The prophet muhammad(saas

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The prophet muhammad(saas

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    THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD (SAAS)



    Introduction



    (A Noble Messenger) possessing great strength, securely placed with the Lord of the Throne, obeyed there, trustworthy.
    (Surat at-Takwir:20-21)


    As a verse of the Qur'an reveals, "… Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and the Final Seal of the Prophets." (Surat al-Ahzab: 40), the Prophet Muhammad (saas) was sent to mankind as the last prophet. He was a living example of the sublime morality of Allah's last revelation. He was a friend of Allah and inspired humanity by his nearness to Him. He was His representative, noble in His sight, and a friend to all believers.
    As Allah has revealed in another verse, "We will impose a weighty Word upon you..." (Surat al-Muzammil: 5), he charged His last prophet, Muhammad (saas) with a heavy responsibility. Due to the Prophet (saas)'s strong faith in Allah, he fulfilled that responsibility in the best possible way, called mankind to the path of Allah and Islam, and illuminated the way for all believers.
    Although we have never seen the Prophet (saas), we can still do our very best to come to know his exemplary behavior, his sayings and the pleasing morality he displayed, by means of the verses of the Qur'an and the hadiths (the sayings and teachings of the Prophet (saas). We can try to be like him, in order to be close to him in the hereafter. People today, and the young in particular, take many individuals as role models, imitate the way they behave, speak and dress, and try to be like them. Yet, since the great majority of thesepeople are not on the right road themselves, they lack proper morality and attitudes. It is therefore a serious responsibility to lead people to the truth and the best morality and behavior. A Muslim needs to try to emulate the behavior and the morality of the Prophet Muhammad (saas). Allah confirms that in a verse:
    You have an excellent model in the Messenger of Allah, for all who put their hope in Allah and the Last Day and remember Allah much. (Surat al-Ahzab: 21)


    Like the Prophet Muhammad

    (saas) the other prophets were also role models for believers, and enjoyed Allah's good pleasure. Allah says in one verse:
    There is instruction in their stories for people of intelligence. This [the Qur'an] is not a narration which has been invented but confirmation of all that came before, a clarification of everything, and a guidance and a mercy for people who believe. (Surah Yusuf: 111)
    The aim in writing this book is to introduce various characteristics of the Prophet Muhammad (saas), by showing the superior features and qualities a society may enjoy when it adopts such a morality, thus encouraging others to adopt that same morality. As the Prophet (saas) has revealed in the hadith, "Verily, I have left amongst you the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Apostle which if you hold fast, you shall never go astray,"1 a Muslim's two truest guides are the Qur'an and Sunnah (the practice of the Prophet Muhammad (saas)). The Prophet Muhammad (saas) was an example to all humanity with his morality, to which he called on mankind to live by. It was the Prophet (saas) who said "I was sent to perfect good character"2 and "By One in whose hand there is my life: None shall enter Paradise except one who has got good conduct."3
    Those Muslims who follow the way of the Prophet (saas) need to be foremost in their morality and behavior, and to invite others to adopt that same morality.
    We only send the Messengers to bring good news and to give warning. Those who disbelieve use fallacious arguments to deny the truth. They make a mockery of My Signs and also of the warning they were given.(Surat al - Kahf:56)







    Who could do greater wrong than someone who is reminded of the Signs of his Lord and then turns away from them, forgetting all that he has done before? We have placed covers on their hearts, preventing them from understanding it, and heaviness in their ears. Though you call them to guidance, they will nonetheless never be guided.

    (Surat al - Kahf:57)


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    THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD (SAAS)




    The Superb Morality of the Prophet (saas) as Related in the Qur'an

    In the Qur'an Allah has revealed that the Prophet (saas) possessed the finest morality, and says:
    Nun. By the Pen and what they write down! By the blessing of your Lord, you are not mad. You will have a wage which never-fails. Indeed you are truly vast in character. So you will see and they will see which of you is mad. Your Lord knows best who is misguided from His Way and He knows best those who are guided. (Surat al-Qalam: 1-7)
    Allah also revealed in that verse that the Prophet (saas) was a tireless toiler on His path. That demonstrates that he always displayed a pleasing morality, never departing from the way of Allah.
    As the Prophet (saas)'s words "The most perfect believer in respect of faith is he who is best of them in manners."4 make clear, morality is one the most important components of true faith. It is therefore an important religious duty to learn about and practice the very best examples of it.
    This chapter will discuss a number of examples of that morality recommended by the Prophet (saas).



    The Prophet (saas) practiced only that which was
    revealed to him
    One of the most important characteristics, frequently mentioned with regards to the Prophet (saas) in the Qur'an, is that he only practiced what Allah revealed and asked of him, with no concern about what others might think. Important figures and members of other religions at the time wanted him to impose rules that would benefit them. Although these people were more numerous and powerful, the Prophet (saas) was punctilious about abiding by Allah's commandments and the Qur'an. Allah tells us the following in one verse:
    When Our Clear Signs are recited to them, those who do not expect to meet Us say, "Bring a Qur'an other than this one or change it." Say: "It is not for me to change it of my own accord. I follow nothing except what is revealed to me. I fear, were I to disobey my Lord, the punishment of a Dreadful Day." Say: "Had Allah so wished, I would not have recited it to you nor would He have made it known to you. I lived among you for many years before it came. Will you not use your intellect?" (Surah Yunus: 15-16)



    Those are Allah's Signs which We recite to you with truth. You are indeed one of the Messengers.
    (Surat al-Baqara:252)



    In a number of verses of the Qur'an, Allah warned the Prophet (saas) about the conduct of his people. For instance:
    And We have sent down the Book to you [Muhammad] with truth, confirming and conserving the previous Books. So judge between them by what Allah has sent down and do not follow their whims and desires deviating from the Truth that has come to you. We have appointed a law and a practice for every one of you. Had Allah willed, He would have made you a single community, but He wanted to test you regarding what has come to you. So compete with each other in doing good. Every one of you will return to Allah and He will inform you regarding the things about which you differed. Judge between them by what Allah has sent down and do not follow their whims and desires. And beware of them lest they lure you away from some of what Allah has sent down to you. If they turn their backs, then know that Allah wants to afflict them with some of their wrong actions. Many of mankind are deviators. (Surat al-Ma'ida: 48-49)
    The Prophet (saas) told people repeatedly and determinedly to do nothing but that which Allah had revealed to him. One verse concerning this superior morality of the Prophet (saas) reads:


    Hamid Aytac. A calligraphic inscription in the celi thuluth script. In a hadith, the Prophet (saas) stated that the best people are those who are useful to others.'


    Say: "I do not say to you that I possess the treasuries of Allah, nor do I know the Unseen, nor do I say to you that I am an angel. I only follow what has been revealed to me." Say: "Are the blind the same as those who can see? So will you not reflect?" (Surat al-An'am: 50)
    Alongside that determination and constancy in the way of Allah, the Prophet (saas) told people about the true religion in the best and most pleasing manner. Comparing the Prophet (saas) to the great majority of people will be very helpful in understanding his superior qualities. Most people, now as in the past, are consumed with desires, longings and passions. Although the great majority believe in religion, they are unable to overcome those obsessions. Instead of giving up those desires, they make concessions when it comes to their religious obligations. They fail to carry out some of those obligations out of concern, for instance, over what their spouses, relatives or friends might say. Or, they are unable to give up habits that are unacceptable to the religion. They therefore interpret religion according to their own interests, accept those rules which suit them, and reject those which do not.
    The Prophet (saas) never made any concessions to what such people wanted. He conveyed the Qur'an to mankind with no alteration to what Allah had revealed, taking no one's personal interests into account, and did so simply in the spirit of fear of Allah. Allah speaks of the Prophet (saas)'s godliness (taqwa) in the Qur'an:
    By the star when it descends, your companion is not misguided or misled; nor does he speak from whim. It is nothing but Revelation revealed, taught him by one immensely strong, possessing power and splendour [i.e., Gabriel]...(Surat an-Najm: 1-6)


    Who could do greater wrong than those who invent lies against Allah? Such people will be arrayed before their Lord and the witnesses will say, 'Those are the ones who lied against their Lord.' Yes indeed! Allah's curse is on the wrongdoers, (SurahHud:18)

    Know that the Messenger of Allah is among you. If he were to obey you in many things, you would suffer for it.However, Allah has given you love of faith and made it pleasing to your hearts, and has made disbelief, deviance and disobedience hateful to you. People such as these are rightly guided. (Surat al-Hujurat: 7) Prophet (saas)'s trust in Allah: An example to all people
    Those situations the Prophet (saas) was involved, as they are related in the Qur'an, demonstrate his resignation, and submission to Allah. For instance, the Prophet (saas)'s words when he and his friend were hiding in a cave after leaving Mecca are one of the finest examples of that submission. The Qur'an says:
    If you do not help him, Allah did help him when those who disbelieved drove him out and there were two of them in the Cave. He said to his companion, "Do not be despondent, Allah is with us." Then Allah sent down His serenity upon him and reinforced him with troops you could not see. He made the word of those who disbelieved undermost. It is the word of Allah which is uppermost. Allah is Almighty, All-Wise. (Surat at-Tawba: 40)
    Whatever the situation might have been, the Prophet (saas) always submitted to Allah, in the knowledge that there was beauty and goodness in all that He created. These words of the Prophet (saas) to his people as related in the Qur'an are a telling instance of that submission:
    If good happens to you it galls them. If a mishap occurs to you, they say, "We made our preparations in advance," and they turn away rejoicing. Say: "Nothing can happen to us except what Allah has ordained for us. He is Our Master. It is in Allah that the believers should put their trust." (Surat at-Tawba: 50-51)
    The Prophet (saas), by his submission to Allah, was an example to all Muslims, and he warned that people would never have the power to alter anything that came from Allah:
    "Everything is by decree-even incapacity and ability"5
    "… When you ask for anything ask it from Allah, and if you seek help in Allah. Know that if the people were to unite to do you some benefit they could benefit you only with what Allah had recorded for you, and that if they were to unite to do you some injury they could injure you only with what Allah had recorded for you. The pens are withdrawn and the pages are dry."6
    Every believer who abides by the Sunnah of the Prophet (saas) has to face every calamity with the same submission as he, and to have faith that there is beauty and good in everything. We must not forget that the Prophet Muhammad (saas), one of Allah's most God-fearing servants, was also tested with great difficulties and trying circumstances.
    There were people ready to create various kinds of difficulty in the communities he addressed. They tried to plot against the Prophet (saas) by behaving hypocritically. Polytheists refused to abandon the religion of their ancestors, others asked the Prophet (saas) to bring them a sign to suit their best interests, they tried to kill, arrest or exile the Prophet (saas), and, basically, placed all kinds of difficulties in his path.
    The Prophet (saas) was always patient with the unbelievers. He continued to communicate the religion of Allah and to instruct Muslims in the Qur'an while he protected them from danger. The source of that determination, success and courage lay his strong faith in Allah, his godliness and submission. The Prophet (saas) always knew that Allah was with him, as when he was in the cave, and that every situation was ordained by Allah. He had faith that everything came from Allah and would result in the best possible outcome. The following hadith of the Prophet (saas) is an example of his submission:
    "Strange are the ways of a believer for there is good in every affair of his and this is not the case with anyone else except in the case of a believer for if he has an occasion to feel delight he thanks [Allah], thus there is a good for him in it, and if he gets into trouble and shown resignation (and endures it patiently), there is a good for him in it."7
    The Prophet (saas) always did his best, whatever the situation, though knowing that the outcome depended on Allah. He relied on and trusted in Him. In return for that submission, Allah granted him strength and success.


    Haci Nazif Bey. A verse from the Qur'an: "Do not consider Allah to be unaware of what the wrongdoers perpetrate..."
    (Surah Ibrahim: 42)

    Allah instructed the Prophet (saas) to be patient in the face of those who made problems for him, and he was faithful to that prescription throughout his life. One verse says:
    They have the word, "Obedience!" on their tongues but when they leave your presence, a group of them spend the night plotting to do other than what you say. Allah is recording their nocturnal plotting. So let them be and put your trust in Allah. Allah suffices as a Guardian. (Surat an-Nisa': 81)
    The words the Prophet (saas) was commanded to say in another trying situation also reveal his godliness and submission:
    If they argue with you, say, "I have submitted myself completely to Allah, and so have all who follow me." Say to those given the Book and those who have no Book, "Have you become Muslim?" If they become Muslim, they have been guided. If they turn away, you are only responsible for transmission. Allah sees His servants. (Surah Al 'Imran: 20)
    One comment by the Prophet (saas) regarding the recompense awaiting those who demonstrate submission is as follows:"If you put your faith completely in Allah, He will arrange for your sustenance in the same way as He provides for the birds. They go out in the morning with their stomachs empty and return filled in the evening."8
    The Prophet (saas)'s words and actions are the best possible models for believers. That is why every believer who finds himself faced with a difficulty of any sort, or a situation he does not like, must think of the verses of the Qur'an and the fact that Allah creates everything; adopt the submission of the Prophet (saas) and accept the destiny chosen for him by Allah.

    The Prophet (saas) ever only sought to please Allah, expecting
    nothing in return from others
    One of the fundamental tenets of Islam is that a person must found his whole life on the love and fear of Allah, and carry out all his obligations solely to win the good will and mercy of Allah and to attain His Paradise. In one verse, Allah tells believers: "Say: 'My prayer and my rites, my living and my dying, are for Allah alone, the Lord of all the worlds.'" (Surat al-An'am: 162)
    In the following verse, believers are told to live their religion solely for Allah, and not for any other purpose: "Except those who repent and put things right and hold fast to Allah and dedicate their religion to Allah alone; they are with the believers. Allah will give the believers an immense reward." (Surat an-Nisa': 146) Anyone who holds fast to Allah, knows that there is no other god than Allah, lives his life solely to gain His good pleasure, and never, ever abandons his faith in Him, shows he has true faith.
    No sincere believer tries to gain the love, good will, praise of anyone other than Allah in his actions and religious duties. The finest examples of such sincere believers are the Prophet Muhammad (saas) and other prophets (peace be upon them all).
    The Prophet (saas) sought only to win Allah's good pleasure, and spent his life striving to win His mercy, compassion and Paradise, with never a thought for personal interests or worldly gain.


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    Say: "I do not ask you for any wage for it, nor am I a man of false pretentions." (Surah Sad: 86)
    Say: "I have not asked you for any wage - it is all for you. My wage is the responsibility of Allah alone. He is witness of everything." (Surah Saba': 47)




    Then We sent Our Messengers one after another,
    at intervals.
    Each time its Messenger came to a community
    they called him a liar so We made them follow
    one another too and turned them into
    myths and legends. Away with the
    people who do not believe!


    (Surat al-Muminun:44)




    The patience exhibited by the Prophet (saas) in the face of difficulty
    Throughout the period of his mission, the Prophet Muhammad (saas) experienced all manner of difficulty. Deniers and polytheists, from among his own people, insulted him most terribly, even calling him a magician or a madman. Others wanted to kill him and even schemed to do so. Despite all that, the Prophet (saas) tried to teach people of all backgrounds and cultures about the Qur'an, and therefore about proper morality and good behavior.
    As is revealed in the verses of the Qur'an, some people had not the slightest idea of the basics of good manners, for which reason it never entered their minds that they might appall someone who possessed superior morality. The Prophet (saas) displayed the greatest patience in this circumstances, turning to Allah and asking for His help in all situations and encouraging believers to patience and submission.
    In many verses in the Qur'an, Allah advises the Prophet (saas) to be patient despite the words of unbelievers:
    So be patient in the face of what they say and glorify your Lord with praise before the rising of the sun and before it sets. (Surah Qaf: 39)
    Do not be grieved by what they say. All might belongs to Allah. He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing. (Surah Yunus: 65)
    We know that your breast is constricted by what they say. (Surat al-Hijr: 97)
    Perhaps you are leaving aside part of what has been revealed to you and your breast is constricted by this because they say, "Why has treasure not been sent down to him or an angel not accompanied him?" You are only a warner and Allah is Guardian over all things. (Surah Hud: 12)
    Believers must remember the kind of things Allah's Messenger (saas) was patient for, and take him as a model when dealing with their own difficulties. Those who despair at the slightest problem, who are unable to bear the smallest objection, who stop preaching the religion of Allah, or who lose hope when their business dealings go wrong, must be aware that such behavior is incompatible with Allah's holy book and the sayings and deeds of the Prophet (saas). Believers must always be patient, take Allah as their helper and give thanks to Him, adopt the superior morality of the Prophet (saas), and hope for the mercy, compassion and Paradise of our Lord.








