes. If she is wearing a khimar, then the jilbab only needs to cover from the shoulders to the ankles, such as a long coat. If she is not wearing a khimar, then the jilbab should cover the head and neck as well.
    The above rules set out what you need to wear in each situation in order to be observing correct hijab.

    Note: Most sisters, including myself, approached hijab in several stages. Usually the first stage is the modest clothing such as the blouse and jumper, tunic and skirt, or shalwar kameez. The second stage is to add the headscarf (properly called khimar). The third stage, often taken much later after reading up on the dalils, is to add the jilbab when outdoors. In the way of things, I expect that most sisters who are reading this have already adopted the modest clothing and are worried about the khimar.
    Deciding to Wear Hijab
    This is where the difficulties usually come in. For many sisters, it truly is a jihad. I remember very vividly how scared I was the first day I put on the headscarf and went out into public. As long as you are just wearing the modest clothes, nobody has to know that you are a Muslim. Once you complete your hijab with the headscarf, you are suddenly announcing to everyone who sees you that I am a Muslim. Here is some advice based on my own experiences.
    Wear it for the sake of Allah SWT

    Various statements are made about why you should wear hijab, such as for modesty or for protection, but the real reason that we wear hijab is that Allah SWT has commanded it. Whenever anyone asks you, why do you dress like that, thats the only answer you need to give them.

    Allah SWT is the source of everything we have, our existence, our life, our capability, even our goodness. If He ever stopped sustaining us, we would vanish in that instant. If He ever took away what he gives us, we would never have even a speck of it. If we worked for millions of years, we could never repay Him for all that He has given us. And yet He does give it to us, and all He asks in return is that we do our best to obey what He has commanded us. Surely wearing hijab is a very small thing that you can do for Him compared to what He does for you!
    Wear it for the hope of Jannah

    Allah SWT makes tests for us in this world. He makes things difficult for us. He wants to see if we will remember Him, if we will have faith in Him, and if we will trust in Him. These qualities are what is meant by sabr.
    Allah SWT does not lose the work of anyone, ever (see Surah Ali Imran ayah 195). Even if it seems like nobody is paying attention to you or notices or appreciates good things that you do, Allah SWT has seen them, and He will not forget them. Even when it seems like the whole world is against you, Allah SWT is always there for you when you turn to Him. Remember this.

    Allah SWT always wants the best for us and in His wisdom He knows why each thing that happens to us is in fact best for us. When it seems like everything is going wrong and life is just one disaster after another, it is easy to forget this and to become bitter and skeptical. Yet we must remember always to have faith that Allah SWT knows best why He has willed this for us, and we must always ask Him only Make me pleased with what You have willed for me.
    This world we live in, although it seems at times to be the only real thing, is actually fleeting compared to the Hereafter, which is better and more abiding. The trials of this world will seem as fleeting as a nightmare when seen from the Hereafter, and the pleasures of this world will also seem as fleeting as a dream when seen from the Hereafter. Its our happiness in the Hereafter that we should be most worried about attaining, because it is what will last forever; and its our suffering in the Hereafter that we should be most worried about avoiding, because it also will last forever.
    Allah SWT has promised Jannah to those who remain steadfast in their faith in Him and who trust in Him. The more difficult it is for you to have sabr, the greater the reward for it. So what will it be? Ease in this world, and perhaps the eternal sufferings in Hell? Or difficulty in this world, and inshallah the eternal bliss of Jannah? Lets face it, the old cliches are true: theres no such thing as a free lunch and you can almost never have your cake and eat it too. Weve all got to face difficulties some time. Better by far that they be in the world than in the Hereafter.
    So thats what you should set your mind to. Yes, its difficult to wear hijab. You may be rejected by your family or your friends, you may face harassment and persecution or be fired from your job. These are very scary thoughts. But if you have sabr and keep trusting in Allah SWT, I swear to you sister, this is the path to Jannah, and when you look back on the Day of Qiyamah you will know that it was worth it and have no regrets.
    Wear it today and trust in Allah SWT for tomorrow

    What do I mean by that? What I mean is that you should take it one day at a time, or even one outing at a time. Sometimes the future seems to stretch on forever and ever and you dont think you can make it that long. You want to give up before you even begin.

    So sometimes the best thing to do is to keep you mind focused on what is immediately at hand. Allah SWT will take care of the future. If you have to go out to the market, then concentrate on being able to wear hijab just for this activity and on getting through it. If you do get through it and nothing bad happened, then give thanks to Allah SWT for making it easy for you, and turn your mind to your next outing.
    Or if you have to go out to school or work, then concentrate on being able to wear hijab just for this one day and on getting through it. And give thanks to Allah SWT when you have made it, and turn your mind to the next day.
    Eventually the outings will turn into days and the days into weeks, and the weeks into months. One day you will realize that you have been wearing hijab for quite a long time and it isnt really as bad as you feared, and Allah SWT helped you get through it. Dont be ashamed. Sometimes it is like this. The most important thing is to have sabr and keep your trust in Allah SWT always.
    Wear it and spite the shaytan

    My dear sister, the worries and fears in your mind are the whisperings of the shaytan. He wants to talk you out of obeying Allah SWT.
    It is very easy to keep going around in circles in your mind and to dwell on all the things that could go wrong. I know that I myself have a tendency to do this, I put it off and I dither and I wait for the perfect time. If I let myself, I would never do anything at all!

    So the thing you have to remember is that you do not need to be perfect in iman to wear hijab. If perfection were a qualification, where is the sister who could wear it??
    You must also not fall into the trap of thinking that you should wait until all your worries and fears have disappeared. They never will! Trust me on this, sister.
    True courage is going ahead to do whats right even though you are still nervous and scared. So dont listen to the shaytan. Ignore the worries and fears he whispers into your mind. Tell him that you will not let him keep you from obeying Allah SWT and you will not let him rule your life.
    Make the decision to wear it
    Once you have come to know in your heart that you must wear hijab, then you have to set a day and

    JUST DO IT
    This is the only way. Set a day and when that day comes, you have to do it. Dont back down. Dont give up. Do it.
    Offer salat al-istikhara. Make dua. Make lots of dua. Do not stop making dua. Ask Allah SWT to give you strength. Ask Him to make it easy for you. Ask Him to help you. He will, I swear it to you. He is always there for you when you turn to Him. Remember how much He has given you, how everything that you have, even your very existence, is due to Him. Remember that He deserves this from you. Remember the promise of Jannah. Remember that remaining patient and faithful through difficulty now may lead to Jannah, inshallah. Even if bad things happen, keep these thoughts in your mind. Dont worry about tomorrow. Just concentrate on getting through today, and leave tomorrow to Allah SWT until it gets here.
    Thats how you do it.

