Hadith Terminology Dictionary

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Hadith Terminology Dictionary

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: Hadith Terminology Dictionary

  1. #1
    Mar 2005
    3,276
    04-12-2012
    11:58 PM

    Hadith Terminology Dictionary








  2. #2
    Mar 2005
    3,276
    04-12-2012
    11:58 PM








    Etiquette of Narration


    Etiquette of Narrator


    Etiquette of Hadith learner


    .
    Followers of the Successors : The term applies to any of those who did not meet the Companions, but met and narrated from one or more of the Successors, i. e. , those belonging to the second generation after the Prophet.


    .
    Hadiths of Virtues : Hadiths concerning virtuous acts.


    The Narrators' Status


    Status of narrators as derived from their deeds


    Status of narrators as derived from their sayings


    .
    The Scholars of the Principles of Jurisprudence : Specialists in the study of the Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence.


    .
    The Scholars of Jurisprudence : The Jurists who infer legal rules and judgments from general premises.


    .
    An Acted-Upon Principle : This is a hadith whose implications, rulings and judgments are to be carried out.


    .
    Emir of the Believers : In the cont ext of Hadith Terminology the term is used as a title to any person who has extensive knowledge of most hadiths; only a few hadiths have escaped his knowledge.


    .
    He told us : It is rarely used to indicate the act of hearing from the elder scholar.


    .
    Specialists : Scholars interested in one of the fields of the study of Hadith.


    A Specialist in Narration


    Earlier Scholars


    .
    Connected Chain of Transmission : A chain of transmission which is connected without interruption in such a manner that it is logically acceptable that the succeeding narrator received the hadith from the preceding one. Therefore, there should be no gap, whether in time or place, which may make their meeting impossible.


    .
    Tradition : It is whatever reported from the Companions or their successors.


    .
    Performance : This term applies to transmitting the hadith from whomever it was heard.


    .
    The Juniors : The term refers to the transmission of a narrator from someone who exceeds him in age, status or both


    .
    Peers : Those are the narrators who are close in age and greatly similar in transmitting.


    .
    Eligibility, Competence : This term applies to the narrator's competence to report hadiths.


    .
    Perfection : The highest degree of verification, memorization and accuracy.


    .
    Permission : This term refers to the permission given by the scholar to any of his disciples to narrate from him whether orally or in writing.


    .
    Implicit Transmission : It refers to the case in which a narrator may transmit a hadith from somebody though he did not hear it from him.


    .
    The Chain of Transmission : It is the line of narrators through whom hadiths are traced back to the Prophet (peace be upon him).


    .
    Ascending Chain of Transmission : This term refers to any hadith whose chain of transmission begins near the Messenger of Allah and the number of narrators is less than that found in another chain of the same hadith or in other chains as a whole.

    .
    Descending Chain of Transmission : This is the opposite of the Ascending Chain of transmission as the number of narrators is more than that found in another chain of transmitters or in the other chains as a whole.


    .
    Informing : This refers to the scholar's informing of his student that a given hadith or chapter was heard from so-and-so, without permitting him to narrate it from him.


    .
    Dictation : This refers to the elder scholar's dictation of something he has memorized to his disciples in order to be kept as a reference to check whenever they need.


    .
    Argumentation : Using a hadith as evidence or proof to establish or reject a given legal judgment.


    Desirability


    .
    The People of Badr : The Companions who fought alongside the Prophet (peace be upon him) at the Battle of Badr.


    The Existence of a Proof


    .
    The Successors : The term is attributed to a person who was in the company of a Companion of the Prophet, i. e. , whoever belonged to the first generation after the Prophet


    .
    Delivering Narration without Dictation : This is when the scholar has mentioned the narration without giving a chance to the disciples to record what has been said.


    .
    Transmission : This term applies to the narrator's report of a hadith from his elder scholar or narrator.


    .
    Deceit : This means concealing the blemish or defect found in the chain of transmission.