    When guidance came to the people nothing prevented them from believing and asking for forgiveness from their Lord but the fact that the pattern of previous peoples did not happen to them or that the punishment did not appear before their eyes.

    (Surat al-Kahf:55)






    The Prophet (saas) was always tolerant of those around him
    As we have already seen, there were people with varying characters and ideas that surrounded the Prophet (saas). Throughout his life, however, he showed an interest in each and every one, warned them about their mistakes and failings, and tried to educate them in all matters, from cleanliness to matters of faith. That compassionate, tolerant, understanding and patient attitude of his was the means by which many peoples' hearts warmed to Islam and developed a genuine love for the Prophet (saas). Allah describes this pleasing attitude adopted by the Prophet (saas) towards those around him in the Qur'an:
    It is a mercy from Allah that you were gentle with them. If you had been rough or hard of heart, they would have scattered from around you. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them… (Surah Al 'Imran: 159)


    From the G. Mesara collection. A verse from the Qur'an in Esma-i Nebi calligraphic style: "We have only sent you as a mercy to all the worlds." (Surat al-Anbiya': 107)

    In another verse, Allah told the Prophet (saas) how he should behave towards those around him:
    We know best what they say. You are not a dictator over them. So remind, with the Qur'an, whoever fears My Threat. (Surah Qaf: 45)
    The Prophet (saas) never pressured those around him to accept the religion, nor imposed conditions on them. Instead he always used the pleasantest ways to tell them about it.He always supported the community of the faithful with his strong conscience, and was a benefactor to them at all times. On account of these traits, the Prophet (saas) is described in many verses as "your companion." (Surah Saba': 46: Surat an-Najm: 2, Surat at-Takwir: 22).
    Those believers who were able to comprehend the conscientiousness of the Prophet (saas) regarded him as closer to them than all others, and humbled themselves towards him. In one verse, Allah states:
    The Prophet is closer to the believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers… (Surat al-Ahzab: 6)

    Imam Ghazali, the great Islamic scholar, summed up the Prophet (saas)'s treatment of those around him in light of the information found in the hadiths:
    "... Everyone thought that the Prophet honoured him more. Whoever came to him could see his face.
    ... He used to call his companions by their surnames with honour and he used to give one surname who had no surname.
    ... He was very affectionate and kind in dealing with the people.
    ... Nobody could speak loudly in his assembly."9
    The Prophet (saas)'s human love, kind thought and compassion, which turned those around him to true religion and warmed their hearts to faith, is that superior morality which all Muslims should seek to reproduce.




    … Allah chooses those of His Messengers whom He wills. So believe in Allah and His Messengers. If you believe and do your duty you will have an immense reward.

    (Surah Al'Imran:179)









    The exemplary justice of the Prophet (saas)
    In the Qur'an, Allah commands believers to "Be upholders of justice, bearing witness for Allah alone, even against yourselves or your parents and relatives. Whether they are rich or poor, Allah is well able to look after them. Do not follow your own desires and deviate from the truth..." (Surat an-Nisa': 135). With the rules he imposed on Muslims, his just and tolerant attitude towards those of other religions, languages, races and tribes, and his way of not discriminating between rich and poor, but treating everybody equally, Allah's Messenger (saas) is a great example to all of mankind.

    But if they turn away, say, 'Allah is enough for me. There is no god but Him. I have put my trust in Him. He is the Lord of the Mighty Throne.'
    (Surat at-Tawba: 129)

    Allah says this to His Prophet (saas) in one verse:
    They are people who listen to lies and consume ill-gotten gains. If they come to you, you can either judge between them or turn away from them. If you turn away from them, they cannot harm you in any way. But if you do judge, judge between them justly. Allah loves the just. (Surat al-Ma'ida: 42)
    The Prophet (saas) abided by Allah's commands, even with such difficult people, and never made any concessions in his implementation of justice. He became an example for all times with the words, "My Lord has commanded justice…" (Surat al-A'raf: 29).
    A number of incidents testify to the Prophet (saas)'s justice. He lived in a place where people of different religions, languages, races and tribes all co-existed. It was very difficult for those societies to live together in peace and security, and to check those who sought to spread dissension. One group could grow aggressive towards and even attack another over the slightest word or action. Yet, the justice of the Prophet (saas) was a source of peace and security for those other communities, just as much as it was for Muslims. During the time of the Prophet (saas), Christians, Jews and pagans were all treated equally. The Prophet (saas) abided by the verse "There is no compulsion where the religion is concerned…" (Surat al-Baqara: 256), explaining the true religion to everyone, but leaving them free to make up their own minds.
    In another verse, Allah revealed to the Prophet (saas) the kind of justice and and conciliation he needed to adopt towards those of other religions:
    So call and go straight as you have been ordered to. Do not follow their whims and desires but say, "I believe in a Book sent down by Allah and I am ordered to be just between you. Allah is our Lord and your Lord. We have our actions and you have your actions. There is no debate between us and you. Allah will gather us all together. He is our final destination." (Surat ash-Shura: 15)
    This noble attitude of the Prophet (saas), being in total harmony with the morality of the Qur'an, should be taken as an example of how members of different religions today should be treated.




    We never sent any Messengers before you who did not eat food and walk in the market-place. But We have made some of you a trial for others to see if you will be steadfast? Your Lord sees everything.

    (Surat al-Furqan: 20)










    The Prophet (saas)'s justice brought about understanding between people of different races. In many of his addresses, even in his final sermon, the Prophet (saas) stated that superiority lay not in race but in godliness as Allah states in the verse:
    Mankind! We created you from a male and female, and made you into peoples and tribes so that you might come to know each other. The noblest among you in Allah's sight is the one with the most taqwa [righteousness, fear of Allah]. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware. (Surat al-Hujurat: 13)
    Two hadiths report the Prophet (saas) as saying:
    "You are sons of Adam, and Adam came from dust. Let the people cease to boast about their ancestors."10
    "These genealogies of yours are not a reason to revile anyone. You are all children of Adam. No one has any superiority over another except in religion and taqwa (godliness)."11
    During his final sermon, the Prophet (saas) called on Muslims in these terms:
    "There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab and for a non-Arab over an Arab; nor for white over the black nor for the black over the white except in piety. Verily the noblest among you is he who is the most pious."12
    The agreement made with the Christians of Najran in the south of the Arabian Peninsula was another fine example of the justice of the Prophet (saas). One of the articles in the agreement reads:
    "The lives of the people of Najran and its surrounding area, their religion, their land, property, cattle and those of them who are present or absent, their messengers and their places of worship are under the protection of Allah and guardianship of His Prophet."13
    The Compact of Medina, signed by the Muslim immigrants from Mecca, the indigenous Muslims of Medina and the Jews of Medina is another important example of justice. As a result of this constitution, which established justice between communities with differing beliefs and ensured the protection of their various interests, long years of enmity were brought to an end. One of the most outstanding features of the treaty is the freedom of belief it established. The relevant article reads:

    Haci Nazif Bey. A verse from the Qur'an: "... [Allah commands you] When you judge between people, to judge with justice. (Surat an-Nisa': 58)

    "The Jews of Banu 'Awf are one nation with the Muslims; the Jews have their religion and the Muslims have theirs…"14
    Article 16 of the treaty reads: "The Jew who follows us is surely entitled to our support and the same equal rights as any one of us. He shall not be wronged nor his enemy be assisted."15 The Prophet (saas)'s companions remained true to that article in the treaty, even after his death, and even practiced it with regard to Berbers, Buddhists, Brahmans and people of other beliefs.
    One of the main reasons why the golden age of Islam was one of peace and security was the Prophet (saas)'s just attitude, itself a reflection of Qur'anic morality.
    The justice of the Prophet (saas) also awoke feelings of confidence in non-Muslims, and many, including polytheists, asked to be taken under his protection. Allah revealed the following request from the polytheists in the Qur'an, and also told the Prophet (saas) of the attitude he should adopt towards such people:
    If any of the idolators ask you for protection, give them protection until they have heard the words of Allah. Then convey them to a place where they are safe... (Surat at-Tawba: 6)
    ... As long as they [whom you made a treaty with] are straight with you, be straight with them. Allah loves those who have taqwa. (Surat at-Tawba: 7)
    In our day, the only solution to the fighting and conflict going on all over the world is to adopt the morality of the Qur'an, and, like the Prophet (saas), never to depart from the path of justice, making no distinction between different religions, languages, or races.




    I have put my trust in Allah, my Lord and your Lord. There is no creature He does not hold by the forelock. My Lord is on a Straight Path.

    (Surah Hud: 56)

    Your Lord is the Ever-Forgiving, the Possessor of Mercy. If He had taken them to task for what they have earned, He would have hastened their punishment. Instead, they have a promised appointment and they will not find any refuge from it.

    (Surat al-Kahf: 58)








    Your Lord is the Ever-Forgiving, the Possessor of Mercy. If He had taken them to task for what they have earned, He would have hastened their punishment. Instead, they have a promised appointment and they will not find any refuge from it.(Surat al-Kahf: 58)

    He who obeys the Prophet (saas) also obeys Allah
    Allah charges everyone with obeying the prophets He has sent. These messengers were blessed men who abided by Allah's commands, communicated His revelations, represented the human model most pleasing to Allah by means of their words and actions, in short by their whole manner of living. Allah reveals in the Qur'an that those who abide by His messengers will be saved. For that reason, obedience to the Prophet (saas) is an obligation of the very greatest importance. Allah reveals the importance of obedience in the Qur'an:
    We sent no messenger except to be obeyed by Allah's permission. If only when they wronged themselves they had come to you and asked Allah's forgiveness and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them they would have found Allah Ever-Returning, Most Merciful. (Surat an-Nisa': 64)
    Whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger will be with those whom Allah has blessed: the prophets and steadfast affirmers of truth, the martyrs and righteous. What excellent company such people are! (Surat an-Nisa': 69)
    In several verses of the Qur'an, it is stated that those who obey His messengers are in truth obeying Allah. Those who rebel against these messengers, on the other hand, rebel against Allah. Some of these verses are:
    Whoever obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah. If anyone turns away, we did not send you to them as their keeper. (Surat an-Nisa': 80)
    Those who pledge you their allegiance pledge allegiance to Allah. Allah's hand is over their hands. He who breaks his pledge only breaks it against himself. But as for him who fulfils the contract he has made with Allah, We will pay him an immense reward. (Surat al-Fath: 10)
    The Prophet (saas) has also stressed the importance of obedience in the hadiths:
    "Whoever obeys me, obeys Allah, and whoever disobeys me, disobeys Allah, and whoever obeys the ruler I appoint, obeys me, and whoever disobeys him, disobeys me."16
    In the Qur'an, Allah describes the Prophet (saas) as a protector and guide for the faithful. Muslims, therefore, referred to him in all matters, and sought his permission and opinion before engaging in anything. On subjects they were unable to agree upon among themselves, though even on matters they were able to solve by themselves, or when they received news concerning the security, health or economy of the community of the faithful, they immediately took them to the Prophet (saas) and abided by the sure and trustworthy advice or solution he recommended.
    This is a most important aspect of morality, commanded by Allah in the Qur'an. In one verse, for instance, He orders all news to be forwarded to the Prophet (saas) or those representing him. The verse reads:
    When news of any matter reaches them they spread it about, whether it is of a reassuring or disquieting nature. If they had only referred it to the Messenger and those in command among them, those among them able to discern the truth about it would have had proper knowledge of it. If it were not for Allah's favor to you and His mercy, all but a very few of you would have followed Satan. (Surat an-Nisa': 83)
    That, of course, is a most beneficial and wise command. For one thing, each order and rule of the Prophet (saas) is guaranteed by Allah. Furthermore, the Prophet (saas) was the wisest and cleverest member of the community of the faithful. Usually, most look to consult the most intelligent person and the one who best obeys his conscience, that is, the person they trust the most in any matter, in order to establish a decision.
    As well as all these characteristics of the Prophet (saas), another wisdom in all news being gathered together in one person is that this will provide the best and most intelligent response because all the aspects of the event will be known by one person. In another verse, Allah commands the faithful to make the Prophet (saas) their judge in any disagreements between them. It is a command from Allah that all such disagreements should be taken to the Prophet (saas) at once, and that is therefore the most fitting course of action in terms of reason, morality and conscience. It is also most important to obey the rules set out by the Prophet (saas), with all one's heart and with no reservations. Even if his decision conflicts with the interests of an individual, true believers will feel no doubts at all, and will immediately obey the command of the Prophet (saas). Allah describes this important aspect of obedience in the Qur'an:
    No, by your Lord, they are not believers until they make you their judge in the disputes that break out between them, and then find no resistance within themselves to what you decide and submit themselves completely. (Surat an-Nisa': 65)
    Some hypocritical people, or people whose faith is weak, have failed to realize that the decisions of the Prophet (saas) are assured by Allah and opposed informing him of every situation, thus causing dissension. Allah describes the condition of such people in the Qur'an:
    Among them are some who insult the Prophet, saying he is only an ear [only a hearer]. Say, "An ear of good for you, believing in Allah and believing in the believers, and a mercy for those among you who believe." As for those who insult the Messenger of Allah, they will have a painful punishment. (Surat at-Tawba: 61)
    Since these people failed to grasp the essence of faith, and were unable to appreciate the merit of the Prophet (saas), they adopted the wrong approach with regards to informing him about every matter. The ignorant are unable to use what they know for beneficial ends, for the good and security of mankind. They use it for gossip and to try to spread dissension, to turn people against one another and to plot against them. The Prophet (saas), however, used all the information that was brought to him for the peace, security and health of Muslims and other groups under his protection, to avoid possible dangers and to thwart plots against believers. Identifying those whose faith was weak, he took measures to strengthen that faith, and prevented anything that might have weakened the faithful or damaged their morale. He brought in measures that would bring them good and lead to desirable outcomes. That is why Allah refers to him as "an ear of good" in one verse. All of the Prophet (saas)'s words, decisions and measures have led to good and positive results for believers as well as mankind.

    The Messenger believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and so do the believes. Each one believes in Allah and His angels and His Books and His Messengers. We do not differentiate between any of His Messengers. 'We hear and we obey. Forgive us, our Lord! You are our journey's end.'
    (Surat al-Baqara: 285)


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    The Prophet (saas) warned and reminded people in such a way

    as to influence their conscience
    The Prophet (saas) spent all his life, once the Qur'an had been revealed to him, calling people to the religion and guiding them to the true path. In one verse, Allah tells the Prophet (saas) how he should address people:
    Say: "This is my way. I call to Allah with inner sight, I and all who follow me. Glory be to Allah! I am not one of those who associate others with Him." (Surah Yusuf: 108)
    As can be seen from the verses of the Qur'an, the Prophet (saas) encountered a number of difficulties when warning people and teaching them about the Qur'an and true morality. Since not everyone was on the true path, people made life difficult for the Prophet (saas), out of jealousy, hatred and envy. Some were slow to understand his words and dragged their feet when they did so, some behaved hypocritically, saying that they believed his words when they really did not. The Prophet (saas) continued to explain the religion with great determination, paying no heed to all those obstacles. Such people's attitudes are revealed in a verse:
    … You believe in all the Books. When they meet you, they say, "We believe." But when they leave they bite their fingers out of rage against you. Say, "Die in your rage." Allah knows what your hearts contain. (Surah Al 'Imran: 119)







    Another verse discusses the Prophet (saas)'s determination in the face of those who opposed him:
    Those to whom We gave the Book rejoice at what has been sent down to you but some of the parties refuse to acknowledge part of it. Say: "I have only been ordered to worship Allah and not to associate anything with Him. I summon to Him and to Him I will return." (Surat ar-Ra'd: 36)
    The Prophet (saas) continued to warn those who would not believe, and to use the most effective way of talking about the religion, in the hope they would find faith and abandon their hatred of him and his religion. The attitude displayed by those people in the face of what he had to say is described in Surat an-Nisa':

    Do you not see those who claim that they believe in what has been sent down to you and what was sent down before you, still desiring to turn to a satanic source for judgement in spite of being ordered to reject it? Satan wants to misguide them far away. When they are told, "Come to what Allah has sent down and to the Messenger," you see the hypocrites turning away from you completely. (Surat an-Nisa': 60-61)
    Despite the two-faced behavior of those who opposed him, the Prophet (saas) spoke to them in terms that would enable them to see the truth and which would work on their consciences. One verse reads:
    Allah knows what is in such people's hearts so turn away from them and warn them and speak to them with words that take effect. (Surat an-Nisa': 63)
    It was of course a heavy responsibility to give advice to his enemies, to show them the error of their ways and to call them to the true path. Yet, for someone who, like the Prophet (saas), has put his trust in Allah, who knows that faith is a gift from Him, and fears Allah alone, and not anyone else, Allah will provide assistance and support.