    Final Words of Encouragement

    I have been wearing hijab since September 1999. I do not regret it. I have never for one instant regretted it. I do not regret it even one iota. Inshallah, you will discover that you feel the same. Even within a few months I came to feel that I would not be properly dressed if I went out not wearing hijab. This is when you know that you have made it!
    Never feel that you are alone, or that you are the only one who is scared and worried and nervous. Just about every other sister who has travelled down this road has gone through the same things. I know I have. Your sisters are here for you. We have been where you are. We are encouraging you and cheering you on. We know what it takes because we had to find that in ourselves too. We are praying for your success just as we prayed for our own.

    Come and join us.
    Allah does not burden a soul except what it can bear. For it is what it has earned, and upon it is what it has made due. Our Lord and Sustainer, do not condemn us if we forget or do wrong. Our Lord and Sustainer, do not put a burden on us like the burden You put on those who were before us. Our Lord and Sustainer, do not put a burden on us that we cannot endure. And blot out (our sins) and forgive us, and be gentle to us. You are our Protector. So help us against the rejectors. (Surah
    http://www.turntoislam.com/forum/showthread.php?t=711
    <> <> <>
    And the search for truth and justice, and for what pleases Allah our ONE LORD and GOD continues, with knowledge and action


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  8. #128
    Sep 2006
    1,528
    25-10-2014
    07:15 PM




    Chapter VII
    The clothing of Muslim women should not be ostentatious.
    Introduction
    Praise be to Allaah and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger and upon his honourable Companions and those who have followed his example with piety.
    This brochure has been prepared in response to a deterioration in the condition of Muslim women of this day and age, which is a consequence of the misconception that how a woman dresses is of little importance, as long as she performs her obligatory acts of worship. This misconception is not restricted to Muslim women in the West, but unfortunately is shared by many of their sisters in the East.
    In the Glorious Quran, we are told:
    And let there arise out of you a nation inviting to what is good, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong. They are the o*!nes who are successful. (3:104)
    Abu Saeed al-Khudri relates that he heard the Prophet say: He of you who sees something wrong should correct it with his hand; if he is unable to do that, he should condemn it with his tongue; if he is unable to do that, he should at least resent it in his heart, and that is the lowest degree of faith. [Muslim]
    It is clear that we must draw the attention of our Muslim sisters to the importance of wearing Islamic dress. This is not imposed upon us by the mere opinion of a scholar or a Sheikh. It is a Divine Command, and is necessarily in the best interest of the society of every age and place. In this we stand opposed to the opinion of some `modernists who maintain that those living in a western society are justified in adapting to its norms and morals.
    We believe that our religion is that which has been transmitted to us through the Prophet Muhammad , his Companions and our Pious Predecessors. A careful study of relevant Quranic ayah (verses) and ahaadeeth (Prophetic traditions), along with the works of our Pious Predecessors, will reveal a strict emphasis o*!n the need for women to observe modesty in their dress when they appear in the public by covering all their bodies and any ornaments or other means of beautification they might wear.
    Allah the Exalted says in Surat an-Noor, ayah 31:
    And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and guard their private parts and not show of their adornment except o*!nly that which is apparent, and draw their veils over their (necks and) bosoms and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands fathers, their sons, their husbands sons, their brothers, or their brothers sons, or their sisters sons, or their women, or their slaves, or male servants who lack vigour, or small children who have no knowledge of womens awarah (that which is covered). And let them not stamp their feet to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And turn you all to Allaah in repentance, O believers, that you may be successful.
    And He says in Surah al-Ahzaab, ayah 59:
    O Prophet! tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their outer garments close around them. That will be better, that they may be known and so not to be bothered. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
    From these two ayah of the Noble Quraan and from the authentic sources of guidance provided for us; we can derive the following principles of proper dress and adornment for Muslim women:
    The outer garment worn in public must cover all of the body except the face and hands
    Surat an-Noor, ayah 31 (quoted above) contains clear a command that a womans natural beauty and her adornment are to be concealed from strangers, except that which might show unintentionally (ie. parts of the dress or ornaments) or which show as a matter of course because it is not prohibited that they be shown (ie. the face the hands).
    Abu Dawood authentically narrated that Aaishah said:
    Asmaa came to see the Messenger of Allah. She was wearing a thin dress; the Prophet turned away from her and said to her: O Asmaa! o*!nce a woman reaches the age of puberty no part of her body should be uncovered except her face and hands.
    It should be noted that the Arabic word khumur (plural of khimaar) which has been translated above in the ayah from Surat an-Noor as veils, means head covers, not face veils as may mistakenly be supposed. It refers to a cloth which covers all of the hair. Furthermore, the word juyoob (plural of jaib), also found in the ayah of Surat an-Noor, refers not o*!nly to the bosom, as is commonly thought, but also to the neck.
    Qurtubi, an eminent mufassir (Quranic commentator) stated:
    Women in those days used to cover their heads with the khimaar, throwing its ends o*!n their backs. This left the neck and the upper part of the chest bare, along with the ears, in the manner of the Christians. Then Allah commanded them to cover those parts with the khimaar.
    And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment.
    Women at the time of the Prophet used to wear anklets, which they could employ to attract attention by stamping their feet, making the anklets tinkle together. This practice was now forbidden, but even more important for us, these words make it absolutely clear that the legs and ankles are to be covered.
    Abdullah Ibn Umar narrated:
    The Prophet said: On the Day of Judgement, Allah will not look upon o*!ne who trails his garment along out of pride. Umm Salamah then asked: What should women do with their garments? The Prophet said: They may lower them a hand span. She said: Their feet would still be uncovered. The Prophet said: Then a forearms length, but no more. (Tirmidhee)
    The ayah from Surat an-Noor quoted above gives us specific and detailed information about what a Muslim woman should be sure to cover when she is in the company of strangers, and it gives a detailed list of those with whom she is permitted to be less inhibited. The ayah quoted from Surat al-Ahzab further directs Muslim women to put some outer garment over their clothes, and to draw it close around them.
    Abu Dawood related that when this ayah was revealed, the women of the Ansaar appeared like crows (because of the black cloaks which they wore).
    Some outer garment, whether a cloak or a coat, must be worn by a Muslim woman when she is in public, and even when she is in her own house or that of a close relative, if she is in the presence of strangers.
    It was mentioned above that the face need not be covered. If, however, the woman is wearing make-up, she should cover her face, since the make-up is adornment beyond what is permitted. Similarly, she should cover her hands if she is wearing nail polish or some other decoration or ornament. Furthermore, although it is permissible to leave the face uncovered in the presence of strangers, it is praiseworthy to cover it, as that was the practice of the wives of the Prophet according to authentic ahaadeeth.
    The outer garment must not be decorative itself or a means of beautification
    When Allah commands women not to reveal their beauty, He means both the natural beauty, with which He has endowed them, and all means which they might employ to enhance that beauty. Clearly, the garment which is used to screen the womans beauty and her adornment from public view should not itself be a thing of beauty.
    Fudaalah ibn Ubaid reported that the Prophet said:
    There are three people that you should not concern yourself about: a man who parted from the Jamaaah and disobeyed his Imaam and died in that state; a slave who ran away from his master and died without returning; a woman whose husband departed from her after providing for her worldly needs and who then beautified (tabarrajat) herself in his absence. Do not worry about any of them. (Ahmad)
    Egypt's Maria TV Caters To Fully Veiled Women
    AP | By AYA BATRAWY Posted: 07/24/2012 1:56 pm Updated: 07/24/2012 2:19 pm
    stumble