    Invitation and Intimidation


    .
    Validating Narrators : Accepting the narrator's transmission because he meets certain characteristics laid down by the scholars of hadith.


    .
    Strengthening : This means giving strength to and raising the level of any hadith by any means whatsoever.


    .
    Support : This indicates that the status of a Weak Hadith can be raised to the rank of the Good by means of another chain of transmission.


    .
    Invalidating Narrators : Rejecting the narrator's transmission because he does not meet certain characteristics laid down by the scholars of hadith.



    The Matching : This is the process of matching opposing narrations and bringing them into harmony with one another.


    .
    Memorizer [Hafizh] : It is a title given to a person who knows most narrations of each class of narrators, and whoever devotes himself to the study of Hadith.


    .
    Hadith : A Hadith refers to all that is narrated from the Prophet, his acts, his sayings, and whatever he tacitly approved, in addition to all the reports which describe his physical attributes and character


    .
    Good [Hasan] Hadith : A hadith whose chain of transmission is linked to the narration of an authority with weak exactitude, and the hadith has no eccentricity or blemish.


    .
    Irregular [Shadh] Hadith : A hadith narrated by a trustworthy narrator which contradicts, either in te xt or chain, the narration of a more trustworthy scholar, while no compromise can be done
    ; 02-11-2007 06:48 PM

  3. #3
    Mar 2005
    3,276
    04-12-2012
    11:58 PM



    .
    Authentic [Sahih] Hadith : The term refers to a hadith whose chain of narrators has been transmitted by truly pious persons who have been known for their uprightness and exactitude, and the hadith is free from eccentricity and blemish.


    .
    Rare [`Aziz] Hadith : A hadith reported by not less than two narrators in each stage of the chain of transmission.


    .
    Unfamiliar [Gharib] Hadith : A hadith reported by just one narrator at even one stage of the chain of transmission.


    .
    Divine [Qudsi] Hadith : Divine words, other than the Holy Qur'an, transmitted on the authority of the Prophet (peace be upon him


    : .
    Literally Transmitted [Mu'annan] Hadith : This applies to a transmitter saying, 'so and so said to us that so and so said', without any obviously denoting hearsay or transmitting.


    .
    Disregarded [Matruk] Hadith : A hadith narrated by only one narrator upon whose weakness scholars have unanimously agreed.


    .
    Connected [Muttasil] Hadith : A hadith with a connected chain of transmission, whether traceable to the Prophet or to a Companion.


    .
    Continuously Recurrent [Mutawatir] Hadith : A hadith reported by a large number of narrators whose agreement upon telling a lie is inconceivable (this condition must be met in the entire chain from the beginning to the end


    .
    Distorted [Muharraf] Hadith : A hadith in whose t ext a vowelization change has taken place.


    .
    Perfect [Muhkam] Hadith : An accepted hadith free from being contradicted by another.


    .
    Disputed [Mukhtalif] Hadith : An acceptable hadith contradicted by another one of the same strength with the possibility of making a compromise between them.
    ; 02-11-2007 06:49 PM

  4. #4
    Mar 2005
    3,276
    04-12-2012
    11:58 PM



    .
    Deceitful [Mudallas] Hadith : A hadith whose defects of the chain have been concealed


    .
    Rejected [Mardud] Hadith : A weak hadith that is not strengthened by any other narration, or a hadith lacking authenticity criteria, or a hadith that is not strengthened by any means.


    .
    Incompletely Transmitted [Mursal] Hadith : A hadith whose chain of transmission lacks a Companion transmitter, i. e. , a hadith which a Successor has directly attributed to the Prophet without mentioning a Companion.


    .
    Traceable [Marfu`] Hadith : Whatever word, deed, approval, or attribute traced directly back to the Prophet (peace be upon him) with a connected or disconnected chain of transmission


    ǡ ǡ .
    Chained [Musalsal] Hadith : A hadith whose narrators shared a similar status. For example, all of them used the same terminology in narration; or all of them belonged to one region or occupation; or they narrated the hadith with the same action, such as smiling while narrating a hadith, because the Prophet had smiled while saying it.