    In several verses of the Qur'an, Allah reveals that He has sent messengers in order to turn those who have strayed back to the true path, to purify them, and to teach them the holy verses. As we have seen above, throughout his life, the Prophet (saas) persevered in the responsibility that Allah had laid on him with great patience, fortitude and determination. Even in the final sermon that he gave, very shortly before dying, he continued to teach and instruct Muslims.
    Allah sets out these beautiful responsibilities in a number of verses:
    For this We sent a Messenger to you from among you to recite Our Signs to you and purify you and teach you the Book and Wisdom and teach you things you did not know before. (Surat al-Baqara: 151)
    Allah showed great kindness to the believers when He sent a Messenger to them from among themselves to recite His Signs to them and purify them and teach them the Book and Wisdom, even though before that they were clearly misguided. (Surah Al 'Imran: 164)




    Sami Efendi (1838-1912). A callighraphic inscription in celi ta'liq script. Qalam-i Kibar (apothegm), "The primary requirement for wisdom is fear of Allah."


    It is He Who raised up among the Ummi a Messenger from them to recite His Signs to them and purify them and teach them the Book and Wisdom, even though before that they were clearly misguided. (Surat al-Jumu'a: 2)
    In one verse, Allah describes the Prophet (saas)'s advice and warnings as "things that will bring one to life":
    You who believe! Respond to Allah and to the Messenger when He calls you to what will bring you to life! Know that Allah intervenes between a man and his heart and that you will be gathered to Him. (Surat al-Anfal: 24)
    That is why the Prophet (saas)'s advice and exhortations are unlike those of anyone else. Abiding by these warnings is a means of salvation in this world and the next. Each of the Prophet (saas)'s exhortations are founded on wisdom that will save people from evil, cruelty, pessimism and suffering. Since all his advice is inspired and assured by Allah, a sincere Muslim will surrender himself to them and find faith.
    The words of the Prophet (saas) that have come down to us contain the excellent advice he gave to the faithful. One example is the advice he gave to his companion Muadh. It is reported that he spoke thus:
    "O Muadh, I advise you: fear Allah, speak the truth, fulfil promise, pay up trust, give up breach of trust, save your neighbour, show kindness to orphans, be modest in talk, spread peace, do good deeds, stick to faith, earn knowledge about the Qur'an, love the next world, fear rendering of accounts...
    O Muadh, I forbid you: Don't tell a truthful man liar, don't follow any sin, don't disobey a just judge, and don't create disorder in land.
    O Muadh, I give you instruction: Fear Allah while passing by each stone, tree, and heaps of earth. Make repentance anew after committing any sin. Repent secretly for secret sin and openly for open sin."17
    That is how the Prophet (saas) educated those close to him and Muslims, and called on them to have good character.












    The Prophet (saas) continually praised the Lord
    In line with Allah's command revealed in the verse of the Qur'an which declared: "… And proclaim His Greatness repeatedly!" (Surat al-Isra': 111), whenever the Prophet (saas) explained a subject, gave advice to the faithful, preached to people or prayed, he would always remember Allah with His greatest and most beautiful names. He would praise His power, majesty and greatness. Allah told the Prophet (saas) how to address the people in a number of verses:
    Say, "O Allah! Master of the Kingdom! You give sovereignty to whoever You will You take sovereignty from whoever You will. You exalt whoever You will You abase whoever You will. All good is in Your hands. You have power over all things. You merge the night into the day. You merge the day into the night. You bring out the living from the dead. You bring out the dead from the living. You provide for whoever You will without any reckoning." (Surah Al 'Imran: 26-27)
    Say, "Whether you conceal what is in your breasts or make it known, Allah knows it. He knows what is in the heavens and what is on earth. Allah has power over all things." (Surah Al 'Imran: 29)
    Say: "…Jurisdiction over it belongs to Allah alone. He tells the truth and He is the Best of Deciders." (Surat al-An'am: 57)
    Say: "Mankind! I am the Messenger of Allah to you all, of Him to Whom the kingdom of the heavens and earth belongs. There is no god but Him. He gives life and causes to die. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the Ummi, who believes in Allah and His words, and follow him so that hopefully you will be guided." (Surat al-A'raf: 158)
    Say: "If all the sea was ink to write down the Words of my Lord, it would run out long before the Words of my Lord ran out, even if We were to bring the same amount of ink again." (Surat al-Kahf: 109)
    Say: "He is Allah, Absolute Oneness, Allah, the Everlasting Sustainer of all. He has not given birth and was not born. And no one is comparable to Him." (Surat al-Ikhlas: 1-4)







    Whoever strives only strives for (the benefit) himself. Allah is Rich Beyond Need of any being.(Surat al-Ankabut:6)


    When giving advice to a Muslim, the Prophet (saas) would first remind him of the greatness of Allah, saying:
    "There is no god but Allah, He is One and has no partner, to Him belongs all praise and all authority, and He has power over all things, praise be to Allah, glory be to Allah, there is no god but Allah, Allah is the greatest, there is no power nor any authority but with Allah."18
    Every Muslim who adopts as a model the Prophet (saas)'s attitude, morality and godliness, and lives by the Qur'an and the Sunnah, must employ a way of speaking that reminds people of the greatness and might of Allah that calls to His way, and that causes them to love and fear Him. Every time he speaks he must make it clear that he remembers Allah and that he always turns to Him.

    The Prophet (saas) always advised people to love Allah, and to love him because of that love for Allah. One hadith says:
    "Love Allah for the provision He gave you. Love me also as Allah loves me."19



    The Prophet (saas) was a bearer of glad tidings
    In the verse "O Prophet! We have sent you as a witness, and a bringer of good news and a warner" (Surat al-Ahzab: 45), Allah describes the Prophet (saas) as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner. The Prophet (saas) always warned people against the sufferings to be experienced in Hell, and told them of the desirable future that awaited the good in this world, and of the infinite life of the Paradise in the hereafter. This characteristic of the Prophet (saas) is revealed in the Qur'an thus:
    We have sent you with the Truth, bringing good news and giving warning. Do not ask about the inhabitants of the Blazing Fire. (Surat al-Baqara: 119)
    We have sent it down with truth and with truth it has come down. We only sent you to bring good news and to give warning. (Surat al-Isra': 105)




    Hüseyin Kutlu. Calligraphy reading 'Mashallah.'


    Truly it is revelation sent down by the Lord of all the worlds. The Trustworthy Spirit brought it down to your heart so you would be one of the Warners. (Surat ash-Shu'ara': 192-194)
    We only sent you for the whole of mankind, bringing good news and giving warning. But most of mankind do not know it. (Surah Saba': 28)
    Those who take the Prophet (saas) as a model and abide by his Sunnah must, like him, give people the same glad tidings and warn them. The Prophet (saas) himself described how such people ought to behave:
    "Make things easy for the people, and do not make it difficult for them, and make them calm (with glad tidings) and do not repulse (them)."20
    Giving welcome news increases believers' enthusiasm and morale, and encourages them to be more determined and persevering in their labors in the way of Allah. Someone who hopes to be rewarded with Paradise will of course have a very different attitude and state of mind than someone who regards those labors as monotonous, or carries them out of habit or a sense of obligation. That is why Allah has commanded His Messenger (saas) to: "Spur on the believers." (Surat an-Nisa': 84)
    In another verse, Allah says: "Give good news to the believers that they will receive immense favor from Allah" (Surat al-Ahzab: 47). Every believer who abides by Allah's commandments and the morality of the Prophet (saas) is responsible for giving good news to Muslims, and for encouraging them. It is not proper for a Muslim to speak in a manner that is negative, to make easy tasks appear difficult, and thus, to discourage the faithful, to forget the beautiful things and good news Allah has revealed in the Qur'an, thereby leading the faithful to become pessimistic. What is in conformity with the Qur'an is, like the manner of the Prophet (saas), to recall the good things promised to the faithful by Allah, and to keep to revitalize them.


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    One such tidings the Prophet (saas) was told to tell people about was Allah's forgiveness of sins:


    Say: "My servants, you who have


    transgressed against yourselves, do not despair of the mercy of Allah. Truly Allah forgives all wrong actions. He is the Ever-Forgiving, the Most Merciful." (Surat az-Zumar: 53)


    When those who believe in Our Signs come to you, say, "Peace be upon you!" Allah has made mercy incumbent on Himself. If anyone among you does evil out of ignorance and then afterwards repents and puts things right, He is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Surat al-An'am: 54)
    Another tiding is that of Paradise:
    Say, "Shall I tell you of something better than that?" Those who do their duty will have Gardens with their Lord, with rivers flowing under them, remaining in them timelessly, for ever, and purified wives, and the Pleasure of Allah. Allah sees His servants. (Surah Al 'Imran: 15)



    Give the good news to those who believe and do right actions that they will have Gardens with rivers flowing under them. When they are given fruit there as provision, they will say, 'This is what we were given before.' But they were only given a simulation of it. They will have there spouses of perfect purity and will remain there timelessly, for ever.
    (Surat al-Baqara: 25)




    The Prophet (saas) reminded his people that he too was human
    One of the fundamental characteristics of unbelievers is their arrogance. It is that which has led them to refuse to obey the messengers of Allah, and to resort to excuses in order not to do so. One such excuse was that they would only obey these messengers if they were more than human. Yet, the Prophet (saas) reminded his people that he was human, a mere servant of Allah, and that all other such expectations were groundless, but that they should turn to Allah. Allah gave the Prophet (saas) the following commands in the Qur'an:
    Say: "I am only a human being like yourselves. It is revealed to me that your god is One God. So let him who hopes to meet his Lord act rightly and not associate anyone in the worship of his Lord." (Surat al-Kahf: 110)

    Say: "If there had been angels on the earth going about in peace, We would have sent down to them an angel from heaven as messenger." Say: "Allah is a sufficient witness between me and you. He is certainly aware of and sees His servants." (Surat al-Isra': 95-96)

    The Prophet (saas) told his people that he was also commanded to be one of the Muslims and to obey Allah, and that he was responsible for warning the unbelievers, but that he could not be held responsible for their choices. The verses in question read:
    "I have simply been ordered to worship the Lord of this land which He has declared sacred-everything belongs to Him-and I have been ordered to be one of the Muslims and to recite the Qur'an." Whoever is guided is only guided to his own good; if someone is misguided just say, "I am only a warner." Say: "Praise be to Allah. He will show you His Signs and you will recognise them. Your Lord is not unaware of what you do." (Surat an-Naml: 91-93)



    Be patient. But your patience is only by Allah. Do not be grieved by them and do not be constricted by the plots they hatch. Allah is with those who fulfil their duty and with those who are good-doers.
    (Surat an-Nahl: 127-128)









    If something good happens to you, it galls them. If something bad strikes you, they rejoice at it. But if you are steadfast and do your duty, their scheming will not harm you in any way. Allah encompasses what they do.
    (Surah Al Imran: 120)





    When a Sign comes to them, they say, We will not believe until we have been given the same as the Messengers of Allah were given.' Allah knows best where to place His Message. Debasement in the sight of Allah and a severe punishment will strike those who did wrong for the plots that they concocted. (Surat al-An'am:124)

    The Prophet (saas) relieved Muslims of difficulties
    Together with the traits we have already described, the Prophet (saas) lifted burdens from the faithful, and was a guide to them in tasks that they failed to understand properly, which were otherwise had been too difficult. People are easily prone to making their lives difficult, and to imposing rules upon themselves, by which they falsely believe they have solved their problems. This particular human characteristic is one of the reasons why the religion has been distorted through the years. Many societies have dreamed up rules that did not actually exist in the religion, and then made themselves and others believe that they would only be truly god-fearing when they adhered to them. One of the Prophet (saas)'s most important qualities was the way he lifted such burdens that people had imposed on themselves. Allah speaks of that quality of the Prophet (saas) in a verse:

    Those who follow the Messenger, the Ummi, whom they find written down with them in the Torah and the Gospel, commanding them to do right and forbidding them to do wrong, permitting them good things and prohibiting them bad things, relieving them of their heavy loads and the chains which were around them. Those who believe in him and honour him and help him, and follow the Light that has been sent down with him, they are the ones who are successful. (Surat al-A'raf: 157)
    The "heavy loads and chains" mentioned in the verse are the difficulties people impose upon themselves. The Prophet (saas) was both a model for people in his own lifetime, as well as one who lifted such burdens from people, as the verse indicates, by calling them to righteousness and warning them against wickedness.
    One of the subjects in which the Prophet (saas) was a splendid example was godliness, that is, that behavior intended to earn Allah's approval alone. He feared only Allah, and never strayed from the true path, never succumbing to people's whims and desires. This aspect of the morality of the Qur'an is actually a source of great ease and beauty for people. Trying to please others and to make oneself favored by others, trying to win the pleasure of both Allah and others, and seeking praise from them, are great hinderences to whatever one does. Such people are unable to think and behave honestly as they would otherwise like to, and, since they are unable to please everyone all together, they ultimately fail to receive the praise they were looking for. They panic at the slightest mistake, and fear that they have lost the confidence and respect of those they are trying to please when they see that they are not fully happy with them.
    On the contrary, Muslims who strive only for the pleasure of Allah, and fear only Him, never suffer the burden of things that will be harmful to them in this world and the next. They do not worry about whether or not people will be pleased with them. They are therefore always at peace. Since they know that, in the event of a mistake they will have to explain themselves only to Allah and need seek forgiveness only from Him, they feel no concern or worry.