    CAIRO (AP) The only visible female face in the Cairo-based studio of a new Islamic TV channel for women is that of a puppet. The human stars are all veiled from head to toe, with only their eyes showing.
    Maria TV is run primarily by women. They operate cameras, present shows and interview female guests ranging from doctors to students of Islamic theology. But they cannot show their faces during the broadcasts, and no men are allowed on air during the female programming, not even for phone-ins.
    Shrouded in long flowing black robes and scarves known as niqabs, with black gloves to match the women are distinguishable only by their voices and the slits for their eyes.
    The channel, which was launched on Saturday to coincide with the start of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, is the brainchild of Ahmed Abdallah as part of a broader effort to expand his religious pan-Arab satellite station Ummah TV.
    The shows range from beauty programs where presenters simply discuss make-up tricks without actually showing any to shows about medicine and marriage. The puppet is used in a satirical show that pokes fun at major news stories.
    "Even if you have the whole house lit with candles, do not be upset when your husband comes home from a long day at work and does not notice," said Abeer Shahin, the presenter of a show called "First Year of Marriage."
    Abdallah, known by his nickname Abu Islam, said his goal is to show women that they do not have to reveal their beauty to the world in order to be seen.



    "I am broadcasting a new era for women who wear niqab, for a new kind of woman," said Abdallah, who wore a traditional white Egyptian robe for men known as a galabeya.
    That effort mirrors the cultural changes under way in Egypt since conservative Muslims rose to power after Hosni Mubarak's secular regime was ousted during last year's revolution.
    Islamists had been heavily repressed for decades, with hundreds jailed as opposition figures.
    Ummah TV was raided multiple times by Mubarak's security forces and financial troubles forced it to shut down in 2008. Abu Islam himself was detained at least four times, the longest being 22 days.
    The station relaunched last year while the fundamentalist Muslim Brotherhood and ultraconservative Salafis emerged as the most influential political force in post-Mubarak Egypt.
    The Muslim Brotherhood's Mohammed Morsi became Egypt's first freely elected president, although the military, which assumed power in the transition, has tried to curb his powers along with the Islamist influence.
    Earlier this year, Ummah TV was raided by military police who took cameras and left the office in shambles, said Abu Islam.
    Conservative Islam and its most visible hallmark, the niqab, appear to be on the rise on Egypt's cultural scene as well, and the launch of Maria TV is an attempt to cater to that growing segment of society.
    A decade ago, the niqab was rarely seen in Egypt and it remains a minority fashion. Most women wear a scarf that covers the hair but not the face.
    Still, it has become normal in Egypt to see women wearing billowing black robes that cloak the body's shape teaching at universities, working in offices, strolling along the Nile River or riding on motorcycles behind their husbands.
    Maria TV airs six hours a day on Ummah TV, which Abu Islam first launched with the help of donations in 2006. The women film their shows at Ummah's studios in a second-floor apartment of an old building overlooking one of Cairo's biggest mosques in Abbasiya Square.
    The white-haired, white-bearded Abdallah called Maria TV a victory for women who wear the niqab "after years of discrimination and injustice."
    Many of these women are outspoken in defending their beliefs despite criticism that they are oppressed and cloistered by patriarchal traditions.
    "As with everything, we got positive and negative reactions," said Islam Ahmed Abdallah, the station director's son. "But whatever. We're on our way."
    Executive producer, Aalaa Ahmed, who is also Abu Islam's daughter, defended the channel, saying it was time for a female team to present something for women by women.
    "I am reaching a sector of society has never been reached out to before," she said.
    Maria TV is named after the Coptic Christian slave given to the Prophet Muhammad, whom he married and freed.
    "I want to give children the ability to see these women and say 'I want to be like that'... to create a generation that wants this and wants to be like this," Abu Islam said
    Rep. Jesse Jackson Jr. Resigns


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  9. #129
    Sep 2006
    1,528
    25-10-2014
    07:15 PM



    Chapter VIII
    Niqab is not obligatory by Shaykh Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee

    From the Book Jilbaab al-Marah al-Muslimah Shaykh Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee the main errors of those who make the face veil obligatory
    1. The interpretation of al-idnaa in the verse of the Jilbaab to mean covering the face. This misinterpretation is contrary to the basic meaning of the word in Arabic which is to come close, as is mentioned in authoritative dictionaries like al-Mufradaat by the well-known scholar, ar-Raaghib al-Asbahaanee. However, there is sufficient evidence in the interpretation of the leading commentator on the Quran, Ibn Abbaas, who explained the verse saying, She should bring the jilbaab close to her face without covering it. It should be noted that none of the narrations used as evidence to contradict this interpretation are authentic.
    2. The interpretation of jilbaab as a garment which covers the face. Like the previous misinterpretation, this interpretation has no basis linguistically. It is contrary to the interpretation of the leading scholars, past and present, who define the jilbaab as a garment which women drape over their head scarves (khimaar). Even Shaykh at-Tuwaijree himself narrated this interpretation from Ibn Masood and other Salafee scholars. Al-Baghawee mentioned it as the correct interpretation in his Tafseer (vol. 3, p. 518) saying, It is the garment which a woman covers herself with worn above the dress (dir ) and the headscarf. Ibn Hazm also said, The jilbaab in the Arabic language in which the Messenger of Allaah () spoke to us is what covers the whole body and not just a part of it. (vol. 3, p. 217). Al-Qurtubee declared this correct in his Tafseer and Ibn Katheer said, It is the cloak worn above the headscarf. (vol. 3, p. 518)
    3. The claim that the khimaar (headscarf) covers the head and the face. In doing so the face has been arbitrarily added to its meaning in order to make the verse: Let them drape their headscarves over their busoms appear to be in their favor, when, in fact it is not. The word khimaar linguistically means only a head covering. Whenever it is mentioned in general terms, this is what is intended. For example in the hadeeths on wiping (mas-h) on the khimaar and the prophetic statement, The salaah of a woman past puberty will not be accepted without a khimaar. This hadeeth confirms the invalidity of their misinterpretation, because not even the extremists themselves much less the scholars use it as evidence that the covering of a womans face in salaah is a condition for its validity. They only use it as proof for covering the head. Furthermore, their interpretation of the verse of the Qawaa to remove their clothing to mean jilbaab further confirms it. They hold that it is permissible for old women to appear before marriagealbe males in her headscarf with her face exposed. One of their noteable scholars openly stated that. As for Shaykh at-Tuwaijree, he implied it without actually saying it. After checking the opinions of the early and later scholars in all the specializations, I found that they unanimously hold that the khimaar is a head covering. I have mentioned the names of more than twenty scholars, among them some of the great Imaams and hadeeth scholars. For example, Abul-Waleed al-Baajee (d. 474 AH) who further added in his explanation, Nothing should be seen of her besides the circle of her face.
    4. The claim of a consensus (Ijmaa) on the face being considered awrah. Shaykh at-Tuwaijree claimed that scholars unanimously held that the womans face was awrah and many who have no knowledge, including some Ph.D. holders, have blindly followed him. In fact, it is a false claim, which no one before him has claimed. The books of Hambalite scholars which he learned from, not to mention those of others, contain sufficient proof of its falsehood. I have mentioned many of their statements in Ar-Radd. For example, Ibn Hubayrah al-Hambalee stated in his book, al-Ifsaah, that the face is not considered awrah in the three main schools of Islaamic law and he added, It is also a narrated position of Imaam Ahmad. Many Hambalite scholars preferred this narration in their books, like Ibn Qudaamah and others. Ibn Qudaamah in al-Mughnee explained the reason for his preference saying, Because necessity demands that the face be uncovered for buying and selling, and the hands be uncovered for taking and giving. Among the Hambalite scholars, is the great Ibn Muflih al-Hambalee about whom Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah said, There is no one under the dome of the sky more knowledgeable about the school of Imaam Ahmad than Ibn Muflih. And his teacher, Ibn Taymiyyah, once told him, You arent Ibn Muflih, you are Muflih! It is incumbent on me to convey Ibn Muflihs statements for the readers because of the knowledge and many benefits contained in them. Included in them is further confirmation of the falsehood of Shaykh at-Tuwaijrees claim and support for the correctness of my position on the issue of uncovering the face. Ibn Muflih stated the following in his valuable work al-Aadaab ash-Shariyyah which is among the references cited by Shaykh at-Tuwaijree (something which indicates that he is aware of it, but has deliberately hidden these crucial facts from his readers while claiming the contrary): Is it correct to chastise marriageable women if they uncover their faces in the street? The answer depends on whether it is compulsory for women to cover their faces or whether it is compulsory for men to lower their gaze from her. There are two positions on this issue.
    1. Regarding the hadeeth of Jareer in which he said, I asked Allaahs Messenger about the sudden inadvertent glance and he instructed me to look away. Al-Qaadee Iyaad commented, The scholars, May Allaah Most High have mercy on them, have said that there is proof in this hadeeth that it is not compulsory for a woman to cover her face in the street. Instead, it is a recommended sunnah for her to do so and it is compulsory for the man to lower his gaze from her at all times, except for a legislated purpose. Shaykh Muhyud-deen an-Nawawee mentioned that without further explanation.
    2. Then al-Muflih mentioned Ibn Taymiyyahs statement which at-Tuwaijree relies on in his book (page 170), while feigning ignorance of the statements of the majority of scholars. Statements like those of al-Qaadee Iyaad and an-Nawawees agreement with it.
    Then al-Muflih said, On the basis of that, is chastisement legal? Chastisement is not allowed in issues in where there is a difference of opinion, and the difference has already been mentioned. As regards our opinion and that of a group of Shaafiite scholars and others, looking at a marriageable woman without desire or in a secluded circumstance is permissible. Therefore, chastisement is not proper. This answer is in complete agreement with Imaam Ahmads statement, It is not proper that a jurist oblige people to follow his opinion (math-hab). And this is if the truth were on his side. What of the case where the jurist proudly, dishonestly misleads people and declares other Muslims to be disbelievers as at-Tuwaijree did on page 249 of his book saying, Whoever permits women to expose their faces and uses the proofs of al-Albaanee has flung open the door for women to publicly flaunt their beauty and emboldened them to commit the reprehensible acts done by women who uncover their faces today. And on page 233 he said, and to disbelief in the verses of Allaah. Those are his words May Allaah reform him and guide him. What would he say about Ibn Muflih, an-Nawawee, al-Qaadee Iyaad and other Palestinian scholars, as well as the majority of scholars who preceded them and who are my salaf regarding my opinion on this matter?