    .
    Well-known [Mashhur] Hadith : A hadith reported by three or more narrators in each stage of its chain of transmission.


    .
    Disordered [Mudtarib] Hadith : A hadith on which a number of reports with the same strength differ; thus, neither compromise nor abrogation nor preponderance can be applied.


    .
    Doubtful [Muda`af] Hadith : A hadith lacking authenticity criteria


    Matruh (Non-Acted Upon)


    .
    The Known [Ma`ruf] Hadith : This term applies to a hadith transmitted by a trustworthy narrator who is contradicted by a weak one.


    .
    Perplexing [Mu`dal] Hadith : A hadith whose chain of transmission suffers loss of two or more successive narrators, such as a Companion and a Successor. (The hadith transmitter has dropped two or more narrators so that the disconnected chain of transmission would become too difficult to be reconnected.)


    .
    Suspended [Mu`allaq] Hadith : A hadith, the beginning of whose chain of transmission has two or more successive narrators missing.


    .
    Applied [Ma`mul Bih] Hadith : An Authentic or Good Hadith not abrogated or contradicted by another hadith.


    .
    Accepted [Maqbul] Hadith : A hadith whose narrator's sincerity in reporting and transmitting is generally agreed upon


    .
    Intersected [Maqtu`] Hadith : A hadith, whether a deed or saying, attributed to a Successor and whoever came after him.


    .
    Inverted [Maqlub] Hadith : A hadith in whose t ext or chain of transmission a change has taken place by substituting one letter for another or by reversing the order of a word or sentence in the t ext.


    .
    Dubious [Multabis] Hadith : A hadith whose narrator's name is not clearly identified so that the narrator might be taken for another one.


    .
    Abrogated [Mansukh] Hadith : An early hadith whose judgment or purport has been abrogated by a later one.


    .
    Disconnected [Munqati`] Hadith : A hadith, the middle of whose chain of transmission has only one narrator missing, whether in one stage or more


    .
    Denounced [Munkar] Hadith : A hadith narrated by a sole narrator, with a t ext that is not known through any other chain of transmission.


    .
    Invented [Maudu`] Hadith : A fabricated tradition attributed either to the Prophet (peace be upon him), a Companion or to a Successor. It is forbidden either to act upon this kind of hadith or to narrate it except to warn against it or to make scholars
    ; 02-11-2007 06:51 PM

  5. #5
    Mar 2005
    3,276
    04-12-2012
    11:58 PM



    .
    Discontinued [Mauquf] Hadith : A hadith (word or deed) traced back to a Companion only, whether its chain of transmission is connected or not.


    .
    Abrogating [Nasikh] Hadith : A hadith abrogating the judgment or purport of an earlier one



    .
    Sound [Ghair Ma`lul] Hadith : A hadith void of defects that might invalidate its t ext or chain of transmission.


    ( ) .
    Unapplied [Ghair Ma`mul Bihi] Hadith : An accepted hadith (Authentic or Good) no longer applied due to its being abrogated or contradicted by another hadith.


    .
    Good on Its Own Virtue : This is a hadith whose chain of transmission is linked to the narration of an authority with weak exactitude, but without eccentricity or blemish.


    .
    Good by Virtue of Another Hadith : A hadith is judged Good by Virtue of Another Hadith when its weakness is so slight that it can be raised through another chain to the level of the Good Hadith. Therefore, being Good is not on its own virtue, but by the way that renders it Good


    Etiquette of Narration


    Etiquette of Narrator


    Etiquette of Hadith learner


    .
    Followers of the Successors : The term applies to any of those who did not meet the Companions, but met and narrated from one or more of the Successors, i. e. , those belonging to the second generation after the Prophet.


    .
    Hadiths of Virtues : Hadiths concerning virtuous acts.