    By his words and behavior, the Prophet (saas) taught the faithful to live with purity of faith. He thus lifted the heavy weight of "gaining the pleasure of others" from all of humanity. That, of course, is but one of the difficulties believers experienced that he did away with. The Prophet Muhammad (saas) was an example to all Muslims in many matters that will bring good and great blessings in this world and in the hereafter.
    Allah has revealed that someone with purity of faith would not be the same as one who worships others besides Allah:
    Allah has made a metaphor for them of a man owned by several partners in dispute with one another and another man wholly owned by a single man. Are they the same? Praise be to Allah! The fact is that most of them do not know. (Surat az-Zumar: 29)

    Idolatry was not the only burden the Prophet (saas) lifted from the shoulders of the faithful. He relieved them of all burdens that made life difficult for them, called them to the best and easiest way of life, and found solutions to all problems. That is why those who abide by the Sunnah of Allah's Messenger (saas) live in comfort and at peace. Some of the hadiths on this subject state:
    "The Prophet sent Mu'adh and Abu Musa to Yemen telling them. 'Treat the people with ease and don't be hard on them; give them glad tidings and don't fill them with aversion; and love each other, and don't differ'."21

    "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, did not have to choose between two matters, but that he chose the easier of them as long as it was not a wrong action. If it was a wrong action, he was the furthest of people from it."22



    ... the Messenger, commanding them to do right and forbidding them to do wrong, permitting them good things and forbidding them bad things, relieving them of their heavy loads and the chains which were around them...
    (Surat al-A'raf: 157)







    Or did you suppose that you would be left without Allah knowing those of you who have struggled and who have not taken anyone as their intimate friends besides Allah and His Messenger and the believers? Allah is aware of what you do.
    (Surat at-Tawba: 16)





    The Prophet (saas) was most considerate and compassionate
    towards the faithful
    The Prophet (saas) was a compassionate man, full of love and understanding. He took an interest in the physical and spiritual problems of his friends, relatives and all those around him, and took all appropriate measures to ensure their health, security and happiness. He took them under his wing, and always bore in mind their lot in the hereafter by encouraging them to remain godly. These features of the Prophet (saas), that are an example for all of humanity, are revealed in verses:
    A Messenger has come to you from among yourselves. Your suffering is distressing to him; he is deeply concerned for you; he is gentle and merciful to the believers. (Surat at-Tawba: 128)
    "And take the believers who follow you under your wing." (Surat ash-Shu'ara': 215)
    Since the companions of the Prophet (saas) took him as a model, they made the appropriate sacrrifices as mentioned in the Qur'an, behaving with emphaty and compassion. One verse speaks of the sacrifices the faithful made for the sake of one another:
    Those who were already settled in the abode, and in belief, before they came, love those who migrated to them and do not find in their hearts any need for what they have been given and prefer them to themselves even if they themselves are needy. It is the people who are safe-guarded from the avarice of their own selves who are successful. (Surat al-Hashr: 9)
    The faithful, who were taught by the Prophet (saas), and abided by the verses of the Qur'an, behaved compassionately even towards prisoners of war. Verses speak of this, too:
    They give food, despite their love for it, to the poor and orphans and captives: "We feed you only out of desire for the Face of Allah. We do not want any repayment from you or any thanks. Truly We fear from our Lord a glowering, calamitous Day." (Surat al-Insan: 8-10)
    The Prophet (saas) reminded his companions to be compassionate, and was the greatest model for them in that regard:
    "Those who have mercy will receive the mercy of the Most Merciful. Have mercy on those who are on earth, the One in heavens will have mercy on you."23
    "Those who show no mercy will be shown no mercy"24
    "I swear by whom my soul is in his hand, you will not enter paradise until you believe, and you will not believe until you love each other. Do you want me to guide you to something which if you practice, you will love each other? Spread greeting with peace among of you."25









    How the Prophet (saas) prayed and asked forgiveness for the faithful
    Out of that affection and thoughtfulness he felt towards the faithful, the Prophet (saas) asked Allah to forgive their mistakes. Allah's commands to the Prophet (saas) on that subject take the following form:
    O Prophet! When women who believe come to you pledging allegiance to you on the grounds that they will not associate anything with Allah or steal or fornicate or kill their children or give a false ascription of paternity-making up lies about their bodies-or disobey you in respect of anything right, then accept their pledge and ask forgiveness for them. Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Surat al-Mumtahana: 12)
    Know then that there is no god except Allah and ask forgiveness for your wrongdoing, and for the men and women who believe. Allah knows both your activity and your repose. (Surah Muhammad: 19)
    "… If they ask your permission to attend to their own affairs, give permission to any of them you please; and ask Allah's forgiveness for them. Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (Surat an-Nur: 62)
    In another verse, Allah told the Prophet (saas) to pray for the faithful:
    … Pray for them. Your prayers bring relief to them. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. (Surat at-Tawba: 103)
    As this verse reveals, the Prophet (saas)'s prayers brought the faithful peace and tranquility. It must not be forgotten that only Allah gives peace and tranquility to the heart. Allah makes the prayers of His Messenger (saas), whom He has appointed as guardian and protector of the faithful, a means whereby they come by comfort and ease. Our Lord's love and compassion, and His protection and mercy for the faithful is most clearly represented in the morality of the Prophet (saas).
    These words of the Prophet (saas) reminded the faithful that prayer was an important matter:
    "When you are praying do not say; 'O Allah, forgive me if You wish. O Allah, forgive me if you wish.' You should be firm in your asking, for there is no compelling Him."26



    Those who do good will have the best and more! Neither dust nor debasement will darken their faces. They are the Companions of the Garden, remaining in it timelessly, for ever.(Surah Yunus: 26


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    The alms the Prophet (saas) collected for the benefit of the faithful
    were a means whereby they were purified
    At the beginning of Surat at-Tawba, verse 103, Allah commands, "Take from their wealth a charity to purify and cleanse them and pray for them." In other words, He reveals that by means of the alms he received, the Prophet (saas), the beloved servant of Allah, purified the faithful. The Prophet (saas) is the Messenger of Allah, and remains on the path shown by Allah in all his words and deeds. The source of the Prophet (saas)'s higher morality and noble character is that he always turned to Allah, without falling into the error of worshipping others besides Allah. It was because he obeyed every command given by Allah, he came to possess a morality and behavior of matchless quality, a model to all the world.
    This truth must serve as a guide for all Muslims and believers. Their morality and behavior, too, must be an example to all the world, by means of their abiding by the Qur'an, which is the revelation of Allah, and the morality taught by the Prophet (saas).



    We made everything on the earth adornment for it so that We could test them to see whose actions are the best.
    (Surat al-Kahf: 7)






    The Prophet (saas) would consult with the faithful
    In accordance with a command from Allah, the Prophet (saas) would consult with the faithful and seek their opinion. This was commanded in the following verse:
    … So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them, and consult with them about the matter. Then when you have reached a firm decision, put your trust in Allah. Allah loves those who put their trust in Him. (Surah Al 'Imran: 159)
    After canvassing the opinions of the faithful, the Prophet (saas) would come to a decision and place the outcome in the hands of Allah. One important fact that must not be lost sight of is that all decisions are known beforehand by Allah. Allah has decreed every decision and its outcome. It is an act of worship on all believers to consult and then arrive at a decision. Knowing that, the Prophet (saas) would consult the faithful before coming to a decision, though, while leaving the outcome of that decision to Allah, he knew that Allah would produce the most beneficial outcome from it.
    Consulting with others is an approach that can bring about the most auspicious results for Muslims. In the first place, anyone who consults others demonstrates better morality by acting modestly. For instance, the Prophet (saas) was the wisest of the community of the faithful, and had the greatest foresight and understanding. Despite that, however, his consulting those around him and asking their opinion, enquiring how they would resolve a particular matter, shows what a modest person he truly was.


    Those who produce a good action will receive ten like it. But those who produce a bad action will only be repaid with its equivalent and they will not be wronged.

    (Surat al-An'am: 160)
    Everything in the heavens and everything in the earth belongs to Allah so that He can repay those who do evil for what they did and repay those who do good with the Very Best.
    (Surat an-Najm: 31)




    The faithful must display humility in all matters, not thinking that they know better than everyone else. They will gain great benefits from consulting with others. By adopting this manner of the Prophet (saas), they will come to resemble him, and will earn the good pleasure of Allah and the faithful by practicing the humility and affection that he showed the believers. They will also avoid pride of their own intelligence. In the Qur'an, Allah has revealed that: "… Over everyone with knowledge is a Knower..." (Surah Yusuf: 76) meaning that a person can arrive at better results by not relying on his own intelligence alone but by making use also of the intelligence, ideas and accumulated experience of others. Instead of one mind, he will actually possess the number of however many people he consults. The Prophet reminded the faithful that they ought to consult one another in these words: "Every people who seek the pleasure of Allah and consult with one another are guided to the best course in their affairs."27

    Every path shown to mankind by Allah in the Qur'an, and all behavior displayed by the Prophet (saas), are the most auspicious and best. Consulting others is one such example. It is therefore most important to be familiar with Allah's commandments and to know the character of the Prophet (saas) well to perform our religious obligations as well as possible, and to be of good moral character.



    Allah gave the Prophet (saas) fame and honour
    Did We not raise your renown high? (Surat al-Inshirah: 4)
    As the verse above states, the Prophet (saas) was recognized both during his own time and after it. 1,400 years after his death, he is still known all over the world. For 1,400 years, billions of people have loved and respected the Prophet (saas), felt close to him despite never having seen him, and prayed to be with him in Heaven for all eternity. And still do so.
    In another verse, Allah speaks of the Prophet (saas) as a noble messenger:
    "That this is the word of a noble Messenger." (Surat al-Haqqa: 40)
    In the Qur'an, Allah states that many prophets, such as Nuh (as), Ilyas (as), Musa (as) and Harun (as) were all honoured. Many people strive for fame and honour all their lives. They are obsessed by it, seeking the allurements of this transient world. Or else, they puff themselves up with arrogance. Though they strive for honour, they in the end lose it.
    In fact, a person can only find fame and honour in the sight of Allah, Who reveals that that can only come by living the morality of the Qur'an. One verse reads:
    If the truth were to follow their whims and desires, the heavens and the earth and everyone in them would have been brought to ruin. No indeed! We have given them their Reminder, but they have turned away from it. (Surah Muminun: 71)
    The only way to lead an honourable life in this world is to abide by the superior morality of the Prophet (saas), as revealed by Allah in the Qur'an. It is a clear fact that all other paths lead to nothing but loss in this world and the next.


    The Prophet (saas) was always considerate and courteous
    Some of those who surrounded the Prophet (saas) were less than well-mannered and cultured. It can be seen from a number of verses that they could not understand how thoughtless they were and that their behavior could make others uncomfortable. For instance, verses speak of people entering houses by the back instead of the front, arriving when the Prophet (saas) was dining, or else taking up his time by talking for a long time. The Prophet Muhammad (saas), on the other hand, was very thoughtful, courteous, patient and civilized, and treated such people nevertheless with the greatest tolerance. Also, in the most pleasant manner, he warned those around him against behavior that would make others uncomfortable, and thus won their sympathy, teaching them through patience and perseverence. That comportment made him an excellent example for all believers.
    Our Lord, Who possesses infinite love and compassion, assisted the Prophet (saas) in this matter and supported him with the verses, one of which says:

    Mahmud Celaleddin. A calligraphic inscription in the celi thuluth script containing an Arabic couplet reading "Muhammad is a man, but not like all men. He is as a ruby among stones."


    You who believe! Do not go into the Prophet's rooms except when you are invited to come and eat. Do not wait there while the food is being cooked. However, when you are called, go in, and when you have eaten, disperse, not remaining there to chat with one another. Doing that causes annoyance to the Prophet though he is too reticent to tell you so. But Allah is not reticent with the truth... (Surat al-Ahzab: 53)
    Accounts by his companions give many examples of the Prophet (saas)'s courteous and considerate behavior. Because of his being both a Messenger of Allah and a head of state, the Prophet (saas) was in constant contact with people from all walks of life, from the wealthy leaders of states and tribes to poor, defenceless women and orphans. He was able to communicate with and win the hearts of people whose social status, ways of life and customs were very different from one another, he exhibited understanding, patience and a desirable attitude.
    As can be seen from incidents recounted by those around him, the Prophet (saas) was most kind, above reproach, amiable and thoughtful. He practiced the rules of courtesy and politeness in the best and most ideal way throughout his entire life.
    Aisha (r.a.) described the exquisite morality she saw in the Prophet (saas) in these terms:
    "The Prophet (saas)'s nature was the Qur'an". 28
    Anas bin Malik (ra), who was raised in the Prophet (saas)'s household and served him for many years, spoke of his matchless kindness:
    "Allah's Messenger (saas) that when he shook hands with anyone he did not withdraw his hands till the other man withdrew his. Similarly, he did not turn away his face from anyone till that man turned his face to the other side. And he was never seen to put forward his knees in front of one with whom he was sitting."29
    "Ibn 'Umar reported that Allah's Messenger (saas) changed the name of Asiya (Disobedient) and said: 'You are Jamila (i.e.good and handsome)'."30
    "Whenever one spoke to him the other would keep quiet and listen till he would finish."31
    "Anas bin Malik (ra) says: 'I remained in the service of the Rasulullah (saas) for ten years. He never once told me 'Oof.' When I did something, he never asked me why did you do so? When I did not do a certain task, he never asked me why I did not do it'."32
    The Prophet (saas) taught thousands of people during his life, and was a means by which those who knew nothing of religion and morality came to be morally superior, well-behaved, thoughtful and self-sacrificing. Even after his death, the Prophet (saas) is still teaching by means of his words, attitudes and behavior, and is a most noble guide and teacher.


    Allah always protected the Prophet (saas)
    Allah is the Helper and Protector of the Prophet (saas) and all the believers. Allah always helped the Prophet (saas), eased his difficulties, opened the way for him, strengthened him both physically and spiritually, and supported him with other devout believers. As for his enemies, Allah clouded their understanding, reduced their strength, foiled their plots and thus, prevented them doing any harm to the Prophet (saas). Allah describes Himself as the Prophet's (saas) Helper:
    If you do not help him, Allah did help him … (Surat at-Tawba: 40)
    As the verse states, Allah always assisted the Prophet (saas). That is why no service or assistance can leave the Prophet (saas) under a debt of gratitude. It is Allah Who helps the Prophet (saas), and even if that person had not been there, Allah would have used someone else, or angels or the jinn to help the Prophet (saas).
    In another verse, Allah commanded the Prophet (saas) to communicate His religion with no fear of other people, and promised that He would protect him. The verse in question reads:
    O Messenger! Transmit what has been sent down to you from your Lord. If you do not do it you will not have transmitted His Message. Allah will protect you from people. Allah does not guide the unbelieving people. (Surat al-Ma'ida: 67)
    Those shallow and narrow-minded deniers, unable to comprehend the power of Allah and the true state of affairs, thought that they would be able to overcome, frighten or disable the Prophet (saas), and thus devised countless plots against him. These people were not aware that the Prophet (saas) was under the protection of Allah, and so could not comprehend that fact. They believed themselves to be superior to and stronger than the Prophet (saas). Yet, Allah disrupted all their plots, and even, miraculously, turned them against themselves. None of their plots were of any good. These people, who failed to comprehend that Allah saw, heard and read the secrets of their hearts when they gathered to plot against the Prophet (saas), could not grasp that even if they hid from the Prophet (saas) they could not hide from Allah. In the Qur'an, Allah refers to such people in this way:
    When those who disbelieved were plotting against you to imprison you or kill you or expel you: they were plotting and Allah was plotting, but Allah is the Best of Plotters. (Surat al-Anfal: 30)
    In another verse, Allah reveals to the Prophet (saas) that nobody will be able to harm him, that He is his Protector, and that Gabriel and the devout believers, are all the Prophet (saas)'s friends, helpers and supporters:
    If you two [wives] would only turn to Allah, for your hearts clearly deviated. .But if you support one another against him, Allah is his Protector and so are Gabriel and every right-acting man of the believers and, furthermore, the angels too will come to his support. (Surat at-Tahrim: 4)
    Allah describes the blessings and assistance He provides for the Prophet (saas):
    Your Lord has not abandoned you nor is He displeased. The Last [the hereafter] will be better for you than the First [life]. Your Lord will soon give to you and you will be satisfied. Did He not find you orphaned and shelter you? Did He not find you wandering and guide you? Did He not find you impoverished and enrich you? (Surat ad-Duha: 3-8)
    Knowing that Allah would help him in all matters, even in the most difficult situations, the Prophet (saas) put his trust in Him and never fell into despair. He told his companions that Allah was with them and saw and heard all, thus inspiring them too.
    Those who follow the way of the Prophet (saas) and take him as their model must never lose hope in Allah's mercy and succour. They must know that Allah is always at their side as they hope for His mercy, compassion and Paradise. Allah makes the following promise to the faithful in a verse:
    … Allah will certainly help those who help Him-Allah is All-Strong, Almighty. (Surat al-Hajj: 40)


    The importance the Prophet (saas) attributed to cleanliness

    Hafýz Halil Efendi. Tezhip decoration. Verses from Surat al-Fatiha:1-7: "Praise to be Allah, the Lord of all the worlds, the All-Merciful, the Most Merciful, the King of the Day of Judgement. You alone we worship. You alone we ask for help. Guide us on the Straight Path, the Path of those You have blessed, not of those with anger on them, nor of the misguided.