    5. The agreement of at-Tuwaijree and the extremists with him to explain away the authentic hadeeths which contradict their opinion. At-Tuwaijree did this with the Khathamiyyah hadeeth. They developed a number of comical methods to nullify its implications. I have refuted them all in ar-Radd and one of them in Jilbaab al-Marah al-Muslimah. Some reputable scholars have said that the hadeeth doesnt contain a clear statement that her face was exposed. This is among the farthest opinions from the truth. For, if her face wasnt exposed, where did the narrator or the viewer get the idea that she was beautiful? And what was al-Fadl repeatedly looking at? The truth is that this is among the strongest and most clear proofs that a womans face is not awrah. In spite of that, there remains a group that insists that she was in ihraam while knowing that her ihraam does not prevent her from draping some of her clothing over her face. At-Tuwaijree does accept sometimes that her face was uncovered but he cancels its implication by saying, There is no evidence in it that she continuously exposed her face! He means that the wind must have exposed her face and at that instant al-Fadl ibn Abbaas saw it. Is it possible for an Arab to say that after reading in the hadeeth al-Fadl began to stare while turning towards her, and in another narration so he began to look at her and her beauty amazed him. Isnt this pride with two protruding horns? At other times at-Tuwaijree interprets it as al-Fadl looking at her size and stature.
    6. The frequent use of inauthentic hadeeths and unreliable narrations. For example, the hadeeth of Ibn Abbaas about exposing only one eye is commonly used by those who insist that women are obliged to cover their faces in spite of their knowledge of its inauthenticity. In fact, one among them also declared it inauthentic. Perhaps the most important of these unreliable hadeeth commonly used as evidence is the one in which the Prophet is reported to have said, Are you both blind? They blindly followed at-Tuwaijree and the others in claiming that this inauthentic narration was strengthened by other supportive narrations and that it was evidence for the prohibition of women from looking at men, even if they are blind. They took this position in spite of the fact that the narration was classified inauthentic by the leading verification experts among the hadeeth scholars like, Imaam Ahmad, al-Bayhaqee and Ibn Abdil-Barr. Al-Qurtubee related that the narration was not considered authentic among the scholars of hadeeth. Consequently, many Palestinian hambalite scholars made their rulings on that basis. Furthermore, that is what the science of hadeeth and its methodology requires as was clearly stated in al-Irwaa. However, in spite of all that evidence to the contrary, Shaykh Abdul-Qaadir as-Sindee had the nerve to go along with Shaykh at-Tuwaijree and others and claim that its chain of narration was authentic. By doing that he exposed himself and his ignorance or feigned ignorance. It is unfortunate that he took this position, because the hadeeths chain contains an unknown narrator from whom only one person narrated along with its contradiction to what leading scholars have narrated. Contrary to the level of scholarship that we are used to from Shaykh as-Sindee, he has brought in support of his claim the most amazing things. He arguments unexpectedly contain deception, misguidance, blind following, hiding knowledge and turning away from his own fundamental principles. Among the amazing positions is Shaykh as-Sindees feigned ignorance that the narration contradicts the hadeeth of Faatimah bint Qays which contains the Prophets permission for her to stay at the home of the blind companion, Ibn Umm al-Maktoom, whom she would be able see. The Prophet gave the reason for that instruction in his statement to her, For if you take off your head scarf, he wont see you. In at-Tabaraanees narration from Faatimah, she said, He instructed me to be at Ibn Umm Maktooms home because he couldnt see me whenever I took my head scarf off. There are also a number of other unreliable hadeeths gathered by at-Tuwaijree in his book. I mentioned ten of them in my response, and among them are some fabricated traditions.
    7. The classification of some authentic hadeeths and confirmed narrations from the Companions as inauthentic. The extremists have declared well-established reliable narrations as unreliable and feigned ignorance of strengthening narrations. They have further declared some narrations extremely inauthentic, like the hadeeth of Aaishah concerning the woman who reaches puberty, Nothing should be seen of her besides her face and hands. They have persistently declared it inauthentic the ignorant among them blindly following others devoid of knowledge. In so doing, they contradict those among the leading scholars of hadeeth who strengthen it like al-Bayhaqee and ath-Thahabee. Most of them, including some prominent scholars, feign ignorance of its various chains of narration. In fact, at-Tuwaijree openly stated on page 236 of his book that this statement was only narrated in Aaishahs hadeeth. Even though he has seen with his own eyes on pages 57-9 of my book two other chains: one of which is from Asmaa bint Umays and the other from Qataadah in the abbreviated (mursal) format with an authentic chain of narration. Many of the blind followers followed him, including some female authors as in Hijaabuki ukhtee al-muslimah [Your veil, my sister Muslim], page 33. They also pretend to be ignorant of the leading hadeeth scholars and others who strengthened it, like al-Munthiree, az-Zaylaee, al-Asqlaanee and ash-Shawkaanee. Some of those who promote themselves as being among the well versed in this noble science in their forefront Shaykh as-Sindee claim that some of its narrations are extremely weak and unreliable in order to escape from the hadeeth science rule that unreliable narrations are strengthened by narrations similar to them. In doing that, they delude their readers into thinking that no one ruled the weak narrators, like Abdullaah ibn Laheeah, trustworthy and that they cannot be used as supportive evidence. In doing that, they contradict the methodology of the hadeeth scholars in using supportive evidence. Among them is Imaam Ahmad and Ibn Taymiyyah may Allaah have mercy on them. Likewise, they all feign ignorance that the scholars among them Imaam ash-Shaafiee confirm the hadeeth mursal if most scholars use it as evidence, as is the case of Aaishahs hadeeth. Other strengthening factors may be added to the above. (a) The hadeeth has been narrated by Qataadah from Aaishah. (b) It has been narrated in another chain from Asmaa. (c) All three narrators of the hadeeth ruled according to it.
    1. Qataadah stated in his interpretation of the verse on draping, Allaah has placed on them the requirement to cover the eyebrows, That is, and not on their faces as stated by at-Tabaree.