    The Narrators' Status
    ; 02-11-2007 06:53 PM

  6. #6
    Mar 2005
    3,276
    04-12-2012
    11:58 PM

    Status of narrators as derived from their deeds


    Status of narrators as derived from their sayings


    .
    The Scholars of the Principles of Jurisprudence : Specialists in the study of the Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence.


    .
    The Scholars of Jurisprudence : The Jurists who infer legal rules and judgments from general premises.


    .
    An Acted-Upon Principle : This is a hadith whose implications, rulings and judgments are to be carried out.


    .
    Emir of the Believers : In the cont ext of Hadith Terminology the term is used as a title to any person who has extensive knowledge of most hadiths; only a few hadiths have escaped his knowledge.



    .
    Memorizing : This refers to committing anything one has heard or written to one's memory, to recall it whenever it is needed.


    .
    Tradition : This term applies to all that is transmitted from the Prophet (peace be upon him), the Companions or the Followers and those after them.


    Specialty


    .
    Rejection : This refers to not accepting the narration and rendering it non-acted upon.


    Obvious Omission : This term refers to the case of having a stage of the chain of transmission missing.


    .
    Hearing : Hearing or hearsay refers to what was heard by a narrator from his elder scholar, and his elder scholar from his elder one in turn.


    .
    Sunnah, Prophetic Tradition : It refers to all that is narrated from the Prophet, his acts, his sayings, and whatever he tacitly approved, in addition to all the reports which describe his physical attributes and character


    .
    t ext-Related Appendage : A hadith whose wording or meaning is identical to another, but the narrator Companion is different in both.


    .
    Eccentricity : This term applies to a hadith narrated by a trustworthy transmitter that contradicts, either in the t ext or the chain, the narration of one who is more trustworthy than he is and no compromise can be made.


    .
    The Elder Narrator [Shaikh] : This is the one from whom a narrator or disciple transmits the tradition.


    .
    The Two Scholars : This denotes the two Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim


    ǡ ʡ .
    The Companions : This term applies to any Muslim who met the Prophet (peace be upon him), whether the meeting was long or short, and who ultimately died while still professing Islam.


    . : - - - - - - .
    The Oft-Narrating Companions : Scholars of Hadith agreed to give the title 'Oft-Narrating Companions' to anyone who narrated more than one thousand hadiths from the Prophet. It is largely applied to seven Companions who are: Abu Hurairah, `Abdullah bin `Umar, Anas bin Malik, `A'ishah (Mother of the Believers), `Abdullah bin `Abbas, Jabir bin `Abdullah and Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri.
    ; 02-11-2007 06:57 PM

  7. #7
    Mar 2005
    3,276
    04-12-2012
    11:58 PM





    .
    The Two Sahihs : The two major books of Hadith compiled and classified by the two venerable Imams: Al-Bukhari and Muslim.


    .
    Weakness : This term applies to the case in which one or more conditions of hadith authenticity are lacking or missing.


    .
    The Caption : A complete sentence quoted from the * t ext of a hadith indicating a saying, deed, approval or attribute of the Prophet (peace be upon him).


    .
    Uprightness : A faculty and attribute leading one to adhere to piety and magnanimity, and to avoid grievous sins and innovation in religion.


    Showing : This refers to the narrator's compilation of the hadiths he narrated, then giving them to his elder scholar to verify them.


    .
    Blemish : A blemish is an unclear reason that negatively affects the authenticity of a hadith that may seemingly comply with the rest of the conditions of Hadith Validity. There may be an ambiguous reason, discerned only by scholars, that keeps the hadith from being designated as Authentic.


    Generality


    .
    `An`anah (Literal Transmission) : This term applies to transmitting hadiths from a narrator who takes it from another one and so on without direct or plain words that give permission to hearsay, transmission or narration provided that these are carried out via well-known narrators


    .
    Unfamiliarity : Singularity of some narrators in one of the stages of the chain of transmission of a given hadith.