    As well as their purity of heart and morality, Muslims are also known for the cleanliness of their bodies, clothes, homes and the food they eat. A Muslim's hair, hands, face and body must always be clean. His clothes must always be clean, neat and well cared for. The places where he works or lives must always be clean, tidy, sweet-smelling and be a relaxing atmosphere. Once again, it is the Prophet (saas) who is the best example of this characteristic of Muslims. In one verse, Allah told the Prophet (saas):
    You who are enveloped in your cloak! Arise and warn. Magnify your Lord. Purify your clothes. Shun all filth. (Surat al-Muddaththir: 1-5)
    Allah tells the faithful in the Qur'an to eat that which is clean. He also instructed the Prophet (saas) to tell the faithful that clean things are lawful:
    Messengers, eat of the good things and act rightly… (Surat al-Muminun: 51)
    They will ask you what is lawful for them. Say: "All good things are lawful for you, and also what is caught for you by hunting animals which you have trained as Allah has taught you. Eat what they catch for you, mentioning Allah's name over it." Heed Allah. Allah is swift at reckoning. (Surat al-Ma'ida: 4)
    The Prophet also advises the faithful to be clean in one of the hadiths:
    "Surely, Islam is pure, therefore be pure, because he can never enter Paradise who is not pure."33
    The prayers of the Prophet (saas)
    The Qur'an tells us that the Prophet (saas) would rise to pray at night:
    When the servant of Allah stands calling on Him, they almost swarm all over him. Say: "I call only upon my Lord and do not associate anyone else with Him." (Surat al-Jinn: 19-20)
    Many verses speak of the Prophet's (saas) prayers. He would praise Allah by recalling His attributes. This is one of the prayers of the Prophet (saas) revealed in the Qur'an:
    Say, "O Allah! Master of the Kingdom! You give sovereignty to whoever You will You take sovereignty from whoever You will. You exalt whoever You will You abase whoever You will. All good is in Your hands. You have power over all things." (Surah Al 'Imran: 26)



    The Muayyad Mosque by David Roberts.


    Like all the other prophets, the Prophet (saas) faced threats and pressure from hostile men and jinn. He responded to these with patience and fortitude, and was commanded to seek help from Allah against Satan's evil suggestions and spiritual attacks in this way:
    Say: "My Lord, I seek refuge with You from the goadings of the satans, and I seek refuge with You, my Lord, from their presence." (Surat al-Muminun: 97-98)
    He was also commanded to seek the forgiveness and mercy of our Lord, Allah, in his prayers:
    Say: "My Lord, forgive and be merciful! You are the Best of the Merciful." (Surat al-Muminun: 118)
    In the hadiths, we see that the Prophet (saas) would pray to Allah for a finer morality and a good temperament, and that he beseeched Allah in these terms:
    "O Allah, make my constitution and conduct good. O Allah, save me from bad character and conduct."34
    As Allah has revealed in the verse: "Say: 'What has My Lord to do with you if you do not call on Him?'..." (Surat al-Furqan: 77), prayer is a most important obligation upon the faithful. A person must know that no power is of the slightest use unless Allah so wishes it. He must turn to Allah in all matters, in fear and aspiration, and pray to Him for everything. The prayers of the Prophet (saas), as those of the other prophets revealed in the Qur'an, are the very best examples for the faithful. They have shown in their prayers how they surrendered to Allah and saw Him as their only friend and helper, as well as praising our Lord by His most beautiful names. We can also see from the prayers of the prophets how they paid no attention to time when praying, but would turn to our Lord whenever they were in need.






    O man! what has deluded you in respect of your Noble Lord? He Who created you and formed you and proportioned you and assembled you in whatever way He willed.
    (Surat al-Infitar: 6-8)





    . Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 40, Number 4665
    5. Malik's Muwatta, Book 46, Number 4
    6. Tirmidhi Hadith
    7. Sahih Muslim, Book 41, Number 7138
    8. Tirmidhi Hadith, Number 20
    9. Imam Ghazzali's Ihya Ulum-Id-Din, The Book of Religious Learnings, Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 2001, Volume II, p.240
    10. Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 41, Number 5097
    11. Ahmad, 158/4
    12. Prophet Muhammad's Last Sermon (http://www.stanford.edu/~jamila/Sermon.html)
    13. The Pact of Najran, Article 6, http://www.islamicresources.com/Pact-of-Najran.htm
    14. The Constitution of Madina, http://www.islamic-study.org/jews-prophet-p.-2.htm
    15. The Constitution of Madina, http://www.islamic-study.org/jews-prophet-p.-2.htm
    16. Sahih Bukhari, Book 9, Number 251
    17. Imam Ghazzali's Ihya Ulum-Id-Din (The Book of Religious Learnings), Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 2001, Volume II, p.236
    18. Fiqh-us-Sunna, Volume 4, p. 114
    19. Imam Ghazzali's Ihya Ulum-Id-Din (The Book of Religious Learnings), Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 2001, Volume IV, p.288
    20. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Number 146
    21. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52, Number 275
    22. Sahih Bukhari, Book 47, Number 1.2
    23. Tirmidhi Hadith
    24. Sahih Bukhari, Number 91
    25. Sahih Bukhari, Book 8, Number 40
    26. Malik's Muwatta, Book 15, Number 28
    27. http://www.geocities.com/arabicpaper911/fiqh/s10.html
    28. Sahih Muslim Hadith
    29. Maulana Muhammad Manzoor No'mani, Ma'ariful Hadith, (Meaning and Message of the Traditions), Darul - Ishaat Publications, Karachi, Volume 4, p.334
    30. Sahih Muslim, Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 2000, Volume 3, p.442
    31. Shamaa-il Tirmidhi Contents, (334) Hadith Number 9
    32. Shamaa-il Tirmidhi, Islamic Book Service Publications, New Delhi, 2000, Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 2000, p. 362
    33. Ahmad Diya'al-Din al-Kamushkhanawi, Ramuz al-Ahadith, vol.1, 96/2
    34. Imam Ghazzali's Ihya Ulum-Id-Din (The Book of Religious Learnings), Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 2001, VolumeII, p.234


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    The Prophet (saas)'s Manner of Communicating
    the Message of Allah

    As the verse: "So call and go straight as you have been ordered to…" (Surat ash-Shura: 15) makes clear, the Prophet Muhammad (saas) was the last prophet charged with warning mankind. Like all the other messengers, the Prophet (saas) called people to the true path, to have faith in Allah, to live for the hereafter and to exercise good morality. The methods he employed, the way he explained things, and the style he used must remain examples for all Muslims, and when a Muslim invites people to the religion he must speak and behave in the manner of the Prophet (saas).
    This is how the Qur'an reveals that the Prophet (saas) was commanded to say that he had come to warn mankind:
    Say: "This is my way. I call to Allah with inner sight, I and all who follow me. Glory be to Allah! I am not one of the idolators!" (Surah Yusuf: 108)
    The Prophet (saas) did all that he could and more to warn people, and extended great effort to address as many people as he could. One verse reveals:
    Say: "What thing is greatest as a witness?" Say: "Allah. He is Witness between me and you. This Qur'an has been revealed to me so that I may warn you by it, and anyone else it reaches. Do you then bear witness that there are other gods together with Allah?" Say: "I do not bear witness." Say: "He is only One God, and I am free of all you associate with Him." (Surat al-An'am: 19)
    By communicating the message of the Qur'an, the Prophet (saas) completely abolished the corrupt religions that the polytheists had inherited from their ancestors, for which reason he met with much resistance. Yet, he abided by Allah's command and took no notice of their oppression and animosity. Allah commands the Prophet (saas) thus in one verse:
    Proclaim what you have been ordered to and turn away from the idolators. We are enough for you against the mockers. (Surat al-Hijr: 94-95)
    Muslims in our own time too must explain the morality of the Qur'an to people, ignoring any lack of approval and whatever anyone might say to oppose them. They must not fear "the blame of any blamer," as the Prophet (saas) did. That is a sign of morality and godliness that will be rewarded with Paradise. The Prophet (saas) commanded Muslims to abide by that Sunnah in these words, "Convey my teaching to the people even if it were a single sentence."35


    The Prophet (saas) explained that Allah possesses infinite might

    Ismail Hakki Altunbezer. A Qur'anic verse in celi thuluth script: "Allah has power over all things."(Surat al-Baqara: 20)

    In order that people should appreciate the power of Allah and adopt a nobler morality out of awe of Him, the Prophet (saas) used to tell people of the might of Allah and of the proofs of the splendour in His creation. He thus became the means whereby they would love Allah and fear him. This verse describes how the Prophet (saas) was commanded to speak:
    Say: "What do you think? If Allah made it permanent night for you till the Day of Rising, what god is there other than Allah to bring you light? Do you not then hear?" Say: "What do you think? If Allah made it permanent day for you till the Day of Rising, what god is there other than Allah to bring you night to rest in? Do you not then see?" (Surat al-Qasas: 71-72)

    The Prophet Muhammad (saas) also spoke of the proofs of Allah's creation to those who did not believe in the hereafter, and explained that Allah, Who has the power to create them, also had the power to create the same again in the hereafter. The verse in question reads:
    Say: "Travel about the earth and see how He brought creation out of nothing. Then later Allah will bring about the next existence. Allah has power over all things." (Surat al-'Ankabut: 20)

    These are some of the verses in which the Prophet (saas) is told in which way to communicate how Allah is exalted above anything they associate with Him and has no need of anything:
    Say: "Am I to take anyone other than Allah as my Protector, the Bringer into Being of the heavens and the earth, He Who feeds and is not fed?" Say: "I am commanded to be the first of the Muslims," and, "Do not be among the idolators." Say: "I fear, were I to disobey my Lord, the punishment of a dreadful Day." (Surat al-An'am: 14-15)

    In the Qur'an, the Prophet (saas) was also told how to explain that there is no god but Allah and that our Lord is the lord of all:
    Say: "Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth?" Say: "Allah." Say: "So why have you taken protectors apart from Him Who possess no power to help or harm themselves?" Say: "Are the blind and seeing equal? Or are darkness and light the same? Or have they assigned partners to Allah Who creates as He creates, so that all creating seems the same to them?" Say: "Allah is the Creator of everything. He is the One, the All-Conquering." (Surat ar-Ra'd: 16)

    The Prophet (saas) made his community, who knew that Allah existed but did not consider His infinite might and were thus unable to appreciate His existence, and acknowledge His power. After that, he called on them to take warning. The verses in question are as follows:
    Say: "To whom does the earth belong, and everyone in it, if you have any knowledge?" They will say: "To Allah." Say: "So will you not pay heed?" Say: "Who is the Lord of the Seven Heavens and the Lord of the Mighty Throne?" They will say: "Allah." Say: "So will you not do your duty [by Him]?" Say: "In Whose hand is the dominion over everything, He Who gives protection and from Whom no protection can be given, if you have any knowledge?" They will say: "Allah's." Say: "So how have you been bewitched?" (Surat al-Muminun: 84-89)

    The Prophet (saas) would explain that the only
    true path is that of Allah
    Some people choose errant paths for themselves that are full of errors, superstition and harmful ideas and methods. These can bring them nothing but loss in this world and the next. The Prophet (saas) was always at pains to call people to the best and most beautiful path, the path of Allah, and to be a means whereby people could be saved in this world and the next.
    Say: "Are we to call on something besides Allah which can neither help nor harm us, and to turn on our heels after Allah has guided us, like someone the satans have lured away in the earth, leaving him confused and stupefied, despite the fact that he has companions calling him to guidance, saying, 'Come with us'!" Say: "Allah's guidance, that is true guidance. We are commanded to submit as Muslims to the Lord of all the worlds." (Surat al-An'am: 71)
    The Prophet (saas) has stated in the hadiths that the right path is that of Allah and His Prophet (saas):
    "The best word is the Word of Allah and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad."36


    The Prophet (saas) warned against idolatry
    One of the most important errors that the Prophet (saas) has warned against is associating partners with Allah (shirk). As can be seen from the verses of the Qur'an, the Prophet (saas) always told people that Allah is the only god, that nothing had any power apart from Allah, and warned them against idolatry. He was commanded to do this in many verses, some of which read:
    Say: "This is my way. I call to Allah with inner sight, I and all who follow me. Glory be to Allah! I am not one of the idolators!" (Surah Yusuf: 108)
    Say: "I call only upon my Lord and do not associate anyone else with Him." Say: "I possess no power to do you harm or to guide you right." Say: "No one can protect me from Allah [if I should disobey] and I will never find any refuge apart from Him." (Surat al-Jinn: 20-22)
    Say: "I am commanded to worship Allah, making my religion sincerely His. And I am commanded to be the first of the Muslims." Say: "I fear, were I to disobey my Lord, the punishment of a terrible day." Say: "It is Allah I worship, making my religion sincerely His, so worship anything you will apart from Him!" Say: "The real losers are those who lose themselves and their families on the Day of Rising." Is not that clear loss? (Surat az-Zumar: 11-15)
    He Who originates creation and then regenerates it and provides for you from out of heaven and earth. Is there another god besides Allah? Say: "Bring your proof if you are being truthful." (Surat an-Naml: 64)




    The Prophet (saas), who reminded his people that Allah was the only god, also told them that nothing they might set up alongside Allah could ever create anything nor had it any power to harm or benefit any. The verses regarding this are as follows:
    Say: "Call on those you make claims for apart from Him. They possess no power to remove any harm from you or to change anything." (Surat al-Isra': 56)
    Say: "Have you thought about those you call upon apart from Allah? Show me what they have created on the earth. Or do they have a partnership in the heavens? Produce a Book for me before this one or a shred of knowledge if you are telling the truth." (Surat al-Ahqaf: 4)
    Say: "Call on those you make claims for besides Allah. They have no power over even the smallest particle, either in the heavens or in the earth. They have no share in them. He has no need of their support." (Surah Saba': 22)
    Say: "Have you thought about your partner gods, those you call upon besides Allah? Show me what they have created of the earth; or do they have a partnership in the heavens?" Have We given them a Book whose Clear Signs they follow? No indeed! The wrongdoers promise each other nothing but delusion. (Surah Fatir: 40)

    Most people believe in Allah but are unable to appreciate His power and greatness, fail to comprehend that He is their only friend and helper, and wrongly believe that things other than Allah can be of assistance to them. The Prophet (saas) explained these truths to his people and attempted to free them from idolatry. He is commanded in the verses:


    Mustafa Rakim Efendi. 1797. "I declare Allah to be morally perfect and thank Him. There is no god but Him. He is the mightiest, and there is no power but Allah."



    If you ask them, "Who created the heavens and the earth?" They will say, "Allah." Say: "So what do you think? If Allah desires harm for me, can those you call upon besides Allah remove His harm? Or if He desires mercy for me, can they withhold His mercy?" Say: "Allah is enough for me. All those who truly trust put their trust in Him." (Surat az-Zumar: 38)
    Say: "Who is going to shield you from Allah if He desires evil for you or desires mercy for you?" They will find no one to protect or help them besides Allah. (Surat al-Ahzab: 17)
    Allah created man, and is his only friend and helper. Yet, people who have no fear of Him refuse to accept that. Only in times of difficulty, when something happens to clearly show them how helpless they are, do they understand that only Allah can help them. The Prophet (saas) also reminded people of that same fact. He said that in times of trouble or loss people have no other helper than Allah. The Prophet (saas) is called upon to remind people of that in the Qur'an:
    Say: "What do you think? If Allah's punishment were to come upon you or the Hour, would you call on other than Allah if you are being truthful?" It is Him you call on and, if He wills, He will deliver you from whatever it was that made you call on Him; and you will forget what you associated with Him. (Surat al-An'am: 40-41)


    Believers who remember that truth emphasized by the Prophet (saas) know, without having to experience such difficulties, that only Allah can ever help them, and that only He has the power to lift their troubles and burdens. In the Qur'an, Allah says:
    Say: "Who rescues you from the darkness of the land and sea? You call on Him humbly and secretly: 'If you rescue us from this, we will truly be among the thankful.'" Say: "Allah rescues you from it, and from every plight. Then you associate others with Him." (Surat al-An'am: 63-64)
    The Prophet (saas) has warned all Muslims against idolatry in the hadiths:

    "The most severe sin is to associate partners with Allah (known as shirk), while He has created you."37
    Elsewhere, the Prophet (saas) stated that not associating others with Allah is both the proof as well as the necessary condition of faith:
    "Whoever meets Allah, without associating partners with Him, will enter Paradise."38



    Say: 'No one in the heavens and the earth knows the Unseen except Allah.' They are not aware of when they will be raised.