    2. Aaishah said, regarding the female in ihraam, She may drape the garment on her face, if she wishes. This was narrated by al-Bayhaqee in an authentic chain of narrators. There is clear evidence in Aaishahs giving the female pilgrim a choice in draping that in her opinion the face was not awrah. Otherwise she would have made it obligatory on them as those who contradict it do. Because of their position, most of the extremist authors, with at-Tuwaijree in the forefront, hid this statement of Umm al-Mumineen, Aaishah from their readers. The author of Faslul-khitaab [The Definitive Statement] deliberately deleted this portion of al-Bayhaqees narration in his book. This being only one of a number of similar disreputable acts which I have exposed in my book. The supportive evidence is that this authentic narration from her strengthens her hadeeth from the Prophet. This is among the facts that people are unaware of or they pretend ignorance of, either choice is bitter to swallow.
    3. As for Asmaa, it has been authentically reported from Qays ibn Abee Haazim that he saw her as a woman of white complexion with tatoos on her hands.
    (d) The narration of Ibn Abbaas earlier mentioned, She should pull the jilbaab (cloak) close to her face without putting it on her face. His interpretation of the verse of adornment except what appears from it as referring tothe face and hands was similar. There is also a similar narration from Ibn Umar to the same effect. At this point, a bitter reality must be noted due to the lessons which may be gained from it, the knowledge which it contains and is service as a reminder of the wise saying: The truth is not know by people, know the truth and you will know people. At the same time that Shaykh at-Tuwaijree insists on rejecting the hadeeth of Aaishah and its supporting evidences, among them Qaatadahs mursal narration, he willingly accepts another inauthentic hadeeth from her with mursal support. In that hadeeth it is mentioned that she wore a niqaab (face veil) and that she was supposed to have described the Prophets wife Safiyyah and the Ansaar women as a jewess among jewesses which is considered by scholars to be a very erroneous statement (munkar jiddan). The Shaykh argues on page 181, It has mursal supportive evidence, and quotes one of the mursal hadeeths of Ataa containing a known liar in its chain of narration. One should reflect on the great difference between this fabricated supportive evidence and the authentic supportive evidence of Qataadah further supported by other evidences, then ask, Why did at-Tuwaijree accept the second hadeeth of Aaishah and not the first? The obvious answer is that the accepted one contains reference to wearing the niqaab even though it does not indicate obligation while the rejected one denies it. Thus, in this regard, the Shaykh did not base his position on Islaamic legal principles, but on something similar to the Jewish principle: The ends justify the means. May Allaah help us.
    8. Placing unreasonable conditions Among the amazing practices of some latter day blind following hanafite scholars and others is that on one hand they agree with us regarding the permissibility of women exposing their faces, because that was the position of their Imaams, but on the other hand they agree with the extremists in opposition to their Imaams. They make ijtihaad (while claiming taqleed) by adding the condition that the society be safe from fitnah to the position of the Imaams. This refers to the fitnah caused by women to men. Then one of the ignorant contemporary blind followers went to the extreme of actually attributing this condition to the Imaams themselves. Among some of those having no knowledge, this resulted in their concluding that there is essentially no difference between the position of the Imaams and the extremists. It is obvious to jurists that this condition is invalid because it implies that humans know something which the Lord missed knowing. That is, the temptation of women did not exist during the time of the Prophet () thus we had to create a special ruling for it which did not exist previously. In fact, the fitnah did exist during the era of divine legislation and the story of al-Fadl ibn Abbaas trial with the Khathamiyyah woman and his repeated looking at her is not far from the readers memories. It is well known that when Allaah Most High instructed men and women to lower their gazes and instructed women to veil themselves in front of men, He did that to block the road to corruption and prevent temptation. In spite of that, He Most Great and Glorious did not command that they cover their faces and hands in front of them. The Prophet () further emphasized that in the story of al-Fadl by not commanding the woman to cover her face. And Allaah was truthful when He said, And your Lord is not forgetful </B>The reality is that the condition of there not being fitnah was only mentioned by scholars regarding the mans looking at the womans face, as in al-Fiqh alaa al-mathaahib al-arbaah, page 12. They said, That [the womans face may be uncovered] is permissible on condition that there is safety from temptation, and that is true, contrary to what the blind followers practice. They conclude from it that the woman is obliged to cover her face, when in fact it is not a necessary consequence. They know that the condition of safety from temptation also applies to women. For it is not permissible for them to stare at a mans face except where there is safety from temptation. Is it then a necessary consequence that men also veil their faces from women to prevent temptation as some tribes called the Tawareg do. They would have a basis in fiqh of the Quraan and Sunnah if they said that a woman veiled in correct jilbaab who fears being harmed by some corrupt individuals due to her face being exposed is obliged to cover her face to prevent harm and temptation. In fact, it could even be said that it is obligatory on her not to leave her home if she feared that some evil authorities supported by a leader who does not rule by what Allaah revealed, as exists in some Arab countries since a few years ago, would pull her jilbaab from her head. As to making this obligation a compulsory law for all women everywhere and in all eras, even if there did not exist any harm for veiled women, No. Absolutely not. Allaah was truthful when He said, Do they have partners who legislated for them in the religion what Allaah did not permit?? These are the most significant of the extremist oppositions mistakes which I thought needed brief mention due their strong link to the contents of this book. I then closed ar-Radd al-Mufhim with a reminder that extremism in the religion considering that the Wise Legislator forbade it will not bring any good. And it is not possible for it to produce a generation of young Muslim women carrying Islaamic knowledge and practice moderately balanced, with neither excesses nor deficiencies. Not like what I have heard about some young female adherents in Arab countries when they heard the Prophets statement, The woman in ihraam should neither wear a niqaab nor gloves, they did not accept it saying instead, We will wear our niqaabs and gloves! No doubt, this was a direct result of the extremist views which they heard regarding the obligation of covering their faces. I certainly cannot imagine that this type of extremism and this is only one example from many which I have can possibly produce for us salafee women able to do everything their religiously guided social life demands of them in a way similar to the righteous women of the Salaf.