    .
    The Absolute Unfamiliar or the Absolute Singular Hadith : It is a hadith that has some sort of unfamiliarity in the origin of its chain of transmission in case that it has been narrated by just one Companion.


    .
    The Relatively Unfamiliar Hadith : It is a hadith that has some unfamiliarity within the after-the-Successor stage of the chain of transmission.


    .
    Acceptance : This refers to accepting the narration and acting according to it.
    ()

    .
    Reading : This refers to the narrator's or disciple's recital of what he committed to his memory or recorded before his elder scholar
    ; 02-11-2007 07:00 PM

  8. #8
    Mar 2005
    3,276
    04-12-2012
    11:58 PM


    Strength



    .
    Writing : This term refers to the scholar's writing of all that he heard, or part of it, whether in his own handwriting or by having it done by another, for a person who is either present or absent.


    .
    Meeting of Narrators : This term refers to a meeting of the narrator with his senior scholar and the ascertainment of the occurrence of this meeting.


    .
    Harmonious [Mu'talif] : This refers to whatever is spelled in the same way, but pronounced differently.


    .
    Communicator : This term applies to the first narrator in the chain of transmission of any hadith.


    .
    Ambiguous : The term refers to any hadith whose t ext or chain of transmission has an ambiguity regarding the name of a narrator, whether man or woman



    Later Scholars



    .
    te xt-Related Appendage : A hadith whose wording or meaning is identical to another one reported by the same Companion.


    .
    Complete Hadith-Related Appendage : A hadith whose wording or meaning is identical, from the beginning of the chain of transmission, to another one reported by the same Companion.


    .
    Incomplete Hadith-Related Appendage : A hadith whose wording or meaning is identical, but not from the beginning of the chain of transmission, to another one reported by the same Companion


    .
    Bearer : This term applies to the one who bears the responsibility of reporting and narrating hadiths from his elder scholar.


    ǡ .
    The [Mutashabih] Similar : To have the narrators' names identical in spelling and pronunciation, while the names of their fathers are identical in spelling but different in pronunciation, or vice versa.


    .
    Concordant [Muttafiq] : This means that the narrators have the same name and surname.


    .
    The te xt : It is the original words which the chain of transmitters meant to convey, whether narrated from the Prophet (peace be upon him) or from anyone else.


    .
    The Relater : It is the person who preoccupies himself with the study of Hadith and who is well-acquainted with many narrations as well as the conditions and status of their narrators.


    .
    Contemporaneous of Two Epochs : This term applies to those who lived during the pre-Islamic era, witnessed the emergence of Islam and died Muslims



    .
    The Ornate [Mudbaj] Hadith : The narration of two peer transmitters from one another.


    .
    Narrated Materials : This term applies to the compilations of Hadith such as Musnads, Sahihs and Chapters.


    .
    One who Ascribes Hadiths
    Ascriber : It is a title given to a person who narrates Hadith with its chain of narrators whether as a specialist in the field or as a mere narrator.


    .
    Observation : Taking the usual state of most people into consideration.


    .
    Contemporaneity : This means that the narrator lives in the same period in which his elder scholar lives.


    The Reliable [Al-Mu`tamid]


    .
    Nonexistent
    ; 02-11-2007 07:01 PM

  9. #9
    Mar 2005
    3,276
    04-12-2012
    11:58 PM





    .
    Defected : Any hadith that has a hidden and ambiguously defective element while it apparently seems defectless by meeting all acceptability conditions.


    .
    Discordant [Muftariq] : This means that the names and surnames of narrators are different.


    .
    Unique Narration : This term, also called Unfamiliar Hadith, applies to a hadith reported only by one narrator in any stage of the chain of transmission.