    (Surat an-Naml: 65)


    He also stressed what a great hidden danger idolatry is:
    "Should I not inform you of that which I fear for you even more than the dangers of Dajjal? It is the hidden idolatry: A person stands to pray and he beautifies his prayer because he sees the people looking at him."39
    "Idolatry is more hidden in my Ummah than the creeping of ants across a great smooth stone on a black night..."40



    The Prophet (saas) revealed that only Allah can know the unseen
    The word "ghaib" in the Qur'an is used for hidden things that man cannot see or know. Things that will happen in the future are unknown to us, for instance. Yet everything to do with the future, the future of every individual, country, building and piece of furniture, is known to Allah. This is how the Prophet (saas) was told to explain that knowledge of the invisible (ilm-ul-ghaib) lies solely with Allah:
    Say: "Allah knows best how long they stayed. The Unseen of the heavens and the earth belongs to Him. How perfectly He sees, how well He hears! They have no protector apart from Him. Nor does He share His rule with anyone." (Surat al-Kahf: 26)
    Say: "No one in the heavens and the earth knows the Unseen except Allah." They are not aware of when they will be raised. (Surat an-Naml: 65)
    Say: "My Lord hurls forth the Truth-the Knower of all unseen things." (Surah Saba': 48)
    In the Qur'an, the Prophet (saas) is commanded thus:
    Say: "I possess no power to help or harm myself, except as Allah wills. If I had had knowledge of the Unseen, I would have sought to gain much good and no evil would have touched me. I am only a warner and a bringer of good news to people who believe." (Surat al-A'raf: 188)


    The Prophet (saas) reminded people that Allah heard even
    their most secret conversations
    Some people think that when they intend to do something wrong, or plan a wicked act with others of like-mind, or gossip, they can conceal it from others. However, Allah knows everything an individual thinks, what enters his mind, what two people whisper to each other, and everything in heaven and earth. He witnesses everything a person does. Every individual will have to offer account in the hereafter for everything he thought he had done or said in secret. That person may perhaps forget those words full of wickedness, but Allah will place everything he has forgotten before him on the Day of Judgment.
    The Prophet (saas) also drew attention to that fact, and warned people they would have to give account of themselves. These are some of the verses on the subject:
    Say, "Whether you conceal what is in your breasts or make it known, Allah knows it. He knows what is in the heavens and what is on earth. Allah has power over all things." (Surah Al 'Imran: 29)
    Say: "Allah is a sufficient witness between me and you. He is certainly aware of and sees His servants." (Surat al-Isra': 96)
    If they turn their backs, then say: "I have informed all of you equally and I do not know if what you have been promised is near or far. He knows what is said openly and He knows what you hide." (Surat al-Anbiya': 109-110)
    Say: "Do you presume to teach Allah your religion when Allah knows everything in the heavens and everything in the earth? Allah has knowledge of all things." (Surat al-Hujurat: 16)


    The Prophet (saas) announced that the Qur'an was revealed to man by Allah
    During and after the time of the Prophet (saas) there have been those who denied that the Qur'an is a divine book. Some of these people even went so far as to claim it was the Prophet (saas) himself who had written it. Yet, it is evident that the Qur'an was not written by any human hand. The Qur'an is the word of Allah, and contains many miracles and is a superior wisdom, the like of which no human being could ever conceive. The Prophet (saas) reminded people of this, and announced that the Qur'an had been sent by Allah. These are some of the verses that refer to this:
    Say: "The One Who sent it down is He Who knows all hidden secrets in the heavens and earth. He is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (Surat al-Furqan: 6)

    Say: "What do you think? If it is from Allah and you reject it, who could be more misguided than someone entrenched in hostility to it?" (Surah Fussilat: 52)


    The first original text of the Qur'an (Surat al-Qadr) is exhibited in the Archives Department of Topkapi Palace in Istanbul.


    Those who allege that the Qur'an was written by a human being are unaware of the miracles it contains and that its wisdom is from Allah. In fact, the Qur'an is such a book that not even all the people in the world and all the jinn together could have written it, let alone one man. The Prophet (saas) was commanded to say the following on the subject:
    Say: "If both men and jinn banded together to produce the like of this Qur'an, they could never produce anything like it, even if they backed each other up." (Surat al-Isra': 88)
    Do they say, "He has invented it?" Say: "Then produce a sura like it and call on anyone you can besides Allah if you are telling the truth." (Surah Yunus: 38)
    In another hadith, the Prophet (saas) stated that the Qur'an was the word of Allah:
    "Honesty descended from the Heavens and settled in the roots of the hearts of men (faithful believers), and then the Qur'an was revealed and the people read the Qur'an, (and learned from it) and also learned it from the Sunnah. Both Qur'an and Sunnah strengthened their (the faithful believers') honesty."41



    The revelation of the Book is from Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise.
    (Surat az-Zumar: 1)





    … This is a Book We have sent down to you so that you can bring mankind from the darkness to the light, by the permission of their Lord, to the Path of the Almighty, the Praiseworthy.
    (Surah Ibrahim: 1)




    The Prophet (saas) made it known that the Qur'an was sent down
    as guidance and good news for the Muslims
    The Prophet (saas) said that the Qur'an led people to the true path, and advised people to take it as their guide. Some of the verses on that subject are:
    Say: "The Purest Spirit has brought it down from your Lord with truth, to make those who believe firm, and as guidance and good news for the Muslims." (Surat an-Nahl: 102)
    Say: "If I am misguided, it is only to my detriment. But if I am guided, it is by what my Lord reveals to me. He is All-Hearing, Close-at-hand." (Surah Saba': 50)
    This is why the Prophet (saas) placed great importance in teaching the Qur'an:
    "Acquire the knowledge and impart it to the people. Learn the Qur'an and teach it to the people; for I am a person who has to depart this world."42

    The Prophet (saas) revealed that on the Day of Reckoning no one
    would be burdened with anyone else's sins
    One of the errant beliefs prevalent in ignorant societies is that one person's sins can be heaped upon another. For example, someone may try to prevent his friends from carrying out a religious obligation and say, "I will accept that sin myself." Of course that person will be committing the sin of preventing the carrying out of an obligation, but his friend will still be committing the sin of not carrying it out. In other words, nobody can lift that sin from another's shoulders. On the Day of Reckoning, people will only be held responsible for their own deeds. Nobody will be asked about the sins of others, and nobody's sins will be attributed to anyone else. Allah told the Prophet Muhammad (saas) to explain this in these terms:
    Say: "Am I to desire other than Allah as Lord when He is the Lord of all things?" What each self earns is for itself alone. No burden-bearer can bear another's burden. Then you will return to your Lord, and He will inform you regarding the things about which you differed. (Surat al-An'am: 164)
    The Prophet (saas)'s words, "no burdened soul will bear another's burden,"43 explained the truth about that popular superstition.


    The Prophet (saas) advised his people to take a lesson from the
    demise of those who had gone before
    All through history, societies that have opposed Allah, his messengers and religion, have been destroyed by great disasters, in such a way as to leave no trace of them. The end of such societies must be a lesson for all people, to turn to Allah and fear His wrath.
    Say: "Travel about the earth and see the final fate of the evildoers." (Surat an-Naml: 69)
    Say: "Travel about the earth and see the final fate of the deniers." (Surat al-An'am: 11)




    Say: "Travel about the earth and see the final fate of those before. Most of them were idolators." (Surat ar-Rum: 42)
    One thing the Prophet (saas) said in the light of the above verses was "Rejoice and hope for what will please you! By Allah, I am not afraid of your poverty but I am afraid that you will lead a life of luxury as past nations did, whereupon you will compete with each other for it, as they competed for it, and it will destroy you as it destroyed them."44 by which he warned people of the disasters that had come upon others because of their indulgence.



    The Prophet (saas) reminded people of death
    Dying is one of the foremost fears of those who doubt or do not believe in the hereafter. Since they believe that death will mean the end of everything, they therefore cling desperately to this world. Yet, everyone will die at the moment decreed for him by Allah, and there is no means of escape from it. The Prophet (saas) also told people that there was nothing to be gained by trying to avoid death, and called on them instead to consider their real life, which comes after.



    Say: "Flight will not benefit you if you try to run away from death or being killed. Then you will only enjoy a short respite." (Surat al-Ahzab: 16)
    Say: "You have a promised appointment on a Day which you cannot delay or advance a single hour." (Surah Saba': 30)

    Who is better: someone who founds his building on heeding and pleasing Allah, or someone who founds his building on the brink of a crumbling precipice so that it collapses with him into the Fire of Hell? Allah does not love wrongdoers.(Surat at-Tawba: 109)

    The Prophet (saas) recommended to people they think about death, and said:
    "Those who are most aware of death and prepare themselves for it. They are the wisest of people."45


    He revealed that only Allah has Knowledge of the Hour
    One of people's main concerns is the time and the hour of the Day of Judgment. Yet, Allah has revealed that none but He can know of it, and commanded the Prophet (saas) to give the following answer if asked about it:
    People will ask you about the Last Hour. Say: "Only Allah has knowledge of it. What will make you understand? It may be that the Last Hour is very near." (Surat al-Ahzab: 63)
    Say: "I do not know whether what you are promised is close or whether my Lord will appoint a longer time before it." (Surat al-Jinn: 25)
    If they turn their backs, then say: "I have informed all of you equally and I do not know if what you have been promised is near or far." (Surat al-Anbiya': 109)


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    He communicated that some people will remain in Hell for ever
    One very common superstition in ignorant societies is that people will remain in Hell for a given length of time and then leave it. However, Allah has made it known that some people will remain in Hell for ever. In accordance with Allah's command, the Prophet (saas) told those who believed that one will only remain in Hell for a given period that some people will stay there permanently: They say, "The Fire will only touch us for a number of days." Say, "Have you made a contract with Allah-then Allah will not break His contract-or are you rather saying about Allah what you do not know?" No indeed! Those who accumulate bad actions and are surrounded by their mistakes, such people are the Companions of the Fire, remaining in it timelessly, for ever; whereas those who believe and do right actions, such people are the Companions of the Garden, remaining in it timelessly, for ever. (Surat al-Baqara: 80-82)

    The Prophet (saas) also had this to say about life in Heaven and Hell:
    "When the inmates of Paradise would go to Paradise and the inmates of Hell would go to Hell, death would be called and it would be placed between the Paradise and the Hell and then slaughtered and then the announcer would announce: inmates of Paradise, no death; Inmates of Hell-Fire, no death. And it would increase the delight of the inmates of Paradise and it would increase the grief of the inmates of Hell-Fire."46





    We made them leaders, guiding by Our command, and revealed to them how to do good actions and establish prayer (salat) and pay the welfare tax (zakat), and they worshipped Us.


    (Surat al-Anbiya': 73)


    He called on us to remember Allah by His most beautiful names
    As we have seen earlier, the Prophet (saas) would call on Allah by His most beautiful names when communicating or explaining anything and when praying. The Prophet (saas) was told to invite people to do the same:
    Say: "Call on Allah or call on the All-Merciful, whichever you call upon, the Most Beautiful Names are His." Do not be too loud in your prayer [salat] or too quiet in it, but try to find a way between the two. And say: "Praise be to Allah Who has had no son and Who has no partner in His Kingdom and Who needs no one to protect Him from abasement." And proclaim His Greatness repeatedly! (Surat al-Isra': 110-111)


    He told people not to discriminate between the prophets
    Again, in accordance with Allah's command, the Prophet (saas) revealed that we should not discriminate between the prophets sent by Allah, and in one hadith, said, "Don't give superiority to any prophet amongst Allah's prophets."47 All of the prophets were loved and trusted by Allah, and were blessed godly people rewarded with Paradise. All of the prophets taught the religion of Allah, and like the Prophet Muhammad (saas), called all those they could reach to the way of Allah. That is a most important aspect of the actions of the Prophet (saas), a matter which appears in the Qur'an in this form:
    Say, "We believe in Allah and what has been sent down to us and what was sent down to Ibrahim, Isma'il and Ishaq and Ya'qub and the Tribes, and what Musa and 'Isa and all the prophets were given by their Lord. We do not differentiate between any of them. We are Muslims submitted to Him." (Surah Al 'Imran: 84)
    Say, "We believe in Allah and what has been sent down to us and what was sent down to Ibrahimand Isma'il and Ishaq and Ya'qub and the Tribes, and what Musa and 'Isa were given, and what all the prophets were given by their Lord. We do not differentiate between any of them. We are Muslims submitted to Him." (Surat al-Baqara: 136)


    The Prophet (saas) called on people to be of good morals
    As has been recounted throughout this book, the Prophet (saas) possessed a morality that is a model for the whole world, he called on others to conform to that morality, and described what kind of morality and behavior would be pleasing to Allah. Some verses on the subject read:
    Say: "Come and I will recite to you what your Lord has forbidden: that you do not associate anything with Him; that you are good to your parents; that you do not kill your children because of poverty-We will provide for you and them; that you do not approach indecency-outward or inward; that you do not kill any person Allah has made inviolate-except with the right to do so. That is what He instructs you to do so that hopefully you will use your intellect. And that you do not go near the property of orphans before they reach maturity-except in a good way; that you give full measure and full weight with justice-We impose on no self any more than it can bear; that you are equitable when you speak-even if a near relative is concerned; and that you fulfil Allah's contract. That is what He instructs you to do, so that hopefully you will pay heed. (Surat al-An'am: 151-152)
    Say: "My Lord has forbidden indecency, both open and hidden, and wrong action, and unrightful tyranny, and associating anything with Allah for which He has sent down no authority, and saying things about Allah you do not know." (Surat al-A'raf : 33)
    The following are some of the hadiths in which the Prophet (saas) recommends such a morality:
    "My Cherisher has ordered me nine things: To reverence Him, externally and internally; to speak true, and with propriety, in prosperity and adversity; moderation in affluence and poverty; to benefit my relations and kindred who do not benefit me; to give alms to him who refuses me; to forgive him who injures me; that my silence should be in attaining knowledge of Allah; that when I speak, I should mention Him; that when I look on Allah's creatures, it should be as an example for them."48


    We only sent you for the whole of mankind, bringing good news and giving warning. But most of mankind do not know it.(Surah Saba': 28)

    "Do not envy one another; do not hate one another; do not turn away from another; and do not undercut one another, but be you. O servants of Allah, brothers."49
    "Fear Allah wherever you are, and follow up a bad deed with a good one and it will wipe it out, and behave well towards people."50
    "There is nothing heavier in the scales than good character."51
    The Prophet (saas) made the following recommendations to his companions:
    "Bad conduct destroys divine service as condiment destroys honey."52
    "Honour a believer for his religion. Think him superior for good conduct and wisdom."53

    The Prophet (saas) warned against arrogance
    The Prophet (saas) stated that pride and arrogance were examples of poor morality, and that arrogant people would be repaid in Hell. He warned them against that danger. With his humility, modesty, affection and caring disposition in all situations, the Prophet (saas) was the best possible role-model. These are some of the Prophet (saas)'s warnings with regards to arrogance:
    "Verily, Allah is Graceful and He loves Grace. Pride is disdaining the truth (out of self-conceit) and contempt for the people."54
    "Arrogance means ridiculing and rejecting the Truth and despising people."55

    The Prophet (saas) warned those who boasted of their families and ancestry, thus becoming arrogant, saying:
    "Allah, Most High, has removed from you the pride of the pre-Islamic period and its boasting in ancestors. One is only a pious believer or a miserable sinner. You are sons of Adam, and Adam came from dust. Let the people cease to boast about their ancestors. They are merely fuel in Hell; or they will certainly be of less account with Allah than the beetle which rolls dung with its nose."56
    The Prophet (saas) recommended to his followers to always dress well and to be pleasant in appearance and to look well cared for. At the same time, however, he also reminded them that those who grew proud because of the clothes they wore or the way they looked would be humiliated in this world and in the next. He told them to always be humble. Here is what he said on the subject:
    "While a man was walking, clad in a two-piece garment and proud of himself with his hair well-combed, suddenly Allah made him sink into the earth and he will go on sinking into it till the Day of Resurrection."57