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  10. #130
    Sep 2006
    1,528
    25-10-2014
    07:15 PM




    Chapter IX
    Men in Islam versus Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition

    INTRODUCTION


    Five years ago, I read in the Toronto Star issue of July 3, 1990 an article titled "Islam is not alone in patriarchal doctrines", by Gwynne Dyer. The article described the furious reactions of the participants of a conference on women and power held in Montreal to the comments of the famous Egyptian feminist Dr. Nawal Saadawi. Her "politically incorrect" statements included : "the most restrictive elements towards women can be found first in Judaism in the Old Testament then in Christianity and then in the Quran"; "all religions are patriarchal because they stem from patriarchal societies"; and "veiling of women is not a specifically Islamic practice but an ancient cultural heritage with analogies in sister religions". The participants could not bear sitting around while their faiths were being equated with Islam. Thus, Dr. Saadawi received a barrage of criticism. "Dr. Saadawi's comments are unacceptable. Her answers reveal a lack of understanding about other people's faiths," declared Bernice Dubois of the World Movement of Mothers. "I must protest" said panellist Alice Shalvi of Israel women's network, "there is no conception of the veil in Judaism." The article attributed these furious protests to the strong tendency in the West to scapegoat Islam for practices that are just as much a part of the West's own cultural heritage. "Christian and Jewish feminists were not going to sit around being discussed in the same category as those wicked Muslims," wrote Gwynne Dyer.
    I was not surprised that the conference participants had held such a negative view of Islam, especially when women's issues were involved. In the West, Islam is believed to be the symbol of the subordination of women par excellence. In order to understand how firm this belief is, it is enough to mention that the Minister of Education in France, the land of Voltaire, has recently ordered the expulsion of all young Muslim women wearing the veil from French schools!1 A young Muslim student wearing a headscarf is denied her right of education in France, while a Catholic student wearing a cross or a Jewish student wearing a skullcap is not. The scene of French policemen preventing young Muslim women wearing headscarves from entering their high school is unforgettable. It inspires the memories of another equally disgraceful scene of Governor George Wallace of Alabama in 1962 standing in front of a school gate trying to block the entrance of black students in order to prevent the desegregation of Alabama's schools. The difference between the two scenes is that the black students had the sympathy of so many people in the U.S. and in the whole world. President Kennedy sent the U.S. National Guard to force the entry of the black students. The Muslim girls, on the other hand, received no help from any one. Their cause seems to have very little sympathy either inside or outside France. The reason is the widespread misunderstanding and fear of anything Islamic in the world today.
    What intrigued me the most about the Montreal conference was one question: Were the statements made by Saadawi, or any of her critics, factual ? In other words, do Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have the same conception of women? Are they different in their conceptions ? Do Judaism and Christianity , truly, offer women a better treatment than Islam does? What is the Truth?
    It is not easy to search for and find answers to these difficult questions. The first difficulty is that one has to be fair and objective or, at least, do one's utmost to be so. This is what Islam teaches. The Quran has instructed Muslims to say the truth even if those who are very close to them do not like it: "Whenever you speak, speak justly, even if a near relative is concerned" (6:152) "O you who believe stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor" (4:135).
    The other great difficulty is the overwhelming breadth of the subject. Therefore, during the last few years, I have spent many hours reading the Bible, The Encyclopaedia of Religion, and the Encyclopaedia Judaica searching for answers. I have also read several books discussing the position of women in different religions written by scholars, apologists, and critics. The material presented in the following chapters represents the important findings of this humble research. I don't claim to be absolutely objective. This is beyond my limited capacity. All I can say is that I have been trying, throughout this research, to approach the Quranic ideal of "speaking justly".
    I would like to emphasize in this introduction that my purpose for this study is not to denigrate Judaism or Christianity. As Muslims, we believe in the divine origins of both. No one can be a Muslim without believing in Moses and Jesus as great prophets of God. My goal is only to vindicate Islam and pay a tribute, long overdue in the West, to the final truthful Message from God to the human race. I would also like to emphasize that I concerned myself only with Doctrine. That is, my concern is, mainly, the position of women in the three religions as it appears in their original sources not as practised by their millions of followers in the world today. Therefore, most of the evidence cited comes from the Quran, the sayings of Prophet Muhammad, the Bible, the Talmud, and the sayings of some of the most influential Church Fathers whose views have contributed immeasurably to defining and shaping Christianity. This interest in the sources relates to the fact that understanding a certain religion from the attitudes and the behaviour of some of its nominal followers is misleading. Many people confuse culture with religion, many others do not know what their religious books are saying, and many others do not even care.
    EVE'S FAULT ?
    The three religions agree on one basic fact: Both women and men are created by God, The Creator of the whole universe. However, disagreement starts soon after the creation of the first man, Adam, and the first woman, Eve. The Judaeo-Christian conception of the creation of Adam and Eve is narrated in detail in Genesis 2:4-3:24. God prohibited both of them from eating the fruits of the forbidden tree. The serpent seduced Eve to eat from it and Eve, in turn, seduced Adam to eat with her. When God rebuked Adam for what he did, he put all the blame on Eve, "The woman you put here with me --she gave me some fruit from the tree and I ate it." Consequently, God said to Eve:
    "I will greatly increase your pains in childbearing; with pain you will give birth to children. Your desire will be for your husband and he will rule over you."
    To Adam He said:
    "Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree .... Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life..."
    The Islamic conception of the first creation is found in several places in the Quran, for example:
    "O Adam dwell with your wife in the Garden and enjoy as you wish but approach not this tree or you run into harm and transgression. Then Satan whispered to them in order to reveal to them their shame that was hidden from them and he said: 'Your Lord only forbade you this tree lest you become angels or such beings as live forever.' And he swore to them both that he was their sincere adviser. So by deceit he brought them to their fall: when they tasted the tree their shame became manifest to them and they began to sew together the leaves of the Garden over their bodies. And their Lord called unto them: 'Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you that Satan was your avowed enemy?' They said: 'Our Lord we have wronged our own souls and if You forgive us not and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be lost' " (7:19:23).
    A careful look into the two accounts of the story of the Creation reveals some essential differences. The Quran, contrary to the Bible, places equal blame on both Adam and Eve for their mistake. Nowhere in the Quran can one find even the slightest hint that Eve tempted Adam to eat from the tree or even that she had eaten before him. Eve in the Quran is no temptress, no seducer, and no deceiver. Moreover, Eve is not to be blamed for the pains of childbearing. God, according to the Quran, punishes no one for another's faults. Both Adam and Eve committed a sin and then asked God for forgiveness and He forgave them both.
    EVE'S LEGACY
    The image of Eve as temptress in the Bible has resulted in an extremely negative impact on women throughout the Judaeo-Christian tradition. All women were believed to have inherited from their mother, the Biblical Eve, both her guilt and her guile. Consequently, they were all untrustworthy, morally inferior, and wicked. Menstruation, pregnancy, and childbearing were considered the just punishment for the eternal guilt of the cursed female sex. In order to appreciate how negative the impact of the Biblical Eve was on all her female descendants we have to look at the writings of some of the most important Jews and Christians of all time. Let us start with the Old Testament and look at excerpts from what is called the Wisdom Literature in which we find:
    "I find more bitter than death the woman who is a snare, whose heart is a trap and whose hands are chains. The man who pleases God will escape her, but the sinner she will ensnare....while I was still searching but not finding, I found one upright man among a thousand but not one upright woman among them all" (Ecclesiastes 7:26-28).
    In another part of the Hebrew literature which is found in the Catholic Bible we read:
    "No wickedness comes anywhere near the wickedness of a woman.....Sin began with a woman and thanks to her we all must die" (Ecclesiasticus 25:19,24).
    Jewish Rabbis listed nine curses inflicted on women as a result of the Fall:
    "To the woman He gave nine curses and death: the burden of the blood of menstruation and the blood of virginity; the burden of pregnancy; the burden of childbirth; the burden of bringing up the children; her head is covered as one in mourning; she pierces her ear like a permanent slave or slave girl who serves her master; she is not to be believed as a witness; and after everything--death." 2
    To the present day, orthodox Jewish men in their daily morning prayer recite "Blessed be God King of the universe that Thou has not made me a woman." The women, on the other hand, thank God every morning for "making me according to Thy will." 3 Another prayer found in many Jewish prayer books: "Praised be God that he has not created me a gentile. Praised be God that he has not created me a woman. Praised be God that he has not created me an ignoramus." 4
    The Biblical Eve has played a far bigger role in Christianity than in Judaism. Her sin has been pivotal to the whole Christian faith because the Christian conception of the reason for the mission of Jesus Christ on Earth stems from Eve's disobedience to God. She had sinned and then seduced Adam to follow her suit. Consequently, God expelled both of them from Heaven to Earth, which had been cursed because of them. They bequeathed their sin, which had not been forgiven by God, to all their descendants and, thus, all humans are born in sin. In order to purify human beings from their 'original sin', God had to sacrifice Jesus, who is considered to be the Son of God, on the cross. Therefore, Eve is responsible for her own mistake, her husband's sin, the original sin of all humanity, and the death of the Son of God. In other words, one woman acting on her own caused the fall of humanity. 5 What about her daughters? They are sinners like her and have to be treated as such. Listen to the severe tone of St. Paul in the New Testament:
    "A woman should learn in quietness and full submission. I don't permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man; she must be silent. For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not the one deceived; it was the woman who was deceived and became a sinner" (I Timothy 2:11-14).
    St. Tertullian was even more blunt than St. Paul, while he was talking to his 'best beloved sisters' in the faith, he said: 6
    "Do you not know that you are each an Eve? The sentence of God on this sex of yours lives in this age: the guilt must of necessity live too. You are the Devil's gateway: You are the unsealer of the forbidden tree: You are the first deserter of the divine law: You are she who persuaded him whom the devil was not valiant enough to attack. You destroyed so easily God's image, man. On account of your desert even the Son of God had to die."
    St. Augustine was faithful to the legacy of his predecessors, he wrote to a friend:
    "What is the difference whether it is in a wife or a mother, it is still Eve the temptress that we must beware of in any woman......I fail to see what use woman can be to man, if one excludes the function of bearing children."
    Centuries later, St. Thomas Aquinas still considered women as defective:
    "As regards the individual nature, woman is defective and misbegotten, for the active force in the male seed tends to the production of a perfect likeness in the masculine sex; while the production of woman comes from a defect in the active force or from some material indisposition, or even from some external influence."
    Finally, the renowned reformer Martin Luther could not see any benefit from a woman but bringing into the world as many children as possible regardless of any side effects:
    "If they become tired or even die, that does not matter. Let them die in childbirth, that's why they are there"
    Again and again all women are denigrated because of the image of Eve the temptress, thanks to the Genesis account. To sum up, the Judaeo-Christian conception of women has been poisoned by the belief in the sinful nature of Eve and her female offspring.
    If we now turn our attention to what the Quran has to say about women, we will soon realize that the Islamic conception of women is radically different from the Judaeo-Christian one. Let the Quran speak for itself:
    "For Muslim men and women, for believing men and women, for devout men and women, for true men and women, for men and women who are patient, for men and women who humble themselves, for men and women who give in charity, for men and women who fast, for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in Allah's praise-- For them all has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward" (33:35).
    "The believers, men and women, are protectors, one of another: they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil, they observe regular prayers, practise regular charity, and obey Allah and His Messenger. On them will Allah pour His Mercy: for Allah is Exalted in power, Wise" (9:71).
    "And their Lord answered them: Truly I will never cause to be lost the work of any of you, Be you a male or female, you are members one of another" (3:195).
    "Whoever works evil will not be requited but by the like thereof, and whoever works a righteous deed -whether man or woman- and is a believer- such will enter the Garden of bliss" (40:40).
    "Whoever works righteousness, man or woman, and has faith, verily to him/her we will give a new life that is good and pure, and we will bestow on such their reward according to the best of their actions" (16:97).
    It is clear that the Quranic view of women is no different than that of men. They, both, are God's creatures whose sublime goal on earth is to worship their Lord, do righteous deeds, and avoid evil and they, both, will be assessed accordingly. The Quran never mentions that the woman is the devil's gateway or that she is a deceiver by nature. The Quran, also, never mentions that man is God's image; all men and all women are his creatures, which are all. According to the Quran, a woman's role on earth is not limited only to childbirth. She is required to do as many good deeds as any other man is required to do. The Quran never says that no upright women have ever existed. To the contrary, the Quran has instructed all the believers, women as well as men, to follow the example of those ideal women such as the Virgin Mary and the Pharoah's wife:
    "And Allah sets forth, As an example to those who believe, the wife of Pharaoh: Behold she said: 'O my lord build for me, in nearness to you, a mansion in the Garden, and save me from Pharaoh and his doings and save me from those who do wrong.' And Mary the daughter of Imran who guarded her chastity and We breathed into her body of Our spirit; and she testified to the truth of the words of her Lord and of His revelations and was one of the devout" (66:11-13).
    SHAMEFUL DAUGHTERS?
    In fact, the difference between the Biblical and the Quranic attitude towards the female sex starts as soon as a female is born. For example, the Bible states that the period of the mother's ritual impurity is twice as long if a girl is born than if a boy is (Lev. 12:2-5). The Catholic Bible states explicitly that:
    "The birth of a daughter is a loss" (Ecclesiasticus 22:3).
    In contrast to this shocking statement, boys receive special praise:
    "A man who educates his son will be the envy of his enemy." (Ecclesiasticus 30:3)
    Jewish Rabbis made it an obligation on Jewish men to produce offspring in order to propagate the race. At the same time, they did not hide their clear preference for male children : "It is well for those whose children are male but ill for those whose are female", "At the birth of a boy, all are joyful...at the birth of a girl all are sorrowful", and "When a boy comes into the world, peace comes into the world... When a girl comes, nothing comes."7
    A daughter is considered a painful burden, a potential source of shame to her father:
    "Your daughter is headstrong? Keep a sharp look-out that she does not make you the laughing stock of your enemies, the talk of the town, the object of common gossip, and put you to public shame" (Ecclesiasticus 42:11).
    "Keep a headstrong daughter under firm control, or she will abuse any indulgence she receives. Keep a strict watch on her shameless eye, do not be surprised if she disgraces you" (Ecclesiasticus 26:10-11).
    It was this very same idea of treating daughters as sources of shame that led the pagan Arabs, before the advent of Islam, to practice female infanticide. The Quran severely condemned this heinous practice:
    "When news is brought to one of them of the birth of a female child, his face darkens and he is filled with inward grief. With shame does he hide himself from his people because of the bad news he has had! Shall he retain her on contempt or bury her in the dust? Ah! what an evil they decide on?" (16:59).
    It has to be mentioned that this sinister crime would have never stopped in Arabia were it not for the power of the scathing terms the Quran used to condemn this practice (16:59, 43:17, 81:8-9). The Quran, moreover, makes no distinction between boys and girls. In contrast to the Bible, the Quran considers the birth of a female as a gift and a blessing from God, the same as the birth of a male. The Quran even mentions the gift of the female birth first:
    " To Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. He creates what He wills. He bestows female children to whomever He wills and bestows male children to whomever He wills" (42:49).
    In order to wipe out all the traces of female infanticide in the nascent Muslim society, Prophet Muhammad promised those who were blessed with daughters of a great reward if they would bring them up kindly:
    "He who is involved in bringing up daughters, and accords benevolent treatment towards them, they will be protection for him against Hell-Fire" (Bukhari and Muslim).
    "Whoever maintains two girls till they attain maturity, he and I will come on the Resurrection Day like this; and he joined his fingers" (Muslim).
    FEMALE EDUCATION?
    The difference between the Biblical and the Quranic conceptions of women is not limited to the newly born female, it extends far beyond that. Let us compare their attitudes towards a female trying to learn her religion. The heart of Judaism is the Torah, the law. However, according to the Talmud, "women are exempt from the study of the Torah." Some Jewish Rabbis firmly declared "Let the words of Torah rather be destroyed by fire than imparted to women", and "Whoever teaches his daughter Torah is as though he taught her obscenity"8
    The attitude of St. Paul in the New Testament is not brighter:
    "As in all the congregations of the saints, women should remain silent in the churches. They are not allowed to speak, but must be in submission as the law says. If they want to inquire about something, they should ask their own husbands at home; for it is disgraceful for a woman to speak in the church." (I Corinthians 14:34-35)
    How can a woman learn if she is not allowed to speak? How can a woman grow intellectually if she is obliged to be in a state of full submission? How can she broaden her horizons if her one and only source of information is her husband at home?
    Now, to be fair, we should ask: is the Quranic position any different? One short story narrated in the Quran sums its position up concisely. Khawlah was a Muslim woman whose husband Aws pronounced this statement at a moment of anger: "You are to me as the back of my mother." This was held by pagan Arabs to be a statement of divorce which freed the husband from any conjugal responsibility but did not leave the wife free to leave the husband's home or to marry another man. Having heard these words from her husband, Khawlah was in a miserable situation. She went straight to the Prophet of Islam to plead her case. The Prophet was of the opinion that she should be patient since there seemed to be no way out. Khawla kept arguing with the Prophet in an attempt to save her suspended marriage. Shortly, the Quran intervened; Khawla's plea was accepted. The divine verdict abolished this iniquitous custom. One full chapter (Chapter 58) of the Quran whose title is "Almujadilah" or "The woman who is arguing" was named after this incident:
    "Allah has heard and accepted the statement of the woman who pleads with you (the Prophet) concerning her husband and carries her complaint to Allah, and Allah hears the arguments between both of you for Allah hears and sees all things...." (58:1).
    A woman in the Quranic conception has the right to argue even with the Prophet of Islam himself. No one has the right to instruct her to be silent. She is under no obligation to consider her husband the one and only reference in matters of law and religion.
    UNCLEAN IMPURE WOMAN?


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