    .
    Accepted : This term applies to a person whose narration is accepted


    " ".
    Handing over : This refers to the scholar's delivery of his own original book of narration, or a copy of it to his disciple saying: 'Here are the hadiths which I reported from so-and-so, you may narrate them. '


    .
    Neglected [Muhmal] : This refers to a narrator whose first name or nickname has been agreed upon by Hadith scholars. He is mentioned in the chain of transmission without his father's name or any other distinguishing attribute. An example of this is Hammad.


    .
    Finding : This refers to the narrator's finding of some hadiths in the handwriting of a scholar whom he knows, but he neither heard them from the scholar nor did the scholar permit him to narrate or transmit them.


    .
    The Individuals : This term applies to those from whom just one narrator has transmitted hadiths.


    .
    Recommendation : Before his death or travel, a scholar may recommend a certain book to be narrated by a certain person.


    .
    Innovation in Religion : This term applies to introducing an invented matter in religion which was not done by the Prophet, the Companions or the Successors



    .
    Providing details for the Concise Hadiths : Examples are the hadiths that explain and provide details for all that is related to the forms and status of acts of worship, their judgments, conditions and timing.


    .
    Follower of the Followers : It refers to a person who met one or more of the Followers of the Successors, from whom he transmitted hadiths, i. e., he was contemporary to the third generation after the Prophet.


    : { } .
    Specification of the Generalities : An example is the hadith that determines the meaning of the word 'wrong' in the Qur'anic verse {It is those who believe and confuse not their beliefs with wrong} to be 'polytheism'.


    .
    Precedence : This means giving priority to something.


    .
    Suspended Hadiths of Al-Bukhari and Muslim : These are the hadiths suspended by the two Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim in their Sahihs.


    Tacit Approval : This term refers to the Prophet's tacit approval of any thing, by seeing some action and not prohibiting or showing disapproval of it. Accordingly, this action will be judged allowable.


    Classifications


    : { } .
    Limitation of the Absolute Hadiths : Examples are the hadiths that determine what is meant by the word 'hands' mentioned in the Qur'anic verse that reads: {As to the thief, male or female, cut off his or her hands}, that it is the right hand, and the act of amputation begins from the wrist not from the elbow


    .
    Authorization : This term refers to considering the narrator as an authority in his narration.


    { } .
    Clarifying the Obscure : An example of this is the hadith that explains the two 'threads' in the Qur'anic verse that reads {And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn appears to you distinct from its black thread} to be the daylight and the darkness of the night.


    .
    Firm Authority : One of the forms of describing narrators.


    .
    The Trustworthy Authority : One of the forms of describing narrators.


    () .
    He reported to us or to me : This form comes second after (I heard), and it is used to indicate the act of hearing from the elder scholar.


    .
    Verbally Recurrent Hadith : A hadith, telling about the same incident as another narration, handed down from one narrator to another. Though its wording may be different, it gives the same meaning.




    .
    Meaningfully Recurrent Hadith : A hadith handed down from one narrator to another, telling about different incidents with a common meaning indicated implicitly as that of another narration.


    .
    Infirm Verifier : It refers to a narrator who has less ability in verification than the narrator of the Authentic Hadith


    .
    Ranks of Hadith : This refers to the process of ranking hadiths in terms of authenticity, goodness and weakness.


    Justifications


    .
    Narrator : This term applies to the one who transmits the hadith from his elder narrator.


    Rank


    .
    Explicit Traceability : It is a hadith in which a word, deed, or approval is explicitly traced back to the Prophet (peace be upon him).


    : .
    Implicit Traceability : It is a hadith that is not explicitly traced back to the Prophet (peace be upon him) by a Companion. In other words, he does not say, "Allah's Messenger said thus . . . ", or "He did thus . . . ", or "It was done in the Prophet's presence. "


    .
    Transmission : This term refers to narrating the chain of transmission and the t ext of hadiths from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and all that survived of his
    ; 02-11-2007 07:02 PM

  10. #10
    Apr 2005
    250
    29-11-2011
    11:27 PM





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Hadith Terminology Dictionary

   Hadith Terminology Dictionary