    The Prophet (saas)'s statements regarding the use of one's
    possessions for the sake of Allah
    This refers to the use of one's goods and one's self in such a way that will be pleasing to Allah. Those around him asked the Prophet (saas) a number of questions on the subject, and his explanations increased their excitement about the idea. This is how the Qur'an refers to the situation:
    They will ask you what they should give away. Say, "Any wealth you give away should go to your parents and relatives and to orphans and the very poor and travellers." Whatever good you do, Allah knows it." (Surat al-Baqara: 215)
    … They will ask you what they should give away. Say, "Whatever is surplus to your needs." In this way Allah makes the Signs clear to you, so that hopefully you will reflect. (Surat al-Baqara: 219)
    Say: "My Lord expands the provision of any of His servants He wills or restricts it. But anything you expend will be replaced by Him. He is the Best of Providers." (Surah Saba': 39)


    Here are some of the Prophet (saas)'s words to encourage Muslims to avoid avarice and to be ready and willing to give up their possessions:
    "Be on your guard against committing oppression, for oppression is a darkness on the Day of Resurrection, and be on your guard against pettimindedness for pettimindedness destroyed those who were before you, as it incited them to shed blood and make lawful what was unlawful for them."58
    "Do not turn away a poor man...even if all you can give is half a date. If you love the poor and bring them near you...Allah will bring you near Him on the Day of Resurrection."59


    Muhammad (saas) was also the Prophet of the jinn
    In the 72nd Sura of the Qur'an, Surat al-Jinn, Allah reveals that the jinn too listened to the communications of the Prophet Muhammad (saas) and the Qur'an, and that some of them were bound to the Prophet (saas) as Muslims. One verse on the subject reads:
    Say: "It has been revealed to me that a band of the jinn listened and said, 'We have heard a most amazing Recitation. It leads to right guidance so we believe in it and will not associate anyone with our Lord.'" (Surat al-Jinn: 1-2)
    In that same Sura, Allah also reveals that some jinn are actually Muslims:
    [The jinn said]: "And when we heard the guidance, we believed in it. Anyone who believes in his Lord need fear neither belittlement nor tyranny. Some of us are Muslims and some are deviators. Those who have become Muslim are those who sought right guidance." (Surat al-Jinn: 13-14)
    These jinn state that some among them opposed Allah by telling lies and inventing superstitions. That superstitious religion that the jinn had believed in is also described in that Sura:
    He-exalted be the Majesty of our Lord!-has neither wife nor son. The fools among us have uttered a vile slander against Allah. We did not think it possible for either man or jinn to tell a lie against Allah. (Surat al-Jinn: 3-5)
    Yet another verse recounts that when the Prophet (saas) rose for his religious obligations, the jinn would gather around him:
    When the servant of Allah stands calling on Him, they almost swarm all over him. (Surat al-Jinn: 19)

    And remind them, for truly the believers benefit from being reminded. I only created jinn and man to worship Me.
    (Surat ahd-Dhariyat: 55-56)

    As that verse makes clear, the Prophet Muhammad (saas) was sent as a prophet for all men and the jinn. The Qur'an is a guide for both mankind and the jinn.



    You who believe! respond to Allah and to the Messenger when He calls you to what will bring you to life! Know that Allah intervenes between a man and his heart and that you will be gathered to Him.
    (Surat al-Anfal: 24)





    You who believe! Heed Allah and believe in His Messenger. He will give you a double portion of His mercy and grant you a Light by which to walk and forgive you…
    (Surat al-Hadid: 28)





    The Prophet (saas)'s warnings to those who denied him
    Those who denied the Qur'an and the Prophet (saas) placed a number of difficulties in his path, and tried to prevent him communicating his message, and, even to kill, arrest or exile him. Yet, in every case, the Prophet (saas) would explain to them the existence and power of Allah, that he himself was a true messenger and that the Qur'an was brought down as truth from our Lord. He warned them of the punishment of the hereafter, too. Even after the Prophet (saas) has been victorious, he still did not oppress the deniers, did not force the religion upon anyone, but said rather that everyone was free to believe as he wished.
    Some of the verses on the subject are:
    If they deny you, say, "I have my actions and you have your actions. You are not responsible for what I do and I am not responsible for what you do." (Surah Yunus: 41)
    Say: "It is revealed to me that your god is One God. So are you Muslims?" If they turn their backs, then say: "I have informed all of you equally and I do not know if what you have been promised is near or far. He knows what is said openly and He knows what you hide. For all I know it might be a trial for you and you will have enjoyment for a time." Say: "Lord, judge with truth! Our Lord is the All-Merciful, the One Whose help is sought in the face of what you describe." (Surat al-Anbiya': 108-112)
    Say: "My people, do as you are doing, just as I am doing. You will certainly come to know who will have the best home in the end. The wrongdoers will certainly not be successful." (Surat al-An'am: 135)


    They will not help you in any way against Allah. The wrongdoers are protectors of one another but Allah is the Protector of those who do their duty.
    (Surat al-Jathiya: 19)


    He did not engage in futile argument with disbelievers
    The Prophet (saas) was always very patient and understanding with those who denied the existence of Allah, the Qur'an, and his own Prophethood. He also made it clear that he would treat them with full justice and not enter into pointless arguments with them. What he said, in accordance with the command of Allah, is recounted in the Qur'an:
    So call and go straight as you have been ordered to. Do not follow their whims and desires but say, "I believe in a Book sent down by Allah and I am ordered to be just between you. Allah is our Lord and your Lord. We have our actions and you have your actions. There is no debate between us and you. Allah will gather us all together. He is our final destination." (Surat ash-Shura: 15)


    He called the disbelievers to repent
    Allah possesses infinite mercy, compassion and forgiveness. In the Qur'an, He reveals that He will accept the repentance of every one of His servants, and that He will forgive an individual's sins if he renounces them. The Prophet (saas) related those tidings from Allah to the disbelievers:
    Say to those who disbelieve that if they stop, they will be forgiven what is past; but if they return to it, they have the pattern of previous peoples in the past. (Surat al-Anfal: 38)

    In the hadiths, the Prophet (saas) told people that they can repent at any time:
    "He who seeks repentance (from the Lord ) before the rising of the sun from the west (before the Day of Resurrection), Allah turns to him with Mercy."60




    So call and go straight as you have been ordered to. Do not follow their whims and desires but say, 'I believe in a Book sent down by Allah sent down by Allah and I am ordered to be just between you.
    (Surah ash-Shura: 15)





    He warned the disbelievers they would inevitably be defeated

    It is possible to see the Prophet (saas)'s trust in and submission and devotion to Allah in his every word and deed. Even in the most difficult of times, the Prophet (saas) was certain that Allah would help him, that the faithful would be victorious and that the disbelievers would be disappointed.
    Say to those who disbelieve: "You will be overwhelmed and crowded into Hell. What an evil resting-place!" (Surah Al 'Imran: 12)
    The Prophet (saas) stated the following in one of the hadiths:
    "Whatever you have been promised will surely come to pass, and you cannot escape (it)."61



    He warned the disbelievers by reminding them of the hereafter
    One of the most prominent characteristics of those who deny Allah is that they do not believe in the hereafter. In the time of the Prophet (saas) too, such people would not believe that people would be resurrected in the hereafter. The Prophet (saas) responded to their claims with the wisest and most concise answers. The Prophet (saas) was commanded to employ such language in the Qur'an:
    They say, "What! When we are bones and crumbled dust, will we then be raised up as a new creation!" Say: "It would not matter if you were rock or iron or indeed any created thing that you think is harder still!" They will say, "Who will bring us back again?" Say: "He Who brought you into being in the first place." They will shake their heads at you and ask, "When will it happen?" Say: "It may well be that it is very near." (Surat al-Isra': 49-51)
    "When we are dead and turned to dust and bones will we then be raised up again alive? And our earlier ancestors as well?" Say: "Yes, and you will be in a despicable state." (Surat as-Saffat: 16-18)
    In the hope that they would turn to the true path and believe, the Prophet (saas) told them that the hereafter is not far off:
    "Paradise is nearer to any of you than the strap of his shoe, and so is the (Hell) Fire."62




    He warned the disbelievers about Hell
    One of the most important duties of Allah's messengers was to warn people and to make them fear His punishment and Hell. The prophets are a means by which people come to fear Allah and adopt high morality, and, for some of them, to live in Paradise in the hereafter. The Prophet (saas) also warned people about the torments of Hell and tried to prevent them from wickedness, disbelief and atheism. Some verses concerning the Prophet (saas)'s warnings about Hell read:
    When Our Signs are recited to them-Clear Signs-you can detect denial in the faces of those who disbelieve. They all but assault those who recite Our Signs to them! Say: "Shall I inform you of something worse than that? The Fire which Allah has promised those who disbelieve. What an evil destination!" (Surat al-Hajj: 72)
    "[I have for you] only notification from Allah and His Messages. As for him who disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he will have the Fire of Hell, remaining in it timelessly, for ever and ever." (Surat al-Jinn: 23)
    The Prophet (saas) described the torments of Hell in detail for those who believed such things far fetched, and, as revealed in the Qur'an, explained the lot of those in Hell and how people would beg to be saved from its torments, extending every effort to cause them to avoid it.


    He spoke in sure and certain terms to the disbelievers,
    saying he would never join them
    Although the disbelievers were far stronger and in greater numbers at that time, the Prophet (saas) paid no heed to their disposition and threats, but with great determination preached the words of the Qur'an and made it quite clear that he would never turn from the true path. Determination and patience are defining characteristics of the faithful, and every Muslim must take the determination and strong will of the Prophet (saas) as a model. Some verses on that subject are as follows:
    Say: "I am forbidden to worship those you call upon besides Allah." Say: "I do not follow your whims and desires. If I did I would go astray and not be among the guided." Say: "I stand on a Clear Sign from my Lord and yet you have denied it. I do not have in my possession what you are in such haste to bring about. Jurisdiction over it belongs to Allah alone. He tells the truth and He is the Best of Deciders." (Surat al-An'am: 56-57)
    Say: "Unbelievers! I do not worship what you worship and you do not worship what I worship. Nor will I worship what you worship nor will you worship what I worship. You have your religion and I have my religion." (Surat al-Kafirun: 1-6)


    Say: 'My people, do as you think best; that is what I am doing.You will soon know…'
    (Surat az-Zumar: 39)


    Some of the Prophet (saas)'s reminders to the People of the Book
    The Prophet (saas) warned the People of the Book in the best way, and communicated to them, not a distorted, polytheistic form of religion, but rather Allah's final revelation. In the same way as with the disbelievers, the Prophet (saas) did not put pressure on the People of the Book, but simply conferred to them advice.
    One of the main features of the People of the Book, and the Jews in particularly, is that they also see themselves as the dearest servants of Allah and claim that none but themselves can enter Paradise. Several verses in the Qur'an treat such a claim. The Qur'an reveals the answer given by the Prophet (saas) to that baseless assertion of theirs, which is unfounded:
    When they are told, "Believe in what Allah has sent down," they say, "We believe in what was sent down to us," and they reject anything beyond that, even though it is the truth, confirming what they have. Say, "Why then, if you are believers, did you previously kill the prophets of Allah?" (Surat al-Baqara: 91)
    Say, "If the abode of the hereafter with Allah is for you alone, to the exclusion of all others, then long for death if you are telling the truth." But they will never ever long for it because of what they have done. Allah knows the wrongdoers. (Surat al-Baqara: 94-95)
    They say, "No one will enter the Garden except for Jews and Christians." Such is their vain hope. Say, "Produce your evidence if you are telling the truth." (Surat al-Baqara: 111)
    The Jews and Christians say, "We are Allah's children and His loved ones." Say: "Why, then, does He punish you for your wrong actions? No, you are merely human beings among those He has created. He forgives whoever He wills and He punishes whoever He wills. The kingdom of the heavens and the earth and everything between them belongs to Allah. He is our final destination." (Surat al-Ma'ida: 18)
    They say, "Be Jews or Christians and you will be guided." Say, "Rather adopt the religion of Ibrahim, a man of natural pure belief. He was not one of the idolators." (Surat al-Baqara: 135)




    Do they then seek the judgement of the Time of Ignorance? Who could be better at giving judgement than Allah for people with certainty?


    (Surat al-Ma'ida: 50)


    The Prophet (saas) also told the faithful to say, "Belief is to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Apostles…"63 when they talk to the people of the Book.


    The Prophet (saas) never argued with the People of the Book
    and never pressured them to believe
    The Prophet (saas) called on the People of the Book to have faith, without resorting to idolatry, and to live by the morality of the Qur'an. Yet, he still treated those who refused to obey him most gently and justly. He left the People of the Book free to worship as they saw fit, allowed them to maintain all their own customs, and ordered his own people to treat them with justice. It is recorded that the Prophet (saas) said:
    "Whoever killed a person who is granted the pledge of protection by the Muslims shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise."64
    The texts of agreements made by the Prophet (text) and those who succeeded him with various Christian, Jewish and other religious groups are today conserved as important documents. In the text of an agreement he had prepared for the Christian Ibn Harris bin Ka'b and his co-religionists, for instance, the Prophet (saas) first had the following words written: "The religion, churches, lives, chastity and goods of all Christians living in the East are under the protection of Allah and all believers. None of those living by Christianity will be forced to turn to Islam. If any Christian is subjected to any killing or injustice, Muslims must help him"65 and then read this verse from the Qur'an: "Only argue with the People of the Book in the kindest way …" (Surat al-'Ankabut: 46)
    The Prophet (saas) was commanded to advise his people how they should treat the People of the Book in these terms in the Qur'an:
    Say, "Do you argue with us about Allah when He is our Lord and your Lord? We have our actions and you have your actions. We act for Him alone." (Surat al-Baqara: 139)


    He called on the People of the Book to believe in Allah
    without associating partners with Him
    While calling the People of the Book to the true religion, the Prophet (saas) told them not to set up any partners in worship with Him, and invited them to agree with Muslims on a mutual point of faith:
    Say, "People of the Book! come to a proposition which is the same for us and you-that we should worship none but Allah and not associate any partners with Him and not take one another as lords besides Allah." If they turn away, say, "Bear witness that we are Muslims." (Surah Al 'Imran: 64)
    Say: "People of the Book! Do not go to extremes in your religion, asserting other than the truth, and do not follow the whims and desires of people who were misguided previously and have misguided many others, and are far from the right way." (Surat al-Ma'ida: 77)
    The Prophet (saas) sent Muadh (ra) to the Yemen, and told him to call on the People of the Book to worship Allah alone:
    "You are going to people of a (Divine) Book. First of all invite them to worship Allah (alone)…"66





    Truly it is revelation sent down by the Lord of all the worlds.

    (Surat ash-Shu'ara: 192)










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    35. Sahih Bukhari, 4667
    36. Sunan Ibn Maajah, Muqaddima, 7
    37. Sahih Bukhari and Muslim
    38. Kitaab At-Tawheed, Chapter: 2, http://islamicweb.com/beliefs/creed/...T1-chap-02.htm
    39. Sunan ibn Maajah, Volume2, Number 3389
    40. Tirmidhi Hadith
    41. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Number 381
    42. Tirmidhi Hadith, 279
    43. Sahih Bukhari, Book 2, Number 375
    44. Sahih Bukhari, Book 4, Hadith no. 385
    45. Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 4, Number 13
    46. Sahih Muslim, Book 40, Number 6830
    47. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Number 626
    48. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~alnur/ISLA...ET/sayings.htm
    49. Sahih Muslim Hadith
    50. Abdul Wadoud, Forty Hadith An-Nawawis, translated by Ezzeddin Ibrahim and Denys Johnson-Davies, Third Edition, 1985
    51. Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawud Hadith
    52. Imam Ghazzali's Ihya Ulum-Id-Din (The Book of Religious Learnings), Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 2001,Volume III, p.52
    53. Imam Ghazzali's Ihya Ulum-Id-Din (The Book of Religious Learnings), Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 2001,Volume III, p.53
    54. Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Number 0164.
    55. Sahih Muslim Hadith
    56. Sunan Abu Dawud, Volume 41, Number 5097
    57. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 72, Number 680
    58. Sahih Muslim, Book 32, Number 6248
    59. Tirmidhi Hadith, Number 1376
    60. Sahih Bukhari, Book 35, Number 6525
    61. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Number 382
    62. Ahmad, Volume 1, Number 387; Imam Ibn Kathir, The Life of This World is Fleeting Enjoyment
    63. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Number 300
    64. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, p.43
    65. Yrd. Doç. Dr. Orhan Atalay, Doðu-Batý Kaynaklarýnda Birlikte Yaþama (Co-existence in Eastern-Western Sources), Gazeteciler ve Yazarlar Vakfý Yayýnlarý, Ýstanbul, 1999, p.95
    66. Sahih Bukhari, 2.537


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    The Outward Appearance of the Prophet (saas)


    The preceding chapters of this book discussed examples of the Prophet (saas)'s morality, as revealed in the Qur'an, and which is an example to all of mankind. We have considered various aspects of his just, compassionate, merciful, peaceful, conciliatory, mild, patient, Allah-fearing, modest and determined disposition.
    As well as verses from the Qur'an, statements from the Prophet (saas)'s companions that have come down to us also contain a great deal of information about the Prophet (saas). Many details, such as his relations with his family and the believers around him, details of his daily life, his physical appearance, the feelings of awe he inspired in those who saw him, the food he enjoyed, his clothes and smile are all described by Islamic scholars with the term "outward form" (shamail). The term comprises such ideas as "character, temperament, behavior and attitudes." Even if the concept of "shamail" originally had a broader meaning, it became more specific over time and eventually became a term used to describe the details of the kind of life the Prophet (saas) led and his personality traits.
    Every detail of the character and manner of this chosen servant of Allah, whom He favored over all beings, is at the same time a reflection of his superior morality. The main intention for the composition of this chapter on the outward form of the Prophet (saas) is to examine those of his features that have been described in sources that have come down to us, and for us to draw inspiration from them for our own lives.


    The physical beauty of the Prophet (saas)
    The companions of the Prophet (saas) have passed on a great many detail about him, from the beauty of that blessed individual's external appearance, his radiance and disposition that left those who beheld him in awe, to his smile, and many other beautiful aspects that Allah had manifested in him. There were a fair number of such companions, and they have given many details of his great beauty. Those Muslims who lived at the same time as the Prophet (saas) have described many aspects of the servant of Allah. While some of those describe him in broad terms, others have given long and detailed descriptions. Some of these accounts are as follows:


    The Prophet (saas)'s external appearance and beauty
    His companions described the beauty of the Prophet (saas) in these terms:
    "The Prophet (saas) had a most handsome constitution. Some gave the smile of his beauty to that of the full moon…His nose was thin… His face was smooth…His beard was thick…His neck was the most beautiful…If the rays of the sun fell on his neck, it appeared like a cup of silver mixed with gold… The place between his shoulders was wide."67
    Anas bin Malik (ra) says:
    "The Messenger of Allah, was not excessively tall or short. He was not very pallid nor dark. He did not have curly hair or lank hair. Allah commissioned him at the age of forty. He stayed in Mecca ten years and at Medina for ten years and Allah the Mighty, the Majestic made him die when he was sixty. There were not twenty white hairs in his hair or beard, may Allah bless him and grant him peace."68


    A text in which Ali (ra) describes the physical and moral beauty and the perfect behavior of the Prophet (saas), as well as the love and respect people feel for him.

    "Rasulullah (saas) was so clean, clear, beautiful and handsome."69
    Anas bin Malik (ra) says:
    "The Prophet (saas) was neither tall nor short. He was handsome. His hair was neither delicate nor curly. He was neither very white, nor very brown."70



    Your friend is only Allah and His Messenger and those who believe.

    (Surat al-Ma'ida: 55)

    He is Allah - there is no god but Him. He is the Knower of the Unseen and the Visible. He is the All-Merciful, the Most Merciful.
    (Surat al-Hashr: 22)




    Baraa bin Aazib (ra) relates:
    "I never saw someone more handsome than Rasullullah. His hair reached his shoulders. The portion between his two shoulders was wide. He was neither very tall nor very short."71
    Ibrahim b. Muhammed (ra), one of the grandsons of Ali (ra), informs us:
    "When Ali (ra) described the Prophet (saas) he said:
    'He was neither very tall nor excessively short, but was a man of medium size. He had neither very curly nor flowing hair but a mixture of both... He was reddish-white, he had wide black eyes and long eyelashes. He had protruding joints and shoulder-blades… Between his shoulders was the seal of prophecy... He had a finer chest than anyone else, was truer in utterance than anyone else, had the gentlest nature and the noblest lineage. Those who saw him stood suddenly in awe of him and those who shared his acquaintance loved him. Those who described him said they had never seen anyone like him before or since'."72



    Hassan (ra) says:
    "He had great qualities and attributes, others also held him in high esteem. His blessed face shone like the full moon. He was slightly taller than a man of middle height, but shorter than a tall person...His blessed hair was slightly twisted. If his hair became parted naturally in the middle he left it so, otherwise he did not habitually make an effort to part his hair in the middle…Rasulullah (saas) had a very luminous complexion (color), and a wide forehead. His eye brows were of dense and fine hair …
    ... His neck was beautiful and thin, like the neck of a statue shaved clean, the color of which was clear, shining and beautiful like silver. All the parts of his body were of moderate size. His body was proportionately jointed…"73
    Abu Huraira (ra) describes:
    "The complexion of Rasulullah (saas) was white with redness in it. The blessed eyes of Rasulullah (saas) were extremely black. His eyelashes were long."74
    "His forehead was wide and the place between his eyebrows was bright like pure silver and eyes were black tinged with reddish hue. The hairs of his eye lashes were profuse… When he smiled or laughed, they (his teeth) shone like lightning. His lip was most beautiful…His beard was thick…His neck was most beautiful, neither long, nor short. If the rays of the sun fell on his neck, it appeared like a cup of silver mixed with gold. His chest was broad. It was even like a mirror and white like the moon light… His shoulders were wide. His palms were softer than wool."75






    Take a charity from their wealth to purify and cleanse them and pray for them. Your prayers bring relief to them. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.

    (Surat at-Tawba: 103)




    Umm Ma'bad (ra), who was known for her generosity, uprightness and courage, was visited by the Prophet (saas) during the Prophet (saas)'s migration from Mecca to Medina, but failed to recognize him. However, she described him to her husband, who recognized the Prophet (saas) from her description:
    "He was innocently bright and had a broad countenance. His manners were fine... He had black attractive eyes... His hair glossy and black, inclined to curl, he wore long. His voice was very commanding. His head was well formed and set on a slender neck. His expression was pensive and contemplative, serene and sublime. The stranger was fascinated from the distance, but no sooner he became intimate with him, than this fascination was changed into attachment and respect. His expression was very sweet and distinct. His speech was well set and free from the use of superfluous words, as if it were rosary of beads. His stature was neither too high nor too small. He was singularly bright and fresh. He was always surrounded by his Companions. Whenever he uttered something, the listeners would hear him with rapt attention and whenever he issued a commandment, they vied with each other in carrying it out. He was a master and a commander."76
    As we can discern from those who saw him in person, the Prophet (saas) was extraordinarily handsome, with a finely proportioned body and a face that took one's breath away. He also had a very athletic and powerful build.


    The Prophet (saas)'s appearance
    Ahmet Cevdet Pasha, an important scholar from Ottoman times, wrote a study that effectively summarized descriptions of the Prophet (saas)'s features. That appeared in Part IV of the Qisas al-Anbiya (Stories of the Prophets), under the heading "Some Attributes of the Prophet Muhammad (saas)":
    "The blessed one had a beautiful appearance, his limbs were in perfect proportion, his body was well-formed, his forehead and chest and the distance between his shoulders were broad. His neck was slender and pure as silver, his shoulders, biceps and calves were large and thick, his wrists were long, his fingers also long, and his hands and fingers rather thick. His blessed skin was softer than silk.
    On his perfect countenance were a well-proportioned head, curved eyebrows, a long nose and an oval face.
    His eyelashes were long, his eyes black and beautiful, the space between his largish eyebrows was clear, though his eyebrows were close together.
    That chosen Prophet (saas) was shining in appearance. In other words, he was neither light nor dark, but somewhere between the two, white like a red rose, light and limpid, and the light shone from his face. His teeth were as white as pearls and bright, and the light gleamed from his front teeth as he spoke. When he laughed, it was as if his mouth gave off rays like soft lightning…
    His senses were exceedingly powerful. He could hear from a long way off and see further than anyone. In essence, he had a body formed in perfection and uniqueness, and blessed … Anyone suddenly seeing him would be consumed with love, and anyone speaking with him would feel great love in his heart and soul. The wise respected him in accordance with their degree. He greatly honoured his relatives. He would not, however, treat them better than those more worthy than them.
    He treated his servants well. Whatever he wore or ate, he would give to them to wear and eat.
    He was generous, beneficial, compassionate, forgiving, brave and mild. In speech, he kept to his word. In essence, his excellent morality, sharp powers of reasoning were greater than those of all other people and worthy of great praise.
    In eating and apparel he contented himself with the very poorest degree and refrained from excess."77


    Another text in which Ali (ra) describes the Prophet's superior morality, his astonishing beauty and the perfection of his behavior.

    The Prophet (saas)'s seal of Prophethood
    Allah favored the Prophet Muhammad (saas) over all beings, and declared him to be "the Final Seal of the Prophets." (Surat al-Ahzab: 40) No prophet would be sent after him, and the Qur'an would be the last revelation to guide people onto the true way. Allah manifested that unique feature of the Prophet (saas) with a mark on his body.
    In Islamic sources and oral accounts, that sign between the Prophet (saas)'s shoulder blades is known as "the seal of Prophethood." It is reported by Wahb bin Munebbih (ra) that the other prophets also had similar marks, but that that of the Prophet (saas) was different:
    "Allah never sent down a prophet who did not have the sign of prophethood on his right hand. The Prophet Muhammad (saas) was the only exception to this. His sign of prophethood was (not on his right hand) but between his shoulder blades. When asked about it, the Prophet said, 'This mark between my shoulder blades is like the marks on the prophets before me' …"78
    Jaabir bin Samurah (ra) relates that:
    "I saw the Seal of Prophethood of Rasullullah (saas) between his two shoulders, the size of which was like that of a pigeon's egg."79
    Ibrahim bin Muhammad (ra), one of the grandchildren of Ali (ra), reports:
    "Whenever Ali (ra) described the nobel features of Rasulullah (saas), he used to say:
    'The seal of Prophethood was situated between his shoulders. He was a last of all prophets'."80 Abu Nadrah (ra) says:
    "I asked Abu Sa'eed Khudari (ra) about the Seal of Prophethood of Rasulullah (saas) He said: 'It was a piece of raised flesh that was on Rasulullah (saas)'s back'."81
    "The place between his shoulders were wide and therein there was impression or seal of Prophethood inclined a little towards the right shoulder."82


    So believe in Allah and His Messenger and in the Light We have sent down. Allah is aware of what you do.
    (Surat at-Taghabun: 8)

    Another report comes from Assib bin Yazid (ra):
    "I saw the seal in between his shoulders."83


    The Prophet (saas)'s hair
    There are different descriptions of the length of the Prophet (saas)'s hair. It is natural that there should be discrepancies between them, as the people these accounts have come down from saw him at different times, when his hair may have been of different lengths. Yet, what can be recognized from these descriptions was that the Prophet (saas)'s hair was at ear-level at its shortest and at shoulder-length at its longest.
    Anas bin Malik (ra) recalls :
    "The hair of Rasulullah (saas) reached till half of his ears."84
    Aisha (ra) reports:
    "The blessed hair of Rasulullah (saas) was longer than those that reached the ear lobes, and shorter than those that reached the shoulders."85
    Baraa bin Aazib (ra) says:
    "Rasulullah (saas) was of average height, and the portion between the two shoulders was wide. His hair reached his ear lobes."86
    Umm Haani, the daughter of Abu Taalib (ra) offers the following description:
    "Rasulullah (saas) came to Mecca once after the hijrah (migration). His blessed hair had four plaits."87


    Know that the Messenger of Allah is among you. If he were to obey you in many things, you would suffer for it. However, Allah has given you love of faith and made it pleasing to your hearts, and has made disbelief, deviance and disobedience hateful to you. People such as these are rightly guided.
    (Surat al-Hujurat: 7)


    The grooming of the Prophet (saas)'s hair and beard
    The Prophet (saas) attached the greatest importance to cleanliness, and therefore, to his hair and beard too. It is reported in some sources that he always carried with him a comb, mirror, miswak (a small natural toothbrush), tooth-pick, scissors and a kuhl bottle.88 The Prophet (saas) advised his companions to do the same, and said: "He who has hair should honor it."89 Some other reports that have reached us of his hair and beard are:
    Hassan (ra) said:
    "He had a thick, dense beard."90
    Anas bin Malik (ra) reports:
    "Sayyidina Rasulullah (saas) often rubbed oil in his head…"91
    Simak bin Harb (ra) reports:
    "Jaabir bin Samurah (ra) was asked a question regarding the white hair of Rasulullah He replied: 'When Rasulullah (saas) oiled his hair, it (white hair) did not show. When he did not oil it, it showed'."92
    The Prophet (saas) set an example for the believers with the importance he attached to his appearance and cleanliness. One account describes the Prophet (saas)'s attitude to such matters:
    "The Prophet (saas) once intended to go to his companions and so he put on his turban and dressed his hairs…He said: 'Yes, Allah loves the actions of His servant who refines his body in order to meet his friends and brothers'."93


    The Prophet (saas)'s manner of dress
    His companions have handed down
    a great many details about the Prophet (saas)'s manner of dress. In addition to these, the Prophet (saas)'s advice to the believers about how they should dress reveal the importance he attached to this subject. For example, one hadith reports him as saying:
    "No one who has even an atom's-weight of pride in his heart will enter Paradise." A man asked him, "What if he likes his clothes and shoes to look good?" (Meaning, is this counted as pride?) The Prophet (saas) said: "Allah is beautiful and loves beauty. Pride means denying the truth and looking down on other people."94
    He regarded dressing well and looking good as a demonstration of the blessings of Allah:
    "Allah loves to see the result of His blessing on His creatures."95
    Jundub ibn Makith (r.a.) said:
    "Whenever a delegation came to meet the Messenger of Allah, he would wear his best clothes and order his leading Companions to do likewise. I saw the Prophet (saas) on the day that the delegation of Kindah came to meet him; he was wearing a Yemeni garment, and Abu Bakr and 'Umar were dressed similarly."96
    Another hadith relates:
    "Eat what you like, and wear what you like provided that it is free from two things : extravagance and vainglory."97


    The Prophet (saas) would immediately warn any of his companions who were unkempt or failed to care for their appearance. One story on the subject is from 'Ata 'ibn Yassar (ra):
    "The Messenger of Allah was in the mosque, when a man with unkempt hair and an untidy beard came in. The Prophet (saas) pointed to him, as if indicating to him that he should tidy up his hair and beard. The man went and did so, then returned. The Prophet (saas) said, 'Is this not better than that any one of you should come with unkempt hair?'"98
    According to the hadith narrated by one of the companions of the Prophet (saas), the Prophet (saas) told his Companions, when they were travelling to meet some brothers in faith:
    "You are going to visit your brothers, so repair your saddles and make sure that you are dressed well, so that you will stand out among people like an adornment, for Allah does not love ugliness."99
    Some of the information that was conveyed through the inner circle of the Prophet (saas) about his clothing are below:
    Umar (ra) relates:
    "I saw the Messenger of Allah (saas) ask for a new garment. He put it on, and when it reached his knees he said, 'Praise be to Allah, Who has given me clothes with which to cover myself and make myself look beautiful in this life.'"100


    Umm Salama (ra) reports that:
    "The Holy Prophet (saas) liked kurta (long shirt) most."101
    Qurrah bin Ilyaas (ra) describes:
    "I came with a group from the tribe of Muzeenah to pay allegiance to Rasulullah (saas). The button loop of Rasulullah (saas) was open."102
    Al-Bara' ibn 'Azib (ra) states:
    "I have never seen someone with long hair and red clothing more handsome than Rasullullah (saas). His hair reached his shoulders."103
    Another report comes from Fazl ibn Abbas (ra):
    "The Holy Prophet (saas) said: 'Adopt white clothes; it is the best attire.'"104
    Aisha (ra) reported that:
    "Allah's Apostle (saas) went out one morning wearing a cloak made of (camel's or sheep's) black hair with patterns of camel saddles upon it."105






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The prophet muhammad(saas

The prophet muhammad(saas